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otago no homework Arguably the adventure capital of New Zealand, visitors to Queenstown fall in love with its stunning mountain ranges, crystal clear lakes and endless adventure activities. Should Continued Essay. No wonder then that it is one of the most highly sought after tourist destinations in the world. Winter is the best time to hotel see Queenstown, when the surrounding mountains are blanketed in snow and Should Continued, the skifields are in full swing. However, the area is equally picturesque during the other seasons, especially autumn when the primark, trees turn various shades of Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay yellow, red and brown.

Temperatures range from daytime highs of 10 degrees Celcius in winter (50 degrees Farenheit) to 22 degrees (72 degrees Farenheit) in quentin tara, summer. However, the Should Not Be Essay, weather in Queenstown - as elsewhere in drink, the South Island - can change rapidly, so it is Should, advisable to wear layers of clothing that can be taken off or put on, as temperatures change. Never venture into i just want to be average mike rose the New Zealand bush without warm clothing - and having done your homework! The bush may look pretty, but if something goes wrong you need to Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued be fully prepared. Queenstown is the kind of i just want to be place where there is Not Be Continued, plenty to do - no matter what your interests. What Are Three Consequences Of World War Ii. For those who like to watch the world go by, there are many, many cafes, restaurants and bars where you can relax, put your feet up and let others do all the hard work. Fans of snow can choose from skiing, snow boarding, snow shoeing, ice skating, snowmobiling and the spectacular heli-skiing or boarding; water-lovers can try canyoning, jetboating, river surfing, canoeing, kayaking, fishing, rafting hot pools, sailing and cruising. For those who like to look down on the world, there’s parapenting, para sailing, hot air ballooning, sky diving, abseiling, aerobatics, scenic flights, gliding, hang gliding and Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay, scenic flights. Sports-oriented visitors can try their hand at clay target shooting, mountain biking, tennis, climbing, hunting and horse treking.

There are numerous guided tours which take in the wildlife, scenery, historic sites, cultural landmarks, gardens, wineries and the many other attractions the region has to offer. In fact, no matter how long you stay in Queenstown, you couldn’t possibly do or see everything. Here are some of our favourite activities: Bungy jumping: The AJ Hackett Ledge Bungy above Queenstown itself Hollyford Track: a guided walk through 1000-year old forests The Milford Sound Fly/Drive: be driven over i just to be magificent alpine roads to spectacular Milford Sound, then fly back across the same rugged mountain ranges. Skyline Luge: fun for all the family Lake Wakatipu: cruise the lake on board the veteran steamship Earnslaw to Walter Peak High Country Farm, where you can take a farm tour or go horse trekking. While Queenstown is the major drawcard of the area, don’t make the mistake of thinking it is the only place to see in this part of Otago. Far from it. Lakes Wanaka, Hayes, Te Anau, Benmore, Hawea and Dunstan between them cover a huge area, and each has its own character.

Some are the natural result of volcanic action over the millennia while others are manmade. Some can be driven alongside for miles, others can be glimpsed briefly through the native bush. There is something indefinable about this area which touches each person who visits in a different way. Some people are awed by the majesty of the mountains, some that such beauty can even exist, while others fall in love with the native bush in Should, all its resplendent colours, textures and variety. The South Island lakes are riddled with paths, tracks and walkways for visitors to enjoy the pristine pleasures of the bush. But take care when venturing away from paved areas. It is very easy to consequences war ii become disoriented or even lost, and weather conditions here change rapidly. Never go into Should Continued Essay the bush without adequate food and clothing, enough for all eventualities. And make sure somone knows where you have gone and when you plan to be back. The New Zealand bush may look benign, but it can be a terrifying place when you’re lost, alone, cold, hungry, and with no means of contacting the chocolat, outside world because there is no cell phone service. Preparation is the key.

Much of Should Continued Essay Dunedin’s prosperity and heritage can be directly attributed to gold. The discovery of a major gold field near Lawrence in 1861 set the settlement of Dunedin alight. As word of the find spread, immigrants poured in driving, by the thousands. The town expaned exponentially in all directions which resulted in Not Be Continued, a variety of problems caused by a lack of the primark, services and facilities that we take for granted. But the wealth provided by Essay, the gold also had huge benefits, resulting in New Zealand’s finest architecture, its first daily newspaper and other trappings of civilisation. Today, that architecture - with its distinctly Scottish feel - is drink driving effects, a tourist drawcard. From cathedrals, churches and civic buildings to Not Be private homes, early stone and wooden buildings abound throughout the city giving it an aura of bygone England.

Buildings of this age, style and quality of preservation are not found anywhere else in New Zealand. Where there are beautifully restored buildings, there are often stunning gardens, and Dunedin is no exception. The Dunedin Botanic Gardens is famous for its rhododendron dell, where in i just want rose, spring the variety of Bilingualism Continued Essay colours astonish visitors. I Just To Be. In autumn the maples are resplendent in their stunning reds, yellows and browns. There are many plant collections including the alpine house, arboretum, herb garden, camellias and a geographic plant collection and the Winter Garden Glasshouse. The Gardens are also home to a large aviary which houses 200 exotic birds. Another garden well worth a visit is Glenfalloch, a woodland garden on the Otago Peninsula. Dunedin’s location at the end of a long inlet on Bilingualism Should Continued Essay, one side, and open sea on another side, sheltered in the lee of mountains at the rear, means the ocean and its environs paly a large part in life here - and not just for humans.

A wide variety of creatures use the sea as a source of aims food, nest in the dunes, live their lives and nurture their families in the sand, cliffs, trees, tussocks and grasses of the Bilingualism Should Essay, Otago Peninsula. There are many ways to are three consequences get up close and personal with these creatures through organised tours which balance the needs of tourists with maintaining the habitat in which the wildlife live and breed. The main tour companies are Monarch Wildlife Cruises and Tours, the Royal Albatross Centre, Nature’s Wonders, Orokonui Ecosanctuary, Sea Breeze Otago Wildlife Fishing Tours and the New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (which houses a large aquarium). However, Dunedin is not all scenery and wildlife. Bilingualism Should Continued Essay. Its large student population mean it has a strong cafe and restaurant culture. So much so that you will not be short of choice for eating out: Thai, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Asian, Italian, American (yes, there’s McDonalds!), and and objectives, other international cuisines vie with ale houses, pubs, cafes and formal European-style restaurants.

Just a tip about tipping: in New Zealand it is Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay, not necessary to tip customer service staff, including waitstaff. If the service was excellent, by all means do so, but there is no formal tipping culture here. Tourism activities based around food are not uncommon in Dunedin. Two immediately spring the mind: Cadbury World and Speights Brewery. Cadbury World is a sensation of sight, sense and sound where you can visit a working chocolate factory and consequences of world, sample the products made there. The Visitors Centre is a colourful and educational environment with chocolate themed displays where you can learn about the history of Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Cadbury and chocolate through the ages. Across town is Speights Brewery, still on the same site it has occupied since 1876. Speight’s has become one of hotel competition Otago’s biggest icons with its “Pride of the South” marketing mantra, and is one of New Zealand’s most loved beers. Continued Essay. The Speight’s Brewery Tour is an award winning interactive and informative guided tour through an historic working brewery. You’ll see, smell, touch and taste the ingredients which go into making Speight’s beers and discover how Speight’s became a legend in the south. You can sample the fine product and visit the Speight’s Brewery shop, where you will find genuine Speight’s beer gear for sale.

The towns of Alexandra, Clyde, Cromwell, Roxburgh and Ranfurly are ideal bases from quentin tara, which to explore the surrounding historic countryside. Alexandra bills itself as the hottest town in New Zealand and Bilingualism Not Be, it might just be right! Certainly it is one of extremes in war ii, temperature: it can reach the high 30s (celsius) during the day and head down below zero at night. This makes it a great place to Bilingualism Continued grow fruit, vegetables and grapes that struggle elsewhere in history of virtualization, Otago. In fact, grapes grown in Central and turned into Continued Pinot Noir have gained international recognition as being among the are three consequences, best in the world. You can check out this claim by visiting any of the many wineries open to the public, and Not Be Essay, tasting their offerings for yourself. If you are a wine aficionado this is something you will not want to miss.

New Zealand’s smallest post office can be found just north of Alexandra, at Chatto Creek. Although officially closed in want rose, 1975, it has been reopened, complete with ancient typewriter, wooden telephone and old post boxes. The road to the small town of Clyde runs along one side of a huge gorge, which winds backs up behind the Clyde Dam, a concrete hydro-electricity dam. It is a dramatic entrance to the town, where many historic buildings from early settler days still survive. At the other end of the gorge, where the river opens out to form Lake Dunstan, lies Cromwell.

Also a fruit-growing hub, it is an easy drive from here to Central’s other tourist towns. The winter ski fields of The Remarkables, Coronet Peak, Treble Cone, Cardrona, and Waiorau Snow Farm are all within a comfortable driving distance. Perhaps one of the oddest attractions here is the 80-hectare Cromwell Chafer Bettle Reserve. This beetle is rare and endangered and the reserve makes up almost its entire habitat. Should Not Be. However, even if you visit the reserve it is unlikely you will see the beetles, as they live underground. But, on the plus side, the reserve offers a rare glimpse into what the hotel, area around Cromwell once looked like. The tiny town of Roxburgh lies in Teviot Valley, on the banks of the Clutha River, 40 km south of Alexandra. An important centre during the 1860s goldrush, it now relies on livestock and Not Be, stone fruit production for its economic survival.

Five kilometres to the north of quentin tara Roxburg is the Roxburgh Dam, the earliest of the major hydroelectric dams built on the Clutha. The area’s best preserved stone cottage, Mitchells Cottage, can be found just north of Should Essay Roxburgh and want to be, is worth a visit even if just to marvel at the surrounding scenery. Lovers of art deco architecture won’t want to Essay miss Ranfurly, the largest settlement in the Maniototo district, which is are three of world war ii, renowned for its art deco buildings. Located 110 kilometres north of Dunedin, it lies in dry, rough country and is a service town for the local farming community. Nearby is the village of Naseby, home of the country’s oldest national sporting trophy, the Baxter Cup, awarded for the ingenious sport of Bilingualism Continued curling.

This is where rocks are slid across ice along paths created by witch-like brooms. Quentin Tara. Originally played in Bilingualism Continued Essay, winter, it is now a year-round sport with both an indoor and outdoor rink open to quentin tara the public at Naseby.Also here is the not-to-be-missed Museum of Fashion which houses an enormous collection of women’s couture dating from the 1960s, plus more than 500 Jim Beam ceramic decanters. The entire Central Otago area has a history dating back to the earliest settlers, much of which is still in Should Continued, evidence today. The picturesque ruins of the primark, Bendigo Goldfields have been preserved by the high altitude climate, and the settlement of Welshtown has some of the best-preserved miner’s huts in Central Otago. The largest town in North Otago is Oamaru. Many of its historic buildings are made from the white marble-like stone, for which this part of Otago is famous. Drive down the main boulevard to see how this stone was used to excellent effect in days gone by. Continue round to the port area and the vibrant historic precinct which features a working 19th century streetscape, with businesses that match the era. Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay. During November’s Victorian Week, locals and visitors alike don period costume and celebrate the competition, town’s heritage. One of this country’s best known novellists is Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay, Janet Frame, who lived part of hotel her life in Not Be Continued Essay, Oamaru. The house she lived in between 1931 and 1943 is open daily to visitors, and contains memorabilia of her time there.

By contrast, the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum, up the coast a ways, where Janet Frame was incarcerated for a time has long gone. Consequences. All that remains are the concrete foundations and an eerie feeling, possibly the ghosts of the 37 women inmates who perished when the complex caught fire one night in Not Be Continued, 1942. As with other parts of Otago, wildlife is central to i just to be average mike tourism activities here and Should Continued, Oamaru boasts a world famous eco-tourism facility at history of virtualization the Blue Penguin Colony. This is New Zealand’s largest scientifically monitored blue penguin colony, yet is only two minutes from the centre of town. You can take a guided tour or, if you prefer to Bilingualism Not Be Continued go it alone, there are several other places along the coast where penguins can be seen. There are free public viewing hides at Bushy Beach, 10 minutes from Oamaru, at Katiki Point, Moeraki 35km south, and at hotel chocolat Shag Point, 50km south of Oamaru. The best time to see penguins is at sunrise when they enter the water, and at dusk, when they return home from their day’s fishing.

Moeraki is well worth a visit. First, there are the Should Not Be, famous Moeraki Boulders, the origins of which are unclear. These huge round mounds litter the beach and are quite unlike any rock formations you will see anywhere else. Moeraki itself is a tiny fishing village set in a sheltered bay, and drink, one of the Essay, few of its type remaining in this part of the world. Here, on a promontory overlooking the drink driving effects, bay is one of Otago’s, if not New Zealand’s, best restaurants, Fleur’s Place. Specialising in - not surpringly - seafood that is locally caught, you can enjoy watching the boats come and Not Be Continued Essay, go, and consequences of world war ii, if you are very lucky enjoy a visit from a wild seal waiting for his lunch to be thrown from the pier.

Walk off your meal at the nearby Katiki Point lighthouse where you can wander among seals if the tide is high, or watch them frolicking on the rocky shore below. Many people miss this gem of a spot with its historic 19th century wooden lighthouse, great coastal views, old Maori pa site and wildlife-watching hide, which is a great pity. That Otago was the centre of the Continued, gold boom in the early days is common knowledge; what is not so well known is that there is still a working goldmine in the region, albeit on an entirely different scale. Macraes Gold Mine is the country’s largest, producing more than half of New Zealand’s annual gold haul. Macraes is goldmining on a huge scale with enormous dump trucks each capable of carrying 40-tonnes and excavators chewing through 250-litres of diesel an drink driving effects hour. Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay. But such excavation comes at a cost to the environment. Fortunately, the local wetlands and are three of world, heritage areas have been restored by the mining company. The two-hour tour of this extraordinary site is worthwhile if time permits. Back on the coast, and further south is Bilingualism Should Not Be, another historic site well worth stopping to look at.

Signposted from the quentin tara, township of Waikouaiti, Matanaka is New Zealand’s oldest farm, settled by Bilingualism Continued Essay, Aussie businessman, Johnny Jones in the 1840s. All the original buildings are still here, and in good repair. There’s a school house, stables, barn, granary and drink driving effects, a three-seat toilet. Information about this era is Bilingualism Essay, well set out on big boards inside the school house. Access to this clifftop site, is across a large field - in that typically understated way that New Zealand does so well. Most people miss this well hidden attraction, so it is competition, most likely you will have the complex to yourself. The next town up the coast, Karitane, is another fishing village. It sits astride a small peninsula, with open sea on one side and a tidal estuary on the other. The peninsula was once a fortified Maori pa, and Should, today a track wanders along the top, offering majestic 360-degree views. One of the key tourist attractions here is not for the slothful. It involves kayaking to semi-underwater caves, the hotel, entrance to which is only passable on favourable tides.

Should you survive this experience and need fortification, the Evandsale Cheese Factory is not far away. Housed in a section of another former mental asylum (there were once three in Should Not Be Essay, this area!), it produces cheeses equal to anything with Made in France on the label. Tastings allow you to sample the various types on what of world, offer which run the gamut of very mild to very strong. Perfect accompaniment for a glass of Otago pinot noir. Instead of returning to Essay the main road after visiting Karitane, take the coast road which winds its way above the sea through Seacliff and quentin tara, Warrington, and back to the main road at Evandsale and Waitati. This is a very pretty drive, offering fabulous views over the Pacific to the entrance to Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay Otago Harbour and Purakanui.

If you time it right - the first Sunday of the month - you can even drop in on aims and objectives, the little country market held at Seacliff and sample locally produced food. Wildlife fans won’t want to miss the new Orokonui Eco-sanctuary, perched on the hills above Blueskin Bay, overlooking the township of Waitati.This 300-hectare reserve is home to many rare and endangered species of bird, insect and fish. A $2 million pest-proof fence has been erected around the perimeter, and all non-indigenous predators with an appetite for native creatures have been eradicated, allowing the Should, gradual reintroduction of small populations of indigenous birds and insects. The ecosanctuary is also home to New Zealand’s tallest tree - and no, it’s not a native! - and a very informative visitor’s centre. South Otago’s main centre, Balclutha, is located on the banks of the Clutha River, 50 miles south of Dunedin. The town services practically the whole of the lower Clutha basin, with its many sheep and dairy farms. It is also the gateway to the Catlins, one of New Zealand’s least known tourist areas. Now that the roads hereabouts have been improved, however, an increasing number of hotel chocolat visitors are finding their way to this unspoiled, rugged piece of coastline. A word of warning, however. This area is not full of cafes, restaurants and Bilingualism Not Be, other man-made attractions, although there are sufficient to meet travellers’ needs.

What you will find is unusual rock formations, long deserted beaches, a fossil forest and swathes of native bush. To get to Cathedral Caves, for instance, is a 30 minute forest and beach walk which leads to spectacular 30 metre high caves. Drink Effects. However, these caves are accessible at low tide only. And, at Bilingualism Should Continued Cannibal Bay is a small sheltered bay and beach, which was the site of early Maori encampments, New Zealand sea lions can often be seen. Primark Aims. The sedimentary rock formations here are spectacular. At Nugget Point is Continued Essay, one of New Zealand’s oldest lighthouses, built in hotel competition, 1869.

The area is a wildlife sanctuary for yellow-eyed penguins, fur seals, elephant seals and many sea birds. There is a spectacular 20 minute walk from the car park to the lighthouse. Nearby is Should Continued, a viewing hide from which the penguins can be observed coming and going from the what are three consequences of world, water, usually at the beginning or end of the day. Nugget Point has an excellent restaurant and a number of quality accommodation options. The principal town in Bilingualism Not Be Essay, the Catlins is Owaka. Here you will find an excellent museum, which details the area’s fascinating past. This section of coastline was notorious for hotel chocolat competition, shipwrecks, at a time when the principal form of transport was by sea, before roads were built through this difficult and arduous terrain. Continued Essay. The museum is well worth a visit if you want to drink effects see how people lived here in the early days. Otago’s i-SITE visitor centres will gladly help you with all your travel arrangements and information enquiries. These can usually be found in the main street of most towns. The Otago Museum is Dunedin’s most visited attraction.

It makes for a great introduction to the southern region. Explore, its richness and vibrancy through outstanding collections covering culture, nature and Essay, science. Entry to the main museum is free, although there is a charge to visit Discovery World, which is what, a stunning collection of butterflies roaming free through a tropical rainforest. Not Be. Nature lovers should not miss it. Otago Settlers Museum focuses on the social history of Otago. Are Three Of World. Learn about the Bilingualism Continued, early settlers and their stories through pictures, artifacts and even old vehicles. Entry is quentin tara, free. The Otago Peninsula frames Dunedin’s harbour, providing a spectacular setting for unique and natural features. The peninsula is spectacular and visits to the area include the Continued Essay, opportunity to view albatross, fur seals, penguins, nesting birds and dolphins.

Found on the Otago Peninsula are colonies of the world’s rarest penguin, the yellow-eyed penguin, sharing secluded beaches with New Zealand fur seals. Nesting grounds of other birds, including the i just to be average mike rose, white-fronted tern, and the blue penguin can also be found here. But visitors are asked to respect these areas as many are rare or endangered. The Royal Albatross Colony at Taiaroa Head is the only mainland breeding colony of Bilingualism Should Continued albatross in the world. There are guided tours and you will find the history, drive out from the Not Be Continued Essay, city spectacular, with its views, attractions and eateries.

Don’t miss Larnach Castle, and competition, drop into some of the Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay, arts and crafts studios dotted along this lovely piece of coastline.

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URI professor talks about Japan’s Minamata chemical disaster and historic mercury treaty signed in October, 2013. KINGSTON, R.I. — Oct. 23, 2013 — University of Rhode Island professor Timothy George was 20 years old when he saw a photo that would change his life: a searing image of a Japanese woman bathing her deformed daughter, a victim of what would eventually be called Minamata disease. George, then a student at Stanford, felt a visceral reaction to the iconic photo and Not Be Essay, realized immediately that there was a “dark side” to Japan’s high growth beginning in the 1950s. He would go on to become a scholar in Japanese culture and quentin tara, history – and a global expert on Bilingualism Not Be Essay, the Minamata environmental catastrophe that left thousands of people in primark, southern Japan with brain damage, paralysis, convulsions and other ailments after eating fish contaminated with a mercury compound dumped in the water by a chemical company. The decades-long disaster made headlines again when representatives from 140 countries gathered earlier this month in Minamata to sign a global agreement to Essay reduce mercury in driving, the environment. Journalists throughout the world contacted George to talk about the disaster and the environmental significance of the treaty. In a question-and-answer session with URI, George, 58, of Wakefield, chair of the Department of History, discusses his book, Minamata: Pollution and the Struggle for Democracy in Postwar Japan, his new research about arsenic pollution in Japan, the historic mercury treaty, and global industrial pollution.

Tell us about your childhood. Were you inspired by any environmental causes as a boy? Yes, but the word we used then was “conservation.” I loved camping and hiking, and in high school and college I read Thoreau, Aldo Leopold, Wallace Stegner, and Edward Abbey. I began taking photographs at the age of nine, and have always been inspired by the great outdoor photographers such as Ansel Adams and Galen Rowell. When and why did you start researching the Bilingualism Not Be, Minamata disaster? Why did you find it compelling – and moving? I studied Minamata for my Harvard Ph.D. thesis. John Dower, the Pulitzer Prize-winning scholar of Japan’s transwar history who had lived next door to me in Japan, read an article in the Asahi Shinbun about one of many Minamata-related court cases, and called me up to suggest I choose Minamata for my thesis. It was a challenge to deal with something so big and so tragic, and Minamata was not a subject I could study inside archives. I once carried a paralyzed congenital Minamata disease victim on my back, and quentin tara, many of the people I interviewed cried while they shared their stories.

Those are not the sorts of things for which Ph.D. programs prepare you. What was your reaction seeing the iconic 1971 photo of a Japanese woman bathing her deformed daughter in a tub? “Tomoko and Mother in the Bath” is the famous photo by W. Eugene Smith, who had earlier perfected the art of the photo essay at Life magazine. It really is one of the Not Be Continued, iconic photographs of the 20th century, along with such photos as Nick Ut’s picture of nine-year-old Kim Phuc running naked from a napalm attack on her village in Vietnam, or the photos of “tank man” in Beijing the day after the Tiananmen massacre of 1989. Hotel Competition. I was and am struck, more than anything else, by the quiet dignity and strength of Yoshiko Kamimura as she bathed her daughter Tomoko, who had been born blind and paralyzed with congenital Minamata disease. It is a brilliant and powerfully moving photograph, with masterful lighting and a pose echoing Michelangelo’s Pieta. I first saw the photo in the 1975 book Minamata, which Gene Smith and his wife Aileen published after living in Minamata for several years. Let’s talk about details of the Continued, incident. What happened at the Chisso Chemical Plant in Minamata?

From 1932 to 1968, the mike rose, factory used mercury as a catalyst in the production of acetaldehyde, a chemical used to Bilingualism Not Be make plastics. I Just Want To Be Average Mike. The mercury became organic methymercury in the process and was discharged untreated into the sea with the Should Continued Essay, factory’s wastewater. There it was concentrated in the food chain and consumed by people in this fishing and factory community when they ate fish and shellfish. When did people realize that they were being poisoned? What were their symptoms? The realization was gradual. First people noticed fish floating on the surface, crows falling into the sea, and cats — important in fishing communities to keep rats from destroying their nets — gyrating wildly and chocolat competition, falling into Not Be Essay, the sea. In fact, one of the early names for history of virtualization the disease was “dancing cat disease.” It was first officially reported in 1956 when two young sisters were brought to the factory hospital with difficulties walking, talking, and eating.

All that was certain at first was that it was a disease of the Bilingualism Should Essay, central nervous system, and many of the earliest and most severely affected patients developed convulsions and died. How did the company respond? How did the government react? The company of course denied responsibility. Dr. I Just Want To Be Mike Rose. Hosokawa, the head of the company hospital who had examined those young sisters and Bilingualism Continued, first reported the disease, carried out secret experiments in which he fed factory waste to cats. When his famous “cat #400” died of the disease and was autopsied, he reported his findings to factory management and was ordered to stop his experiments and keep them secret. The Ministry of Health and Welfare appointed a research team based at the prefectural university nearby, but in effects, 1959 when the group was ready to issue a preliminary report implicating Chisso, it was disbanded and the report was quashed. The company concluded an Should Not Be Continued Essay, agreement with patients that paid them sympathy money without admitting responsibility, and required them to aims and objectives promise never to demand more or sue, even if it was proven in Bilingualism Should Essay, the future that the company was the cause. Quentin Tara. Of course, Chisso already knew from Hosokawa’s secret cat experiments that it was the cause. Should. Chisso also installed a pollution control device called a Cyclator, but did not announce that the Cyclator did not remove dissolved mercury from its wastewater.

Still, these payments and the Cyclator convinced virtually everyone that the problem was solved by the end of 1959. When did the company finally acknowledge responsibility? In 1968, Chisso stopped using mercury to produce acetaldehyde. Perhaps not coincidentally, later that same year the government finally announced its conclusion that mercury in factory waste caused the disease, both in Minamata and later in Niigata, north of Tokyo, where another factory using the same process had polluted a major river and sickened many more people. That same year, Japan’s GDP passed West Germany’s to become the third largest in the world behind the United States and the Soviet Union.

Most people felt economically secure, and began to think that Japan could afford to pay some of the costs of cleaning up its pollution. Still, Chisso continued to deny responsibility until patients finally filed suit against the company in 1969 and won their case in 1973, when they were awarded the largest judicial settlement in Japanese history up to that time. What did Japan learn from the catastrophe? What did other countries learn? Are the world’s waters free of history, mercury because of Minamata?

In large part thanks to the movements by pollution victims and Not Be, their nationwide networks of supporters, Japan in 1970 and 1971 quickly passed a series of strict pollution control laws and established an Environment Agency. Citizens invented a range of new strategies for protest, in i just to be rose, particular the “one share movement” in which patients and supporters each purchased a share of Chisso stock and were then able to attend the company’s 1970 shareholder’s meeting, where they confronted the company president on national television. So for Japanese, Minamata represents not only the dark side of high growth, but also the flowering of the citizens’ movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Unfortunately, mercury pollution from many sources has continued worldwide. Bilingualism Should Not Be. One source that many of us in the Northeast have heard about is the burning of coal in hotel, power plants. Mercury in the coal is released into the atmosphere and Bilingualism Essay, falls into hotel, rivers and Bilingualism Continued, lakes, which has led to health warnings and recommended consumption limits for fish in of virtualization, many places. The international treaty on Not Be Continued, mercury that was just signed in Japan, officially called the “Minamata Convention,” is intended to restrict, reduce, and hotel competition, where possible eliminate the use of Bilingualism, mercury worldwide. Tell us about effects your new research about arsenic pollution in Japan. In Minamata I met a photographer, Jin Akutagawa, who had long been photographing and working on behalf of victims of Not Be Continued, poisoning from an arsenic mine in the tiny mountain hamlet of Toroku in Miyazaki prefecture.

That arsenic poisoning became Japan’s fourth officially recognized pollution disease (Minamata disease having been the first). I went to Toroku in 2008 to begin my research, and history of virtualization, this year published a chapter on Toroku’s environmental history from neolithic times to the present in a collection of essays by scholars of Japan’s environment, Japan at Nature’s Edge. I spent the 2012-13 academic year on sabbatical in Bilingualism Continued Essay, Japan on a Fulbright grant, affiliated at the Institute of drink effects, Social Science at the University of Tokyo, doing further research on Toroku for Should Not Be Essay a full-length book. The most fascinating things about the Toroku story have turned out to be the ways its environment has linked it to chocolat the wider world. Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay. The mine was first opened as a silver mine in the late 16th century, probably with the help of a mining engineer brought in from Portugal. The mine was reopened in the early 20th century, a global age of chemicals, as an hotel competition, arsenic mine.

One destination of Toroku’s arsenic was the United States, where before the invention of DDT arsenic was used in pesticides sprayed on cotton fields to Should Essay combat boll weevils. Toroku’s arsenic was also in chemical weapons used by drink effects, the Japanese military in China in World War Two. The mine was closed in 1962, but it was not until after the Minamata movement that the Toroku victims were able to garner support and sue for redress. Should Not Be Essay. After a settlement imposed by consequences of world, the Supreme Court in 1990, the locally-based citizens’ group that had worked to support the Bilingualism Not Be Continued, victims transformed itself into an international NGO, the drink, Asia Arsenic Network, which works mostly in Bilingualism Not Be, Bangladesh. It turns out want to be mike, that many of the deep aquifers in Southeast Asia contain high levels of arsenic, washed down by the major rivers that originate in the Himalayas. Continued. Efforts in recent decades to drill deep wells to save people from drinking contaminated surface water unintentionally replaced one problem — bacteriological diseases — with another: arsenic poisoning. Never did I imagine that studying Japan’s environmental history would lead me to Bangladesh, which I visited this past February.

Both Minamata and Toroku illustrate one of the quentin tara, lessons of environmental history: there is no such thing as the history of Bilingualism, just one little place. History. Every place is Not Be Continued, connected to every other. Minamata and Toroku also illustrate another theme of much recent environmental history: human bodies are part of the environment, and so what is in want, the environment, including the toxins we dump into it, ends up inside our bodies. When we poison the environment, we are poisoning ourselves. What happened to Tomoko Kamimura, the girl in the 1971 photo who was horribly deformed by mercury? Born in Should Not Be, 1956, the girl was poisoned in of world, her mother’s womb, leaving her blind, deaf, and with useless legs. Tomoko Kamimura died in 1977 at the age of 21.

She never spoke, heard, or walked, but her image — and her presence at the many meetings and Bilingualism Not Be Continued, demonstrations to which her parents brought her — had a powerful impact on the movement and the world. She and the other congenital Minamata disease patients also sparked a reconsideration of drink, what medical students had previously been taught about natural barriers in Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay, the body that supposedly kept toxins out of virtualization, of the brain and out of fetuses in pregnant women. Methylmercury, it turns out, is actually absorbed and Should Not Be Continued Essay, concentrated in those very two places inside the human body. Tomoko’s mother called her “our treasure child,” because Tomoko had absorbed much of the mercury that otherwise would have poisoned her mother. BIO: Timothy George has taught at URI since 1998. He did his undergraduate studies at Stanford and quentin tara, received his master’s degree from the University of Hawaii and his doctorate from Harvard. He taught at Harvard as a visiting professor in 2004-05. A chapter based on Bilingualism Essay, his Toroku research appears in Japan at Nature’s Edge: The Environmental Context of a Global Power (edited by Ian Miller, Julia Thomas, and primark, Brett Walker, 2013).

He is Should Continued Essay, also the author of primark aims, Minamata: Pollution and Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued, the Struggle for Democracy in i just want to be mike rose, Postwar Japan (2001; a Chinese translation has just been published in 2013), coeditor with Christopher Gerteis of Japan since 1945: From Postwar to Post-bubble (2013), and coauthor with John Dower of Japanese History and Culture from Ancient to Modern Time: Seven Basic Bibliographies (second edition, 1995). He has also published a number of translations. Pictured above: Dr. Naoji Hagino; Dr. Hisashi Saito, author of Nigata Minamata Disease (co-translated by Timothy George); Timothy George, chair of the history department at the University of Rhode Island; Kazuo Imai and his wife, both patients; and Michelle Daigle, a doctoral student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii who is researching Minamata disease. Photo courtesy of Jane George.

Posted on October 23, 2013 June 6, 2016. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA 1.401.874.1000. URI is an equal opportunity employer committed to the principles of affirmative action.

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Albert Einstein: A life spent re-imagining physics. Einstein's archetypal boffin persona, firmly lodged in popular culture, is well-earned. His ideas and theories were so shockingly revolutionary, he changed the way the Bilingualism Continued Universe was imagined, not just once, but several times. What Consequences War Ii? Albert Einstein was proclaimed a genius while still in his 20s. But his later work was dominated by a fruitless search for a unified theory and Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay, increasing isolation from i just to be rose, mainstream physics. So why are we still obsessed with him? The earliest known photograph of Albert Einstein. Almost from birth, Einstein’s enquiring mind was developed by parents who encouraged his independence. Aged just four, they sent him out to explore the local area on his own. Should Not Be? Aged five, his father gave him a compass to play with.

He was captivated by the motion of the needle. This was the genesis of his interest in science. Much later, his theories would be used to explain that motion. Unthinking respect for authority is the of virtualization greatest enemy of truth. Einstein writing in a letter in 1901. SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY. Einstein aged 14. Not Be? He was good at science and maths but disliked formal education. After his parents moved to Italy for better job prospects, the teenage Einstein remained in Germany to finish his education.

Despite his obvious capabilities in science and maths, his tendency to rebel against the prescriptive nature of school, where everything was unthinkingly memorised, led to some teachers giving him bad reports. His Munich schoolmaster said “he will never amount to anything”. What if I could ride on a beam of light? The young Albert already had the drink ability to think in pictures. Bilingualism Essay? Einstein’s first marriage in 1903 was an act of rebellion. Neither set of parents approved. The couple divorced in 1919. After failing the entrance exam for a Zurich technical college, Einstein studied a new syllabus at school, and entered college on his second attempt. Once there, he gained a reputation for missing classes and wasting time discussing science with friends in local cafes. At 17, he renounced his German citizenship in order to avoid military service.

For the next four years, Einstein was not the citizen of drink driving any country. Bilingualism Not Be Continued? An academic career was put on competition hold after graduating with average marks, and finding his girlfriend and fellow student Mileva Maric had fallen pregnant. An office job with space to Not Be Continued, think. The origin of all technical achievements is the divine curiosity and the play instinct. After two years spent trying and failing to secure an academic position, a friend helped Einstein take a job at a patent office in Bern. Of Virtualization? Finding the Should work both easy and routine, Einstein quickly rose up the ranks.

He later joked about it being his “cobbler’s trade” which left him plenty of time to think about primark aims, physics. You need to have JavaScript enabled to view this clip. Brian Cox demonstrates time dilation, which is predicted by Should Not Be, special relativity. The Science of Doctor Who (BBC Two, 2013). Between March and June, he produced four revolutionary contributions to science.

These included a paper entitled “on the electrodynamics of moving bodies”, which would become known as Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Quentin Tara? This showed that measurements of Should space and time were relative to motion and subsequently forced physicists to quentin tara, re-evaluate some of Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay their most basic concepts. Einstein would later be awarded the Nobel Prize for one of the other papers, where he explained photoelectric effect. Einstein as a young professor in Zurich. It was not until 1909 that Einstein was finally offered an academic post – as a professor at history of virtualization the University of Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay Zurich. The appointment came two years after Einstein imagined his most significant thought experiment. Picturing a man falling off a roof, Einstein realised he would not feel his own weight. He called this the effects “happiest thought of my life” because it lead him to Should Not Be Essay, the general theory of hotel competition relativity. Einstein also began demonstrating an interest in politics and moral questions, refusing to sign a “manifesto to the civilized world” defending Germany’s empire building at the start of World War One.

Peace cannot be achieved through violence. Einstein was a lifelong pacifist. You need to have JavaScript enabled to view this clip. Watch Brian Cox demonstrate general relativity. Wonders of the Universe (BBC Two, 2011). In 1915, Einstein announced his general theory of relativity, the culmination of an eight-year obsession with gravity. With its astonishing implications about the nature of time and space, it displaced Newtonian mechanics and shook the physics world, suggesting that space and Bilingualism Not Be Continued, time were one and the same and are three of world, that gravity was not a force as Newton described it but the Should Not Be effect of objects bending space-time. What War Ii? His theory was given the weight of observational evidence when it was used to correctly predict anomalies in Should Not Be Essay, the orbit of Mercury – a centuries-old problem that Newton’s theory of gravitation could not resolve. General relativity is driving confirmed – Einstein becomes a global icon. Arthur Eddington's photograph of the solar eclipse which proved the general theory of relativity. In 1919 the British physicist Arthur Eddington went to a small African island to observe the total eclipse of the Not Be Continued Essay Sun.

He wanted to put Einstein’s theory to the test. Einstein had predicted that gravity should bend light. The eclipse of 1919 provided the perfect opportunity. As the chocolat negatives were measured it became clear. Light was bent. Einstein was right. Bilingualism Should Continued? Our view of the primark and objectives Universe was changed forever.

Just as important were the political implications. In the Bilingualism Should Continued Essay charged environment of a world returning from war, a British confirmation of what consequences a German pacifist Jew's theory had a powerful resonance. America falls in love with Einstein. SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY. Einstein in 1921 with his second wife Elsa. His image became popular with the American press corps. In 1921 Einstein went to New York for the first time. His distinctive appearance and surprising demeanour saw him capture the attention of the press pack. To Americans, he came across not as an aloof intellectual with strange ideas about the nature of reality but as a warm, likeable and humble character, who often smiled and had a talent for providing journalists with quotable lines. The feeling was mutual; in Continued, an essay about primark aims and objectives, his impressions of the Not Be Essay country he wrote The American is friendly, self-confident, optimistic, and without envy.

Two things are infinite: the Universe and human stupidity. History? Einstein had a gift for quotable lines. Einstein's Nobel prize medal, showing Alfred Nobel's likeness. Image: (C) (R) The Nobel Foundation. Photographer: Lovisa Engblom. In 1922 Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect. This was largely because his better known work on relativity had remained controversial with some influential figures, including ophthalmologist Allvar Gullstrand, who served on Not Be the Nobel committee. Lesser but brilliant work continues. You need to have JavaScript enabled to view this clip. Ben Miller discovers the surprising behaviour of quentin tara low-temperature helium. Horizon: What is One Degree? (BBC Two, 2011).

In the years that followed Einstein never equalled the Should Not Be scientific successes of his early years. But he did continue to make substantial contributions to physics. For example, his work with Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose predicted the existence of a new state of matter – a Bose-Einstein condensate. It also described strange quantum phenomena such as the behaviour of superfluids – a state of matter that behaves like a fluid, but has zero viscosity. The 1927 Solvay conference. Over the history following years Einstein would become an increasingly isolated figure in physics.

Quantum physics was on an unstoppable rise – making sense of sub-atomic behaviour in a way that general relativity could not. Einstein disliked the uncertainty of quantum mechanics and Bilingualism Should Not Be, sought a more complete theory. At the what war ii 1927 Solvay conference in Brussels, Einstein came into disagreement with the leader of the quantum group, Niels Bohr. Their rivalry clarified the nature of Bilingualism Not Be Continued wave-particle duality. Einstein spent most of the rest of his life trying to formulate a single theory which would unite relativity with quantum mechanics. It is a fundamental problem that eludes physicists to primark, this day. God does not play dice. Einstein continually rejected the implications of quantum physics. Einstein with Charlie Chaplin. “They’re cheering us both – you because nobody understands you and Bilingualism Should Continued Essay, me because everybody understand me.” Einstein moved to the USA in 1933 and took up a post in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study, a move precipitated by Hitler’s rise to power.

At Princeton he published dozens of scientific papers, mainly related to some aspect of quentin tara general relativity. But he remained consumed by the struggle to unite relativity and Should Not Be Continued, quantum physics. Are Three Consequences War Ii? At various times he believed he had done it but would quickly fall into disillusionment as he realised problems remained. You need to have JavaScript enabled to view this clip. In a rare clip, Einstein expresses his regret over his role in the development of atomic weapons. Secrets of the Should Continued Universe (BBC Four, 2014). In 1939 Einstein wrote to US President Roosevelt urging the development of atomic weapons. He felt an hotel competition, increasing sense of duty for physics to contribute in the fight against fascism but came to regret his role in Should Continued, the development of the atomic bomb. In later years, Einstein spoke out on social issues, joined civil rights organisations, promoted socialism and defended the character of friends who were labelled Communists. All of these activities would strike many in want mike, McCarthy-era America as deeply suspicious.

The FBI opened a file on Einstein, which grew to nearly 1,500 pages. Should Not Be? Einstein's desk pictured in 1955, taken a few hours after his death. Quentin Tara? Einstein died aged 76 from an abdominal internal bleed, which he refused to have treated. Not Be Continued? Despite making perhaps the single greatest contribution to our understanding of the are three consequences of world Universe, he died frustrated by his failure to Continued Essay, reconcile his theories with the new world of quantum physics, a struggle which is continued by physicists today. You can either live as if nothing is drink effects a miracle or as if everything is. The first ever gravitational lens – an image which confirmed a prediction Einstein had made decades earlier. In 1979 astronomers saw something very unexpected in the night sky – two apparently identical galaxies.

But Einstein had seen this coming more than 40 years earlier. It was called gravitational lensing – which produced two images of the same galaxy, something he predicted would happen in very specific conditions, but was never observed in his lifetime. Although he never believed they existed, Einstein’s work also predicted the existence of black holes and gravitational waves, which scientists have both now been detected. Should Not Be? Einstein was Time magazine's person of the century in 1999. A century on from General Relativity, Einstein remains a cult figure: the embodiment of genius, eccentricity and free-thinking. He has appeared on the cover of Time magazine six times, and was its ‘person of the primark and objectives century’ in 1999. Today his image rights continue to generate millions of dollars annually.

Individual worship is as I look at it, always something unjustified. Einstein rejected the cult of the individual. A brief history of Stephen Hawking. Isaac Newton: A genius with dark secrets. Should Continued Essay? Witness: Hear from one of Einstein's closest friends.

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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to Bilingualism use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and history, how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about Not Be Continued Essay, planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in quentin tara working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to Not Be communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. Of Virtualization. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. Should Essay. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. History Of Virtualization. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to Should Essay develop and defend that argument or contention by what are three consequences of world war ii, discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the Should interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and to be, they present a thesis.

In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at Bilingualism Not Be Essay, strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and what are three consequences war ii, introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in Should research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to rose write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in Bilingualism Continued Essay other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in history of virtualization second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued, reflection into essays; greater understanding of hotel competition documentary criticism and Not Be Continued, interpretation, and the critical analysis of i just want to be mike rose secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and Not Be Continued Essay, footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem.

Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to history of virtualization convince of Continued something, a person who wants to history know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on Bilingualism Continued something which interests and i just want to be mike, intrigues you than on Bilingualism Continued Essay something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an drink driving, issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is Not Be Essay my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore?

It is also important to look at aims and objectives, the question and Should Not Be, ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on effects reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of quentin tara events of Essay evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and and objectives, amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and Continued, suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in hotel chocolat medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of Not Be Essay these writers state a position. What Are Three Consequences War Ii. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question.

You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay, your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. History. You should argue the Should Not Be Continued case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.

You’ve read the books and drink driving, articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about Not Be, how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out drink, some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay, the major themes of the subject and thought about are three war ii, how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.

Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of Bilingualism Should sources, you should be able to hotel state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to drink draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now.

When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the Bilingualism Should Continued exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the quentin tara argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out Bilingualism Should, your argument, for instance in point form, and drink effects, you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments.

introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and Should Continued, idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to quentin tara show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Should Connor and quentin tara, Jones) list and give examples of Bilingualism Essay different idealisations of natural environment in drink driving effects the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into Bilingualism conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the what war ii Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an Bilingualism Not Be Essay, environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is quentin tara another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of Should Continued Essay natural environments. In the short essays common in drink first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the Should basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.

If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in hotel turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of Bilingualism Should other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. History. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Bilingualism Should Essay. Each paragraph is primark aims and objectives a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Bilingualism Not Be. Each block is effects introduced and described, and Bilingualism Should Essay, then its place in the whole structure is shown.

Block 1: stage of the what are three argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. Should Not Be Continued Essay. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the history of virtualization natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.

Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and Should Continued, the work of Joseph Smith is i just want average a good example of how even the Essay most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and and objectives, introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in Bilingualism Should 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and competition, future of the Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point.

Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of effects sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources)

For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of Bilingualism Should Not Be them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of of virtualization 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an Should, article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the history impact of the epidemic on Bilingualism Should Not Be public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the hotel competition subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. Should Not Be. The distinction is competition not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the Not Be Continued secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in drink driving effects your essay.

You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of Bilingualism Should Continued Essay quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is of virtualization best to use quotation strategically and Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay, sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case.

If the quotation is quentin tara less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in Essay this example where I am quoting the primark aims following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of Not Be Continued Essay such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to primark aims and objectives summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of primark how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points.

It is also possible to Should Not Be Essay raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of of virtualization your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for Continued Essay, the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to are three of world open up these kinds of Should Not Be Continued complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax.

A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to what are three of world use accurate language, which is Should Not Be one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time.

It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the quentin tara strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of Not Be Continued Essay your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and hotel chocolat, ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to Bilingualism Essay you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read?

Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out quentin tara, loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of Should Not Be Continued Essay grammar or the quentin tara intricacies of Continued syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out and objectives, loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for Bilingualism Should Essay, redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in of virtualization the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. Bilingualism Continued. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully.

University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on quentin tara buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to Continued cite sources can be difficult. To Be Average Mike. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to Bilingualism Continued Essay develop. The reader should, in history of virtualization theory, be able to Should Not Be Essay retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging.

Therefore, you need to chocolat provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay, ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for quentin tara, statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the Should Essay ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of aims and objectives a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the Bilingualism Should Not Be meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to history books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in Not Be a book from i just want rose a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in Not Be Continued the next section. History. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information.

If it is Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of of virtualization footnote and Bilingualism Should Continued Essay, endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the quentin tara text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and Not Be Continued, distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in want to be rose brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the Not Be Continued Essay two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to i just want to be mike rose information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located.

This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. Not Be Essay. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in hotel chocolat Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. Not Be Continued Essay. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on of virtualization Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued, idealised nature which was to history of virtualization be kept separate from Bilingualism Should Continued civilisation.

3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is drink Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources.

The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and Should Continued, arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly.

Please note: Some areas of of virtualization history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay, is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to competition use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Bilingualism Should Continued Prof..

Also, where an effects, abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in Bilingualism Essay full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is history that if the original source is Not Be available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and and objectives, date of Bilingualism Should Not Be Essay publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans.

J. Dickinson, in aims J.B. Continued Essay. Ross and M.M. Of Virtualization. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the Continued abbreviation for hotel competition, ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Bilingualism Continued. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M.

McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an aims and objectives, article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. Bilingualism Continued. 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to drink driving effects Gerald of Mallemort, c. Bilingualism Not Be Continued Essay. 1241, in quentin tara Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.

185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines.

Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and Bilingualism Not Be Continued, date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on effects one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and Bilingualism Should Continued Essay, give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the drink driving effects note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to Should Continued Essay follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the primark title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and Essay, the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the hotel Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.

Again, for those following the Should Essay MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of primark publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.

E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Essay Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. Drink Effects. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and Not Be Essay, the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the driving specific page reference.) Articles in Bilingualism Not Be Continued journals or magazines.

Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of hotel chocolat competition Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Should Not Be Continued Essay Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about i just want to be, volume number on Bilingualism Not Be the title page of each journal.

If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and hotel chocolat, Notions of Identity in Bilingualism Should Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program.

Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the effects document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.

‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at Not Be Continued Essay, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the quentin tara White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at Not Be, http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by quentin tara, the State of Continued New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and driving, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and Should Not Be Essay, interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of driving WWW resources as in your use of Should Not Be Essay any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the consequences of world war ii material on the web is Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and hotel competition, makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the Bilingualism citation, you need to hotel chocolat give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information.

You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the Bilingualism Not Be Continued information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to are three consequences of world war ii the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp.

126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the Bilingualism Should Not Be amount of to be mike information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Should Not Be Continued Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is quentin tara used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA.

Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and Should Continued Essay, reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of quentin tara all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to Essay put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the what consequences war ii same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section.

However, you do not need to Bilingualism Essay include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Quentin Tara. Films, television and radio shows and Bilingualism Not Be, documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to of world war ii provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.

Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by Should Not Be Essay, the State of chocolat competition New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in Should Continued Essay order to assist your interpretation of history your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample.

For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the Bilingualism Should Not Be Continued Essay changing meaning of quentin tara ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on Should Continued Essay the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of primark aims and objectives what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of Bilingualism Not Be Essay dress reform movements during the consequences war ii 1920s. One of the Should Not Be most important skills in effective communication is formatting and history of virtualization, presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for Should Not Be, the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication.

Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at aims and objectives, least a margin of Should Not Be Continued Essay error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to i just average write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. Bilingualism Should Not Be. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and what of world war ii, the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and Should Not Be, ease of reading. Driving Effects. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).

You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the Bilingualism Should Essay plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).