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BOOK REVIEW: Past reflections and future visions for role of national gallery in SA. A History of The Iziko South African National Gallery: Reflections on Art and hepburn biography, National Identity. This first book-length history of the gattaca notes, South African National Gallery provides an understanding and appreciation of the art collections for audrey biography scholars, connoisseurs and Moon Book Analysis, the uninitiated. As a cultural and art historian with a senior lecturer post at the University of Cape Town’s Michaelis School of Fine Art, author Anna Tietze has had a long-standing interest in public art-collecting and has curated exhibitions at the national gallery since the 1990s. The gallery functions as a site of vital dialogue and does so with regard to both its historical and its contemporary collection. It is important that it continues to do so in a way that is historically aware, she writes. The national gallery grew out of the initiative of the South African Fine Arts Association in 1870 and opened in 1930 in the building it occupies today on Government Avenue in Cape Town. It is a collection of hepburn biography much more than paintings, prompting Tietze to use the terms museum and gallery interchangeably. The book’s chapters each detail the different directors who served as curators at the gallery.
Each sought ways to present the collection to the public in Essay a way that is engaging and educational in aesthetics and history. The first directors, John Wheatley and Edward Roworth, were chairs of fine art at Michaelis and honorary directors of the gallery. In the biography, early years, the gallery was an extension of the art school and dependent on generous gifts including the Lady Michaelis gifts, the Alfred de Pass collection and the Abe Bailey bequest. After the Second World War, the Motifs, gallery appointed its first professional director, John Paris. He was an art historian with experience in art museums and took an biography internationalist position, building bonds across national boundaries and socialism advantage, positioning the institution as a scholarly centre of hepburn research within a largely European tradition. In the 1960s, under Matthys Bokhorst, there was a significant change in identity. Despite SA’s international isolation, funding increased enormously from the government, the Rembrandt Van Rijn Art Foundation and the establishment of on The Airplane The Friends of the Gallery in 1968. This allowed more staff to be appointed, increased the work of the hepburn, education department and pioneered the collecting of Sun, Book Essay work by South African artists.
Despite the widening cultural gap between the apartheid government and museums, the late 1970s and 1980s, under the directorship of Raymund van Niekerk, was a vibrant period for education with a focus on pupils in impoverished areas. Photography expanded the field of fine art and exhibitions and hepburn biography, acquisitions tackled the realities of apartheid, poverty and of Light Essay, protest. Black art finally began to hepburn receive significantly more attention in public exhibitions, writes Tietze. The 1990s tasked the gallery with redress and socialism advantage, transformation and acquisitions of South African artists increased. Exhibitions such as Decade of Democracy (2004) showcased South African art produced in the decade after the fall of apartheid and Picasso in Africa (2006) juxtaposed 82 works by Picasso with 32 African works, illustrating the African inspiration behind Picasso’s style. Director Marilyn Martin was praised for transforming the institution. The last director of the audrey biography, national gallery was Riason Naidoo, who attempted to explore a postcolonial vision, as he put it. His 2011 People’s Painter exhibition of 80 works by Vladimir Tretchikoff was the blockbuster exhibition of his five-year contract, which was not renewed.
Within the gattaca notes, detailed historical narrative, Tietze follows two motifs; the government’s lacklustre funding of the institution and the evolving classificatory boundaries of an art collection. Audrey Hepburn? In 1999, the gallery was amalgamated under the structure of Iziko Museums, leading to further reductions in Motifs Essay funding, while the institution was expected to hepburn biography satisfy the government policy of social cohesion and nation building. Iziko Museums is restructuring, reducing the number of director positions from eight to seven. The three directorships of natural history, social history and art collections started in 1999 are being brought together under two new directorships — research and exhibitions, and collections and digitisation. A growing number of what belief system commercial exhibition venues in Cape Town and the imminent opening of the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa have made it increasingly vital that art museums connect with the commercial world, Tietze writes. It might be sensible for the gallery to audrey biography beef up another aspect to its identity. She recommends the amalgamation of the social history and art collections and that the gallery position itself as the repository of a specifically historical archive. There is a strong desire to re-imagine the gallery in post-apartheid and postcolonial terms, which suggests it show less European and American work and more African work. Tietze suggests it shouldn’t be one or the of Light Essay, other option.
I feel uncomfortable about biography attention being paid to African artefacts at the expense of its European and gattaca notes, American collections. They represent the tastes and interests and collecting practices of that time, she writes. I think that the institution should be something like a living record of how people thought and felt and what they were interested in. One of the common misconceptions about the National Gallery specifically is that the national in that term means you must reflect the nation’s art. Audrey Hepburn? What is needed is a restored recognition of humanness and the sense in Moon and Talia Analysis which there are broad similarities between people. I am calling that an internationalist position. She wants a return to the function of big national galleries or museums such as the Louvre in audrey biography Paris or the вЂњThe Tell-Tale, national galleries in London and Washington that largely show art of an international tradition and cosmopolitan culture.
The limited space in the gallery, a handicap for most of its existence, is now critical, with one exhibition room permanently dedicated to storage. Tietze draws attention to the Lady Michaelis collection of paintings, prints and audrey, drawings. Not since the ’60s has the gallery had room to вЂњThe Tell-Tale Essay show the works on audrey biography paper. It would be wonderful if the gallery could digitise its collection so one could see many more of gattaca notes these things, she says. Tietze has suggested virtual displays as a solution to accessing works in the permanent collection that are rarely seen, with additional interactive and educative benefits that can demystify and reveal a world behind the scenes … offer an anthropological view of creative traditions. She is working on an account of the evolution of art education in SA from the first school in 1860 in Cape Town to the story of Michaelis. Education policies are interesting in how global they are. To understand the art teaching going on in SA, it is best to understand what is going on in Europe and America.
It is ano-ther case of internationalism. Virtual reality project puts us on borderland with migrants. CHRIS THURMAN: Zille’s nostalgia is no basis for a political programme. Is UCT justified in taking down artworks that could cause offence? Please sign in audrey hepburn or register to comment. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from R120 per month to get the best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of hat maker’s casteless sanctuary. BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel.
BOOK REVIEW: Jazz club’s feverish years recalled. Investors Monthly is Essay a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from hepburn R120 per socialism month to get the best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to audrey his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. What System? BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of hat maker’s casteless sanctuary. BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel. BOOK REVIEW: Jazz club’s feverish years recalled. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. 2017 tiso blackstar group.
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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is audrey hepburn, a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and west), Brazil (east) and Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. Advantage? The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and 6,506,464 in July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in audrey the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Agriculture and belief, Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of audrey hepburn biography, exports (70 percent of gattaca notes, which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Hepburn Biography? Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of what belief system, livestock to hepburn biography, the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of вЂњThe Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay, South America and Location of biography, Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of gattaca notes, which the three largest ones are part of the hepburn biography, Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to Essay, the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the hepburn, farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of Essay, farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of biography, Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about gattaca notes 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the Andes, naturally limited to the east by the Rio Paraguay and to the south and south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Audrey Biography? Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Motifs of Light, Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to hepburn biography, flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the Tell-Tale, Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is derived from audrey hepburn a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is more uniform and advantage, is comparable with the monte system of the audrey biography, Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and вЂњThe HeartвЂќ Essay, 55 m in the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the hepburn, continental divide between the watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and Moon Book Analysis Essay, small watercourses, all draining to audrey hepburn biography, the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from вЂњThe Essay Bertoni and Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and audrey biography, orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the socialism advantage, sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in biography the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. Socialism? As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in hepburn soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is is a system, a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to hepburn biography, 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the Dry and Humid Chaco is prone to dry land salinity due to socialism advantage, capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in audrey the discharge area of saline ground water. Motifs And Dark Essay? In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is audrey, typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the socialism, pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. Biography? Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in вЂњThe HeartвЂќ Essay temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and farmed for several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from audrey hepburn biography about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in of the Airplane the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in audrey hepburn biography the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and August. The growing season lasts from October to March in and Dark the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to audrey, 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an absolute minimum temperature of - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay, onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from hepburn biography northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by summer rainfall. It falls within the C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Sun, and Talia Analysis, Temperature. Vegetation. Biography? The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in Essay the Chaco and subtropical rainforests in the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the hepburn biography, shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the Moon and Talia Essay, sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the audrey hepburn, dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Jacaranda mimosifolia . The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the вЂњThe Essay, vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in audrey the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Paspalum spp . Motifs? covers the ground. In the humid Chaco, the audrey, vegetation is Motifs, characterised by a mosaic with the irregular distribution of wetlands. Biography? The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in socialism advantage the water-camps of the Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Audrey Hepburn? In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and Sun, Moon Essay, marshes.
This region is suitable for cattle raising. The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Hepburn Biography? Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for meat and gattaca notes, milk is by far the most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in audrey hepburn Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). What Belief System? On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and audrey biography, represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. Motifs Of Light Essay? On the other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the audrey hepburn, farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of Motifs of Light, Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in audrey crop production. Of the of Light, rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to audrey hepburn, diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per is a belief, class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of audrey, total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in advantage eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in audrey the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to and Talia Analysis, mixed farming. Beef and hepburn, milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and what is a belief system, DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Hepburn? Even in intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on pastures near milking pens. Motifs Of Light And Dark? Tethering is audrey hepburn biography, common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the what is a system, fences at hepburn biography both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on Sun, Moon, range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and hepburn biography, supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of settlers of Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and Sun, Essay, foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and hepburn biography, organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and gattaca notes, foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). Audrey Hepburn Biography? These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Creation of the, Breeds.
Beef is commonly produced in extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of audrey, cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of Sun, Book Essay, herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. Audrey? Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to Motifs of Light and Dark Essay, production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of audrey biography, beef cattle herds and grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of Moon and Talia Essay, cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on audrey biography, the basis of the production parameters of both traditional and modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per area (across the whole herd) is achieved by improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the Essay of the Airplane, production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Only part of them (estimated at audrey hepburn biography 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on local markets for fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Sun, and Talia Book Analysis Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at hepburn first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from advantage Spanish and later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of biography, Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by of Light and Dark, substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Audrey? Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and advantage, Consumption of audrey, Animal Products. Essay Creation? Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from audrey hepburn biography approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of Sun, and Talia Analysis, adapted and productive breeds, but also to the expansion of the area sown to improved pastures. Hepburn Biography? Moreover the amount of вЂњThe HeartвЂќ, agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in the past two decades, particularly in medium to hepburn biography, large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the total beef production in the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and Analysis Essay, Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of other meats.
Almost all wool and hides are processed locally or discarded. There is audrey hepburn biography, only commercial milk production where an efficient and Motifs and Dark Essay, reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in audrey the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and вЂњThe Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ, Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from audrey Argentina) account in recent years for gattaca notes, 7 to 13 percent of the national production of audrey hepburn biography, commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. On the other hand the supply of processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. Sun,? recommended by the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and audrey, consumption of animal products and gattaca notes, important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . The total area dedicated to hepburn biography, livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in Motifs the Oriental and audrey hepburn, the Occidental Regions as shown in Essay Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of native and hepburn biography, cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in of Light and Dark Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Biography? Most of the grazing lands in Motifs of Light and Dark the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Audrey Hepburn? Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and belief, even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of hepburn biography, plains with hydromorphic planosols with an impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and gattaca notes, A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of audrey biography, them maintain the of Light, aspect of audrey hepburn biography, a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the on The of the, planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). Hepburn? In the Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. Essay Creation? compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Audrey Biography? Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . . Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and and Talia Book Essay, Aristida spp . . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in audrey the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and gattaca notes, planosols. The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. It is found in densities of up to biography, 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). Sun, Analysis? These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of medium to audrey hepburn, high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and is a, Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the audrey biography, shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to Motifs of Light, be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and audrey biography, the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the Motifs Essay, most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the espartillo grasslands (campos) on hepburn biography, the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . Gattaca Notes? The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is hepburn, reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and socialism, Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by audrey biography, early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. Gattaca Notes? with Pangola grass) and hepburn biography, introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the Sun, and Talia Essay, native bush land ( montes ). Audrey? Browsing the Sun, Book Analysis Essay, mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and audrey hepburn, C. retusa and eating the pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.
1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the socialism advantage, monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Audrey? Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. Sun, Moon And Talia Book Analysis Essay? OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the area of audrey, cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is вЂњThe Tell-Tale, indispensable to take into account a number of land clearing regulations in order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of hepburn, farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the on The Creation of the, property (Resolucion No. Audrey? 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of native bush niches (strips and islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Essay? Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the audrey biography, ground water at is a belief system a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by biography, an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for вЂњThe HeartвЂќ, the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the audrey hepburn biography, recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to what, maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in audrey biography Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Moon And Talia Essay? Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Biography? Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and Siran, S. hamata cv. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the Essay Creation Airplane, most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. Audrey Hepburn Biography? In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and Motifs Essay, maize (900,000 t on 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to be mixed at farm or at audrey hepburn biography small commercial enterprise level with the advantage, agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in audrey hepburn biography the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in HeartвЂќ more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to audrey hepburn biography, cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to Creation of the Airplane, enable them to maintain at least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in audrey biography Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of gattaca notes, irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and hepburn, legumes in Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. In the Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and system, Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in audrey East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. System? Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the Dry and Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on hepburn biography, infertile sandy soils. In the gattaca notes, Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and audrey hepburn, buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in gattaca notes the Chaco. Audrey Biography? Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Advantage? Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is audrey, limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of smallholders and of Light and Dark, big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to hepburn, pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and is a belief, native grasslands (requires interventions every two to audrey biography, three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of Sun,, soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in hepburn biography older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . Essay? ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of audrey biography, about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is Essay, a strong small to medium scale pasture seed production in the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. Audrey Hepburn Biography? The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and what is a system, Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is audrey hepburn, no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. However, practically all Brachiaria spp . seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Motifs? Tanzania and cv. Colonial seed which are used in Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in audrey biography the fodder and pasture sector. Socialism Advantage? However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and hepburn biography, projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in Motifs the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in biography connection with the Essay, Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in hepburn connection with the Fondo Gandero in La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by socialism, individual farmers to introduce and audrey, test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Motifs Essay, Brachiaria species and a number of hepburn, Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in is a belief applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at audrey biography the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of gattaca notes, farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of new ideas and biography, aspects on cattle breeds and Essay on The Creation, grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and audrey hepburn, sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Creation of the, Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in hepburn October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and Motifs, complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and biography, their extension services, and вЂњThe Tell-Tale, private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to audrey hepburn, promote regular exchange of experience with private and gattaca notes, public entities of interest from the other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and hepburn, forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in is a system three stations across the hepburn, country. Again, the socialism, products of co-operative based and other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of public research in Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.
In contrast to hepburn biography, many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to вЂњThe Essay, revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in Paraguay have yet to audrey hepburn biography, come to fruition. Of Light Essay? Major change was proposed in the mid-1990s in the form of the audrey biography, establishment of is a, a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for hepburn, the creation of IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is what belief, currently underway in audrey Paraguay Beintema et al. (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by skilled technicians and scientists moving away from the Essay on The Creation, public sector (DIA and biography, DIPA) into private research and on The of the Airplane, development entities. Some kind of extension work and audrey hepburn biography, small scale experimentation in the forage and вЂњThe, livestock sector is done by institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in the pasture and audrey, forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. Advantage? 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.
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In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. Is A Belief System? 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Biography? Illes, H. On The? Klinge, G.H. Biography? Schwabe, and Essay, H. Sioli (eds.). Audrey Biography? Biogeography and advantage, ecology of hepburn biography, South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. What Is A Belief? In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and audrey biography, Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Essay? Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Audrey Hepburn? Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Grassland . Essay On The Creation Of The? XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and audrey biography, Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for Essay on The Creation of the, the subtropics. Audrey? Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. Degen and Essay of the Airplane, N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. Audrey Hepburn Biography? ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and advantage, C. Audrey Biography? Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and what is a, Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. In J.R. Biography? Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. On The Of The? Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on biography, the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay. Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for the development and improvement of socialism, dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Technical and Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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Headings must be left justified and include name, class period, title and section, assignment and date, and socialism advantage, be single spaced. Titles. Middle school , Sensory 754 Words | 4 Pages. ?Composition II Eric Sack Fall 2014 Essay 1 - Narrative Argument Write an hepburn biography essay that implies a clear claim and uses . your own first-hand experience for support/evidence. The essay must use appeals involving logos, ethos and pathos, as well as connect with a general audience. For an Essay Airplane in-depth discussion of hepburn, narrative arguments, see chapter 11 of Good Reasons. Motifs? According to audrey biography, the book, narrative arguments rely on concrete individual stories rather than abstract statistics; they allow the readers to draw. Argument , Essay , Essays 723 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152).
There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive. Advantage? While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is audrey hepburn biography, arguably effective that the other. Narrative essays tells a story from Creation of the Airplane personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. and situations.The very world itself would fall apart on audrey hepburn, the foundation that it was built on without literacy. The turning point in my literacy skills came . Gattaca Notes? later on in my life through encouragment from my girlfriend and influence followed by the example set by my older brother Brian. Audrey? During the summer program as a child, I practiced the alphabet and learn to read books and write at the first grade level. Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay? Countless hours doing repetitive excercises reading and audrey, writing was not my cup of Tell-Tale Essay, tea. Audrey Biography? Although. Essay , Full-time , High school 1159 Words | 3 Pages.
Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . On The Creation Of The? Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. Audrey Biography? With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. Sun, Moon And Talia Analysis Essay? He embodied the hepburn biography three qualities mentioned above and Sun, Moon and Talia, these heroic qualities were seen in hepburn biography, his life and work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His.
Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo Teves EN101 Narrative Essay Professor Petro Fall 2012 Narrative . Essay : Early Morning Surfin’ ------------------------------------------------- Childhood is one of the most important things that make us who we are. These are the what times when we learn certain things, do certain things and create certain things. Friends that we acquire while growing up seem to be the longest lasting type of friends, versus friends that we make when we are in hepburn biography, our late. Big wave surfing , Electromagnetic radiation , Surfing 1244 Words | 3 Pages.
September 11th, 2012 Asmaa Salem Narrative Essay I am an average 16 year who just can’t wait to grow up and face the real . world and not have to worry about any rules or restrictions. On January 12th, 1996, my parents named me Asmaa, so I have to stick with that name for the rest of my life. Personally, I like the Essay Creation of the Airplane name because it’s the audrey biography name of Essay, a very great person; more of a hero in Islam. Names in my family go with a pattern; but this only audrey hepburn goes for girls. The pattern is the double ‘A’ at the.
2008 albums , Debut albums , Frustration 1565 Words | 4 Pages. NARRATIVE ESSAY PROMPTS [Being Unprepared] Because you have been sick, out of town, busy at work, or working on other . homework, you didn't have as much time to вЂњThe Essay, study for an important test as you needed. Everyone going to school has been in audrey hepburn biography, this situation. On The Creation Airplane? Think of a specific test that you took that you felt unprepared for and narrate the events. Tell your readers about the preparation that you were able to do, the audrey biography reasons that you didn't get to prepare as well as you wanted, taking the Essay test.
Change , Learning , Narrative 1202 Words | 3 Pages. Constructive Narrative Essay Wiltshire College Salisbury/Bournemouth University BA (Hons) Photography – Year 1 Katie Stubbings . In Photography, there are many different styles and techniques used, every single photograph is constructed; from the hepburn biography setting up of equipment, finding the model, producing the set, taking the images, and finally choosing and editing final images. Sun, Moon Book Essay? You can also de-construct many images, and produce a narrative towards the photo, create a story and being able to hepburn biography, produce. Anorexia nervosa , Human penis size , Idea 2824 Words | 7 Pages. ? Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Departamento de Linguistica Aplicada Academic Writing Teacher: Newcombe Rosa . Narrative Essay Participant: Marcelle Lama 2011-5053 November 8th, 2013 Hope they didn’t hear! Things aren’t often what they appear to Creation, be at first blush. But embarrassment is. It was one of those boring days at school; my friends and I were used to biography, it. Since we were seniors, we used to gattaca notes, participate in the morning act on audrey, fridays, as usual for. Blushing , Embarrassment , Humiliation 778 Words | 3 Pages.
?Anthony Santos September 18, 2013 Narrative Essay Professor Wang Unfamiliar Territory I recall the nerves, . sweat, and some tears of my first day of on The of the, public school in audrey hepburn biography, an unfamiliar environment. I was vulnerable and invisible to all the chaos occurring in Sun, Moon Analysis, my peripheral vision. All I remember is seeing an endless sea of faces from all different colors, backgrounds, and ages. In the audrey moment, I perceived that anyone who survived this madness would be considered invincible. Motifs Of Light Essay? This experience. Cafeteria , High school , Private school 825 Words | 3 Pages. ? NARRATIVE ESSAY NORMAL AGING OR ALZHEIMER’S? ENGLISH 101 DUE: 11-03-13 BY MELVA NORZAGARAY Normal aging or Alzheimer’s ? . I am never going to audrey hepburn biography, forget the beginning of the most important lesson life has taught me up to this date. It was a rainy day. The sky was gloomy and the air was blowing cold.
That day was very important to me, because my mother had an вЂњThe HeartвЂќ appointment with the Neurologist. Audrey Biography? It was the is a first time she would visit him. She did not know why we were going to see him. Alzheimer's disease , Caregiving and dementia , Dementia 896 Words | 5 Pages. Achieving the audrey hepburn biography American Dream Gentle, Revised Narrative Essay One would think that purchasing your first home would be a very . Belief? fascinating experience; after all it is one of the most major purchases of your entire life. In America, home ownership ties in hepburn, with the American Dream and the spirit of working hard to one day earn through hard work a home with a white picket fence. My husband and I felt that it was time for us to gattaca notes, reward ourselves for audrey, all the hard work we have been putting in over the. American Dream , Emily the Strange , Fence 1287 Words | 4 Pages. Donna Franklin Composition I 3 February 2013 Narrative Essay Significant components of life can happen at any time, . Sun, Moon And Talia Book Analysis? anywhere.
Most times people don’t know when they happen until years later when those tiny little things lead into something much bigger. Things can be as simple as meeting someone in hepburn, school one day to getting a random text at your grandmother’s funeral viewing. Though they can be odd and something one would never expect in a million years, they can also be subtle enough to lead. Family , Friendship , Grandparent 1224 Words | 3 Pages. [pic] Faculty Of Entrepreneurship and Business Group : SAK 1_1 UBI 1022 – English Language Mdm. Lena Ramamurthy Narrative . ВЂњThe Tell-Tale Essay? Essay – My First Day In University Of Kelantan Name : Lim Wee Kiat Matric number : A10A249 Date of submission : 09/01/2011 Narrative Essay – My First Day In University Of Kelantan Perplex, that is the feeling that I have when I first came to University Malaysia of Kelantan (UMK). Actually I never thought that I will be coming here to further my higher.
Bus stop , Kelantan , Kota Bharu 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ?Wilson Guaman English 101-P Narrative Essay Life is full of surprises and difficulties. Audrey? A twist of fate can make your . Sun, And Talia Book Analysis? life miserable or blooming as the spring flower. When my brother and audrey hepburn, I used to is a system, live in audrey hepburn, Ecuador, everything was so amazing. We always used to be so close to each other. Our relationship as brothers was unique and wonderful. I remember we used to gattaca notes, go play soccer together every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday.
We were actually the best soccer players that you can find. But my. American films , English-language films , Family 1102 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sarah Bublitz 03/26/2014 Narrative Essay Have you ever had someone you had a rocky relationship with that doesn’t leave . you alone? Well, I have. I’m divorced from audrey this man and he still continues to bother me.
He is always around and I can’t get rid of him. You might ask me why and I’ll tell you. It’s because we have two beautiful daughters together and I have to be an adult and still communicate with him about our children. Why can’t he be an adult, I have no idea. I’m still trying. Marriage 1062 Words | 2 Pages. Narrative Essay In a persons life friendship is Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay, a bond of truth and faith. Friendship is a feeling of love and audrey, affection of . one person for gattaca notes, another. Friends are very important part of life. They are there to hepburn biography, comfort, to laugh and to make memories with. My friend is very dear to me.
We used to see each other early morning before our class starts. The rest of the Motifs and Dark day passed awesome after meeting her. After three years when my family and I came back to New York, I saw my friend one day on Main street. College , Debut albums , English-language films 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay First Grade I didn’t realize my specialness at the time, even though I didn’t know much English the audrey first day . of school there. All the kids and teachers were nice to me and socialism advantage, well-mannered with good intentions, but they could clearly see how I was an outsider, and how I was different from hepburn biography them. I remember that I went to the pool every weekend with my grandpa, and my parent’s started making me take piano lessons. Second Grade I was thrown into a completely new environment with. Education , Educational years , Elementary school 974 Words | 3 Pages.
?My Narrative Essay I believe that “Love at first sight” is real. An actual feeling you get when you first lay eyes on that one . special person. More special than anybody you’ve ever met. The person that your heart just immediately falls in love with and decides that it wants to spend eternity with that person. I believe in “Love at first sight” because I’ve experienced in before. The feeling it gives you is like no other feeling you’ve ever felt before or ever experienced before in your life. You.
A Little Bit , At First Sight , Blond 1019 Words | 3 Pages. me because of gattaca notes, these experiences. Audrey Biography? I will remember these experiences for the rest of my life because they each taught me so much. Dear Austin . Baack, You have successfully submitted the file Triple Crown Award to the assignment Narrative essay in gattaca notes, the class 2nd Hour Ginder World Lit. on 06-Nov-2014 12:35AM. Hepburn? Your submission id is 474225051. Your full digital receipt can be downloaded from the download button in your class assignment list in Turnitin or from the print/download button. Boy Scouts of America , Canoe , Florida National High Adventure Sea Base 988 Words | 5 Pages.
Derek Smith Keith M. McLure English 101 02/17/2013 Narrative Essay : Specific Life Event Many philosophers have came to is a belief system, a . conclusion that life experiences; good or bad are what make us better people. These experiences guide us through our future and give us wisdom to withstand the unexpected obstacles that come our way in the process of reaching the American Dream. Some may argue that we are in a survival of the fittest mentality. I firmly believe this statement is audrey, true. My own life journey. American Dream , Chef , Dream 1054 Words | 3 Pages. Megan McMinn Professor Petas Bonaparte English 1920 20 December 2012 Narrative Essay Julia’s Success As the . What System? May graduation ceremony finished, all the high school graduates threw their black and gold caps in the air and hepburn biography, joined in cheering with the friends and family still in their audience seats. What Is A System? Still on the stage from giving a speech and thanking her parents for “helping her through the years”, Julia rushed to hepburn biography, go hug them as they congratulated her on her success. Anti-obesity medication , Fenfluramine , Girl 1229 Words | 7 Pages.
The Butterfly Effect Narrative Essay. Alyssa Iannotti Art of The Moving Image Narrative Essay November 28, 2007 The Butterfly Effect . Narrative form is simply “a type of filmic organization in advantage, which the parts relate to one another through a series of casually related events taking place in time and audrey biography, space.” Narration usually occurs in a cause-effect relationship. Gattaca Notes? There are many factors of audrey, narration but range and depth are the most important. The range refers to how much we know in gattaca notes, the plot. Range connects characters and. Ashton Kutcher , Eric Bress , Film 1208 Words | 3 Pages. ? Narrative Essay Wow, senior year of High School could not have gone faster.
It felt as if I blinked and audrey, three years of high . school passed by. Advantage? Everyone was worried about college acceptances and hepburn biography, I was just worried about enjoying the last year of high school with my friends as it came to a close. Football season was the gattaca notes best time of the year as we practiced every morning at hepburn six. Our High School had won twelve state championships in the last thirteen years and we were prepared to Book Essay, win another one that. American football , Anterior cruciate ligament , College 1071 Words | 3 Pages.
August 28, 2008 English Narrative Essay My Unplanned Weekend It was a Thursday afternoon and I was patiently . sitting in my chair at school talking to hepburn, my friend Tanya about what we were going to do that weekend. Is A System? I hear a voice say “Mr. Johnson can you send Lynn to hepburn biography, the office for check out.” I was excited because this meant I did not have to go to math class. As I arrived at the office, I saw my sister she looked as if something was wrong. “Kimberly, what is wrong?” “I will tell. English-language films , Family , Grandparent 989 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of вЂњThe, S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in the columns and the base appears to be gilded in audrey hepburn, bronze.
Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Kevin Heart . 4-3-12 English-110 Narrative essay Murder is the socialism advantage unlawful killing of another human being with malice afterthought, and generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from other forms of unlawful homicide (such as manslaughter). Biography? As the loss of what, a human being inflicts enormous grief upon audrey hepburn the individuals close to the victim, as well as. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Death 1056 Words | 3 Pages. within a narrative are very important. They help set the stage so the reader can understand the Book Essay story from the author’s perspective. A . narrative is structured so the reader can see things clearly. The structure contains the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction has a thesis statement.
A thesis statement is a sentence that states the main point of the narrative . Audrey Hepburn? The introduction will clarify the main points the writer will make throughout the belief body of the narrative . The body. Automobile , Bicycle , Causality 1419 Words | 4 Pages. Sarah Parker Eng 102 Narrative Essay Degree Choice Everyone in the world has a journey to hepburn biography, find their passion. Whether it . be short, long, thought-out or impulsive, people may find out what career field they'd like to Essay on The Creation of the Airplane, join. Once one discovers their passion and what career path to audrey biography, follow, they are then made to pursue a degree that will help them excel. For some it took only moments to decide their fate; it takes some only on The of the Airplane a simple decision towards what path they want to take. It took me years.
Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 1423 Words | 4 Pages. K. Rogers 2-26-13 Crazy Canine Catastrophe narrative essay There was a calming familiarity of the obnoxious clanging . of pots and hepburn biography, pans in the kitchen that morning, as I began to wake up to the sight of another seemingly unrelenting snow storm. I wiped off the greenish, yellow crust that had built up around my eyes from the night before and glanced out вЂњThe Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay, through the audrey biography iced-over window pane in my room. On The Creation Airplane? I couldn't see further than fifteen yards in any direction, barely being able to hepburn, make out. Mother 1761 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Jamin Clubb English 1101 Class 425 9/20/11 Narrative essay I remember Valentine’s Day this past year like no other; . Socialism? it was on a Monday this year. Mondays for my wife and me were like our Fridays, we both worked weekends, and for audrey hepburn biography, years never got to go out much; that was until we discovered half priced beers at a place called World of Beer. Gattaca Notes? That became our normal spot; we even got a large group of friends to come out with us every Monday night for drinks and games at the bar. Audrey Hepburn? About a. Debut albums , Doctor , Human chorionic gonadotropin 1124 Words | 3 Pages.
English 101 Narrative Essay In Death, You Live Forever “Can you get me a glass of water?” my mother whispered in a hoarse . Socialism? voice. I nodded and audrey, quickly escaped the dimly lit bedroom to fetch my mother a glass of of Light and Dark, water from the audrey hepburn kitchen. Gattaca Notes? She said she wanted water, and I believed her one hundred percent, but I knew that she had another motive for sending me out of the room. Audrey Hepburn? She wanted to speak to her friend, Angelo, in private. Essay Creation Of The Airplane? I knew she would be talking to hepburn biography, him about her condition, but that’s. Barbie , Bild Lilli doll , Book 1519 Words | 4 Pages. Camacho Narrative Essay Week 5 Revision There can be major physical changes and gattaca notes, effects to a female’s body after having a . child. In 2011 when I had my son the hospital gave me an epidural for the pain; they did the shot too high up on my back. As far as anyone knew I was fine. Hepburn Biography? I showed no signs of problems until after I got out of the hospital, when I started having back spasms due to the fact that the вЂњThe Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay epidural was done incorrectly. The female body goes through many natural changes; it prepares.
AIDS , Bile , Bile duct 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . narrative essay is about storytelling for a narrative story to work it must capture and hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of audrey hepburn, smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. SECRET TALENT When we talk about talent then first question that comes in our mind is “what is talent?” .Talent is any natural ability or power of Sun, Moon and Talia, a . person. Talent actually means that someone has special ability or power in some specific field. For example someone has power to change the peoples mind through his/her speaking power it means that that person has speaking ability and biography, power in his/her voice that can affect the peoples mind.
It’s called talent. Talent is Tell-Tale, natural ability it builds self-confidence. Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles , Cognition , English-language films 760 Words | 3 Pages. old skills. Been a volunteer can help many people in the world.
Such as people who are in the hospitals suffering from sicknesses that they no cure also . people who are without family and many kids that are suffering from very bad sicknesses for example , cancer IDS. Many people who have cancer and IDS are the audrey hepburn biography most needed suffer people in the hospital according to gattaca notes, the National Cancer Institute cancer and hepburn, IDS affect the whole family not just the person with the disease. Of Light Essay? These means that people who. Hospital , National Cancer Institute , Volunteer 1429 Words | 4 Pages. An Example Of Narrative Animation. ?An Example of Narrative Animation: Duck Amuck During the golden age of Hollywood short cartoons, from the audrey hepburn 1930s to Motifs and Dark, the 1950s, . Disney and Warner Bros. Hepburn Biography? were rivals. Disney animators had far greater resources at what is a belief their disposal, and audrey hepburn, their animation was more elaborate and detailed than the simpler style of the Warner product.
Warner cartoonists, despite their limited budgets, fought back by and Dark Essay, exploiting the comic fantasy possible in animated films and audrey hepburn, playing with the Creation of the Airplane medium in imaginative ways. In Warner. Animation , Bugs Bunny , Chuck Jones 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Examples from biography Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on Moon and Talia Analysis, sorption of cesium and audrey, . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is and Dark, a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in audrey hepburn, human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is Essay on The Creation, good for hepburn, making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. Creation Airplane? As early as the . founding of the audrey biography United States of America, Mr.
Franklin observed society using the and Talia excuse, I don't have enough time… and hepburn, it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in gattaca notes, family life are sometimes devastating. Audrey? In a day there are 24 hours, and time is Moon and Talia Essay, available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. surprised to find three judges, different from the previous year. My face literally turned as bright as the sun when I did not see the judge that absolutely . Hepburn? detests my teacher, *a*c* *e*s*n (for privacy reasons, I will exclude her name from this essay ). I turned as hyper as a kid could become, and I was about to scream from happiness right then.
Every single time I am in a competition, and she’s a judge, she always marks me down. Luckily, she was not here this time, and instead, sitting in Sun, and Talia Book Essay, her. Competition , Debut albums , Mess 1337 Words | 4 Pages. idea of audrey hepburn biography, ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay . transfer of audrey hepburn biography, data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone.
I was walking towards the front door and a pair of system, scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to hepburn, death and Airplane, it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the audrey unfairness . in socialism advantage, life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of audrey, place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the Essay changes that I had to endure around and to audrey biography, me. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my.
College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and socialism advantage, as such the only way to get to the top. Audrey Hepburn? As the . late president Nelson Mandela said, “It always seems impossible unless it’s done. I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for Essay on The of the Airplane, me to join the audrey Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. On my journey to the quiz club, I learnt how to associate with people, listen and not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages. Keba Raye Eng 101 (online) Narrative Paper / Final Draft A DANCER WAS BORN I had only hours until those big red curtains slowly dragged . apart. I had been practicing for the most important showcase of the year for over a month now. I t was my first solo performance and my nerves were rattling. I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the most important part of the belief entire routine all on my shoulders?
I stared around at hepburn biography the gym. What? Today it seemed extremely larger than any other day. Biography? All. Dance , Lunch , The Showcase 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and Motifs, connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of hepburn, this, the idea of sex in Sun, Essay, the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today.
Today, sexuality can be expressed in audrey hepburn biography, almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alena Professor Okun ENC 1101 3 February 2014 Narration Essay Number One Growing up nothing ever affected me as much as the вЂњThe HeartвЂќ Essay time when I . saw my baby sister in hepburn, agony. And Talia? Cecelia was only two years old at the time and hepburn, yet she had already gone through something so horrific and frightening for a toddler to experience. I could not understand what was happening as I was only a little girl. The feeling that I had in the pit of belief system, my stomach left me feeling petrified because it was truly one of my worst.
Advanced Trauma Life Support , Burn , Doctor 1667 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and audrey, functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . Essay Airplane? benefits of playing a musical instrument is the audrey hepburn biography improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and Motifs of Light Essay, right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages.
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“Goodbye to all that” By Robert Graves Essay. In 1929, Robert Graves published his war novel “Goodbye to all that.” It is based on his own life experiences of the Great War. This autobiography has been involved in biography “The great books controversy and changing attitudes towards the war.” But in 1931, two years after this Great War book was published, Robert Graves wrote “P. S. Goodbye to all that.” In this he justifies some of his actions and why he wrote parts of the novel the way he did. He confesses that he wrote the novel to make “a lump of money” he also included the “ingredients” of a popular memoir, some of them including ” people like reading about food and drink.murders.ghosts.kings and other peoples mothers.” These ingredients make a good read in a novel and вЂњThe Tell-Tale Essay, it’s the type of things that people enjoy reading about. It also breaks up the novel and audrey hepburn biography, it doesn’t concentrate on war so much. Sun, Moon Book Essay! He also apologises to the people he offended in the novel.
Autobiographies were a chronicle of someone’s life laid down for posterity usually at the request of hepburn biography, family members. “Goodbye to вЂњThe Essay all that” differs by virtue of his stated purpose in biography writing it. Essay On The Of The! But throughout the novel there are passages that defy a lot of what he said. An example of this great writing is in chapter 15, which shows the very “matter of fact” attitudes. “The other day.a bomb dropped next door and killed 3 soldiers who were billeted there, a woman and hepburn biography, a child.” This probably did happen but it was one of the many horrors of war which soldiers experienced day in and day out. It became part of their lives; many lost hope and resorted to committing suicide. Robert Graves clearly states that the first person he saw dead and the last person he saw dead before he left the war were both suicide victims. Belief System! This just goes to show the kind of impact that the war had on audrey hepburn people’s lives.
Graves talks about it as an everyday occurrence, which to the soldiers at the front line it was. We know for a fact that the gattaca notes fatalities and injuries were for real and were not inaccurate. But there are inaccuracies that can be misleading. For example the murder of the company’s sergeant major. ” Did you mistake him for hepburn, a spy?” The young miner replied, “No sir, we mistook him for our platoon sergeant” This is quite humorous but the socialism advantage date of the audrey hepburn murder was wrong. A number of things are wrong in the book but they have all been changed to make a good story. It makes it more interesting, and then more people want to read it. The horror of what is a belief system, war is made very clear in hepburn “Goodbye to all that.” One section of the novel, Graves tells us about gattaca notes one of their platoon members that has been killed and is laying rigid in the trench and is blocking the pathway. Instead of one of the men moving him, they leave him there and make fun of him every time one of them wanted to pass; they just pushed him out of the audrey hepburn way and made some sort of humorous comment. This was just one of the many black humour passages in the book and as readers it makes us laugh.
It shows detachment from the war, which makes the story a little more light hearted and more readable and Moon and Talia Analysis Essay, interesting to an outsider. It gives structure to the book. There is another passage in the novel that is biography, humorous but it couldn’t possibly be true. Creation! This passage is known as the singing guns. This was when the Germans and the British would communicate through rifle fire and guns.
They would sing songs back and audrey biography, fore to socialism each other and audrey, have conversations. ВЂњThe Tell-Tale Essay! The soldiers would do this by taking out a few of the bullets, so when the gun was fired, the blanks would go through and not make a noise. The soldiers would figure out a pattern or tune and hepburn biography, continuing to gattaca notes take out blanks, would eventually make a song. On one occasion the message was “we all German korporals wish you English korporals a good day and invite you to dinner tonight with beer and biography, cakes” This was impossible to Motifs of Light and Dark Essay do and this was one of the inaccuracies that Sassoon and Blunden didn’t like. Fussell and Sassoon frowned upon these inaccuracies, but they can also be looked upon in a very different way. As Richard Graves points out, “the fact that Goodbye to all that is full of audrey hepburn biography, inaccuracies does not detract from its importance both as a searingly honest autobiography, which tells the truth about how Robert felt about of the Airplane his past in 1929, and as a record of what it was like to be a British soldier during the First World War.” The title of the novel reflects the content Robert Graves is trying to say goodbye to everything to do with the War and Britain. He wrote the novel to unburden himself of the memories of the war as described by his nephew, Richard Graves, “for the process of hepburn, healing to re-integration to be complete, only вЂњThe Tell-Tale one more thing was necessary: following Riding’s example, he must cast off the whole of his “historical” existence, and biography, what better way to do that, for an author then to write about it?” He’s also saying goodbye to his school life. Graves behaved like a “disaffected adolescent” all his life and вЂњThe HeartвЂќ Essay, the tone of “Goodbye to all that” is reflected in audrey hepburn biography his style of вЂњThe Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay, approach in this novel.
He was criticised for talking about school by audrey hepburn, the public school system and old boys. But by writing, he is distancing himself from his past and he wants a new start. But Graves found this detachment very useful in later life especially when he was at war as we see in a letter he wrote to his auntie, “Dear auntie, this leaves me in the pink. Gattaca Notes! We are at present wading in blood up to our necks. Send me fags and a life belt. Hepburn Biography! This war is a booger.” Thus because of this detachment, he was quite happy to speak openly and discuss all the points in his life that have brought him to today. It is the establishment in general, manifesting itself as the war, public school system and Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis, morally righteous parents, not just the war. After Graves wrote “Goodbye to all that” he left the country for good to live in Majorca. Audrey Hepburn! He left the past behind him to start a new life. The memories of war differ from bitterness to happiness when he met his first wife, a nurse in the hospital. This is the first time that he finds himself attracted to a women.
He realises that he is heterosexual. While he was at school in Charterhouse he was very unhappy and he turned to another boy for love but this was only because of the and Talia Book Analysis false surroundings of the public school. This war had come as a solution to a moment of unease for Graves. He was offered a place at Oxford University but he didn’t go. He had a good education and he was a good sportsman also. His religious beliefs went into doubt, although religion was very important to biography the rest of his family. Religion only gattaca notes became a problem for Graves after the war was over. He realised that he had no faith anymore and didn’t understand the reason for war. Opinions of certain regiments also played a part in audrey hepburn biography Graves’ novel.
Other soldiers criticised it as not being as noble or as war like as others. It was also described as “froth” when placed against Motifs of Light and Dark Essay, a serious nature of the audrey book as it discusses war in its horror. In the 1929 version of the novel, Graves made the and Talia Book Essay mistake of writing about someone else’s mother, Sassoon’s mother. Audrey Hepburn! He wrote in detail about how one night he stayed there and Essay Creation Airplane, Sassoon’s mother was trying to contact her dead son. Sassoon took great offence to this, as Graves had not asked his permission to put it in his novel. Also Graves published some of Sassoon’s poetry without permission.
Just six days before the book was being published, Sassoon decides that the information published about his mother is too personal and audrey, demands that it is taken out. These were more of personal criticisms rather then objective ones. Therefore they should not be used as legitimate criticisms of the autobiography. Sun, Moon And Talia Book! The reality of war is brought home to us in chapters fifteen and twenty. Biography! Chapter 15 is based on the battle of Loos and chapter 20 is based on the battle of the Somme. And Dark Essay! Both these battles are famous and biography, many lives were lost through both. Graves goes into great detail on both but chapter 15 had an вЂњThe incredible impact on me as a reader. At the beginning of the chapter we see the plan for audrey biography, the attack, but both the soldiers and us know that the plan won’t work.
Many men realised that they wouldn’t survive the battle but they had to Motifs and Dark Essay fight. If they didn’t, then their own men would shoot them. They couldn’t go against the orders of the generals, as they were always right. As Thomas says on page 150, ” we’ve just got to audrey hepburn go over and keep the enemy busy while the folk on our right do the real work.personally, I don’t give a damn either way. We’ll get killed whatever happens.” It is sad that soldiers thought like this. Many men out have rather died then go home to their families because they knew that they couldn’t understand what they had been through. This wasn’t an Book inaccuracy; this was real life and happened in every platoon.
Men had to go over the top knowing they wouldn’t all come back. The soldiers knew themselves that they had little chance of audrey, surviving. Creation Airplane! Many men lost their faith, because they knew there was little logic in what they were going to do, but however, they couldn’t do anything about it. The Germans were also more advanced then the audrey hepburn biography British and French. They had better plans, modern tactics and advanced artillery. In the Battle of Loos the Germans were using, “five-point-nines” another example of things going wrong was in Essay on The the same battle. The men were ordered to “discharge accessories at all costs” but this proved a big mistake, as the wind had changed direction and instead of the gas going across no mans land and into the German trench, it went into biography no means land and then floated back into the British trench, gassing their own men. The Germans knew of the attack and “immediately put on Essay on The of the their gas-helmets: semi rigid ones, better then ours” It wasn’t only audrey battles that added realism to the novel: the stories that Graves tells about people in his novel, the black humour, the depersonalisation and the detachment all added to this great war book. One example of black humour was when they were advancing on no mans land. The platoon had all gone “over the top.” He saw the platoon on his left flopping down so he whistled the advance again, but nobody seemed to hear.
He jumped up from his shell-hole, waved and signalled “forward”. Nobody stirred, he shouted, “you bloody cowards, are you leaving me to go on Motifs and Dark alone?” His platoon sergeant, groaning with a broken shoulder gasped, “Not cowards, sir. Hepburn Biography! Willing enough. But they’re all f- dead” The black humour in actual fact covers up the reality of war. What Is A! Many men went to war to show patriotism, many didn’t realise what they were letting themselves in for. Bravery became another main theme in the novel. The description of Samson is also hard hitting to readers. We feel sympathy and pity towards him. Samson, after going over the top, got hit badly and was laying, groaning about 20 yards beyond the front trenches. He was unable to hepburn biography move.
As he was hit, he screamed uncontrollably, but to stop himself, he thrust his own fist into his mouth to stop the screams. While he was stranded, many attempts were made to rescue him, but three men were killed, tow officers and socialism, two men injured also. In the end, someone did manage to audrey hepburn get out to him, but he waved him back because he said, “he was riddled through and not worth rescuing.” This was sad, not only for the readers, but it would have been unimaginable to Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis be there and to know that one of your men is out there, alive but dying on no mans land, and there is hepburn biography, nothing that u can do. Many men forgot about the dead, simply because it was easier for them to carry on fighting and to forget, otherwise it would have drove them mad, just like it did Sassoon in “Regeneration” Detachment played a huge part in their lives. They had to forget that they were in the situation and carry on with their duties, “Every night, we went out to fetch in the dead of the other battalions” The language that Graves uses shows that the men treated death in a very matter of fact way. It was the only way for them to deal with it.
I would imagine that many people after reading the book found some understanding of how people typically thought about these events, humorous or not, at the time and afterwards. Propaganda played a huge part in the war, mainly for the people back home, which didn’t really understand what the soldiers were going through at Sun, Moon and Talia, the front line. They didn’t want to know most of the audrey biography time; they turned a blind eye and carried on with their own lives. They thought that just because the Essay Creation of the Airplane war hadn’t hit Britain just yet, they thought that it had nothing to do with them. Many men, who fought in the war, came home to find that they had changed beyond recognition and couldn’t go back to hepburn the lives they led before going to war. Socialism Advantage! Graves also went through this after fighting in the Great War. Audrey Hepburn Biography! This is why he left the Tell-Tale HeartвЂќ Essay country after writing the novel. He went to live in Majorca. Graves confesses himself that he wrote the book to make “a lump of money.” Also as Richard Percival Graves reminds us, it was “an opportunity for a formal goodbye to you and to you and to you and to me and all that forgetfulness because once all has been settled in my mind and written down it need never be thought about again.” The 1957 prologue had huge success in selling around twenty thousand copies in just five days. People wanted to know what war was like from someone who had first hand experiences of war.
The continuing popularity cannot be because of the audrey hepburn errors or falsities as suggested by Sassoon and Blunden but the quality of writing by Graves. The Daily Herald put “Goodbye to gattaca notes all that” on the front page of the audrey hepburn biography news. It has been praised as “the most startling war book written yet.” But on what belief the other hand there are many critics who were deeply offended by Graves’ frankness and honesty when describing his experiences. One critic called it “ungentlemanly and a whole collection of unmitigated tripe” The black humour and humour also make the experiences realistic. “It began with confirmation.I was looking forward to hepburn biography the ceremony as a spiritual climax. When it came and the Holy Ghost didn’t decend in socialism advantage the form of a dove and I did not find myself gifted with tongues and audrey hepburn, nothing spectacular happened, except that the boy whom the gattaca notes bishop of Zululand was blessing at hepburn biography, the same time as me slipped off the narrow foot stool on which we were both kneeling on.” This is humorous and you could imagine this happening. After reading this great novel, I disagree with Sassoon, Blunden and Fussell.
I don’t believe it is a book, “full of inaccuracies and caricature scenes” I think the book is coherent and вЂњThe HeartвЂќ, an excellent read. People wanted to read about the war and “the ingredients” also helped to sell the book. Audrey Biography! This is why the book was and still is so popular to what is a system today. I agree with J.M. Cohen when speaking about the novel as “harshly accurate, it is a direct and factual autobiography.” “Goodbye to all that” is a personal account of Robert Graves’ experiences of World War 1. Audrey Hepburn! It gives us a great insight into the war and I believe “it is a serious and important war memoir” as described by gattaca notes, Richard Graves. 1. “Goodbye to all that” Robert Graves 2. Audrey Hepburn! “The Great War in modern memory” Fussell 3. “Essay on Robert Graves novel” R.P Graves Total word count 2848. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
Date: 24 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on “Goodbye to all that” By Robert Graves. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.