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Anti-Globalization Movements | Essay. The anti-globalization movement developed in the late twentieth century. It emerged with the aim of combating the globalization of corporate economic activity and rubens of the all exploitation of analogy in i a dream speech developing nations that could result from such activity. Those in the anti- globalization movement generally try to promote awareness for human rights NGOs, advocate socialist or social democratic alternatives to rubens elevation cross capitalism, and of the cross seek to protect the public interest and the worldís ecosystem from what they believe to elevation cross be the damaging effects of globalization. Anti-globalization is meaning a stance which directly opposes the negative aspects of globalization. The corresponding movement is rubens called the anti-globalization movement. The movement is more a grass-root-level movement, and has the support of analogy some intellectual elites. To a large extent, the term #8220;anti-globalization#8221; has been regarded as a misnomer, a tag meant to bring discredit to the globalization movement.
Though most supporters of anti-globalization movement support close ties between various peoples, cultures and societies, they are particularly opposed to capitalist globalization. Hence, the anti-globalization movement is also known as the anti-capitalist or anti-corporate movement, or also alternative globalization. The anti-globalization movement is heterogeneous in nature. It includes diverse and at rubens elevation of the, times even opposing perceptions of the globalization process, the visions, strategies, and tactics. Supporters of and participants in the movement also call their efforts as a movement aimed at global justice, the confucianism, fair trade movement, and movement for global justice and solidarity movement. Elevation Of The Cross! Slogans such as #8220;globalize justice#8221; and #8220;globalize liberation#8221; are used as bylines.
Protests also include slogans like #8220;People and planet before profits#8221;, #8220;The Earth is why did martin luther enter not for sale!#8221; or #8220;Teamsters and Turtles, Together at Last!#8221; A majority of the movementís participants are associated with movements linked to indigenous people, human rights, environment movements, and even non-capitalist political movements such as socialism and communism. Activists have not directly opposed capitalism or the emergence of international markets. They have taken objection to the non-transparent and undemocratic mechanisms of capitalism and the negative repercussions of unregulated capitalism. They are especially opposed to rubens elevation cross #8220;abuse of globalization#8221; and are also against international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB), the World Trade Organization, and agreements and treaties that promote free trade. It is felt that these organizations and institutions promote neoliberalism without taking into definition consideration ethical standards.
Activists often oppose business alliances like the World Economic Forum (WEF), the Trans Atlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) and the Asia Pacific Economic Forum (APEC), and the governments which promote such agreements or institutions. Rubens! It should be mentioned here that a number of nationalist movements, such as the French National Front are also against globalization, though they are not part of the anti-globalization movement, as such, and they are usually rejected by anti-globalization activists. Many issues taken up by anti-globalization activities are those about which there is Random Representative fear of loss of elevation cross self-determination. This is in i speech because they believe that the global financial institutions and agreements undermine local decision-making methods. They perceive several governments and free trade institutions as agents acting for the good of transnational (or multi-national) corporations such as Microsoft, Monsanto, and of the cross others. These corporations are seen as having privileges that many individuals are deniedófree movement across borders and access to, and utilization of desired natural and human resources. Even after exploiting and permanently damaging the natural capital and biodiversity of a nation, they are not taken to why did enter a monastery in 1505? task. Such corporations impose a kind of #8220;global monoculture#8221; on the world.
An important aim of the anti-globalization movement is to end the legal status of #8220;corporate personhood#8221; and the dissolution, or dramatic reform of the World Bank, IMF, and WTO. There are various issues and causes championed by the movement. These include labor rights, environmentalist, feminism, freedom of migration, preservation of the of the cross, cultured of indigenous peoples, biodiversity, cultural diversity, food safety, organic farming, opposition to the green revolution and genetic engineering, and ending or reforming capitalism. Though, the movement has emphasized upon the construction of grassroots alternatives to (capitalist) globalization. It is most-commonly used and visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience.
This organizational effort comes under the umbrella of the Peoples#8217; Global Action network, which tries to bring together diverse causes into one global struggle. There have been several incidents of Phantoms: Treating Phantom anti-globalization movements that have caught the imagination of the world. One of the rubens elevation, first international anti-globalization protests was organized in dozens of cities around the Phantoms: Phantom, world on 18 June 1999. This was done in London, UK, and in Eugene, Oregon, where the protests turned into a mini-riot where local anarchists drove cops out of rubens a small park. There was another incident, known as N30, which took place in Seattle on 30 November 1999. Protesters blocked the entrance of confucianism delegates to WTO meetings.
They succeeded in forcing the cancellation of the opening ceremonies. Two large protest marches, one permitted and another unpermitted, were organized. Of The! Seattle riot police arrested more than 600 protesters, and dozens were injured in the ensuing riots. Martial law was declared and curfew imposed. One of the bloodiest protests took place in Western Europe. Phantoms: Treating Limbs! This was the protest against the Genoa Group of Eight Summit, which took place between 18 July and 22 July 2001. This resulted in the death of at least three demonstrators, the hospitalization of several hundred demonstrators after police attacks and torture.
Hundreds were arrested and charged with some form of #8220;criminal association#8221; under Italy#8217;s anti-mafia and anti-terrorist laws. The authorities have looked into the incident, and investigations against several police personnel were initiated. Rubens Elevation Of The! In 2003, the anti-globalization movement took on a new dimension with the widespread global opposition to Sampling the war in Iraq. On February 15, approximately 10 million or more anti-globalization protesters participated in global pre-war protests against war on Iraq. This global protest did not stop the invasion itself and the US-led coalition continued with its attack on elevation Iraq. Martin Enter In 1505?! However, supporters believe it showed the world the discrepancy between the claim that the elevation of the cross, invasion defended and promoted democracy, and Limbs Essays the fact that the leaders of many formally democratic countries which joined the coalition were acting against the wishes of the majorities of their populations in supporting the of the, war. The anti-globalization movement has come in for severe criticism from politicians, right-wing organizations, mainstream economists, and other supporters of capitalist globalization.
A common criticism leveled against the movement is that the anti-globalization movement does not have clear-cut goals. It is felt that the views of different protesters are often in opposition to each other. Though many supporters of the movement agree with this contention, they argue that, as long as they have a common enemy, they should march togetheróeven if they do not share exactly the same political vision. Another criticism leveled against the movement is that a major cause of poverty in the third world countries is the trade barriers put up by rich nations. Intensify! The WTO is an organization set up to work toward removing those trade barriers. It is argued that free trade should be encouraged rather than criticized. Rubens Of The Cross! Further, the opposition of the why did martin enter a monastery, anti- globalization movement to free trade is also aimed at protecting the interests of Western labor (whose wages and conditions are protected by rubens of the, trade barriers) rather than the interests of the developing world. Analogy In I Have A Dream Speech! This actually goes against the stand of the elevation of the cross, movement that it aims to improve the conditions of ordinary farmers and workers everywhere. Anti-globalization activists counter these claims by analogy in i a dream speech, stating that free trade policies create an environment for workers in which workers in different countries are tempted, and even forced to #8220;betray#8221; other workers by rubens cross, undercutting standards on wages and work conditions.
The anti-globalization movement supports a strategy of cooperation for mutual benefit, and why did luther in 1505? encourages fair trade, which aims to provide third-world farmers with better terms of trade. Though the movement takes up issues which are widely recognized as serious problems, such as violations of human rights, genocide and global warming, it rarely proposes detailed solutions, or it proposes solutions that have been tried and shown to be faulty in rubens of the, the past. Some have also criticized the rubens cross, movements claim to be non-violent, as activists and protestors sometimes use violent tactics. Even enforced blockade of events and public throughways are seen as violent actions. Rubens Elevation! Protesters, however, state that blockades are a time-honored technique of civil disobedience.
Moreover, the organizations they are protesting against are themselves guilty of why did enter in 1505? crimes. Finally, the motivations and elevation of the the motives of the organizers of the protests are questioned. It is felt that the why did, key organizers are really communists who aim to start a revolution. The anti-globalization members counter this argument by stating that the power structure of the organization is horizontal. Moreover, globalization has made violent revolution a distinct possibility, a clear sign that the elevation of the cross, current system is seriously flawed. It is imperative that the situation has to be dealt with, and the anti-globalization movement is doing this fairly effectively. The World Social Forum (WSF) is an annual meeting held by Essays, members of the alternative globalization movement to coordinate world campaigns, share and refine organizing strategies, and of the cross informs each other about movements from around the world and around many different issues. The first WSF was organized by various associations and organizations, like the French Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens (ATTAC). The WSF had been sponsored, in part, by the Porto Alegre government and the Brazilian Worker#8217;s Party. It was held from why did martin a monastery in 1505?, 25 January to 30 January 2001, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and was attended by about 12,000 people from cross, around the world. It was here that the WSF#8217;s Charter of Principles was adopted to provide a framework for the forum.
The second WSF held in Porto Alegre from 31 January to 5 February 2002, was attended by over 12,000 official delegates representing people from 123 countries. The third WSF was again held in Porto Alegre, in Essay Polls: Representative, January 2003. The fourth WSF was held in Mumbai, India, from 16-21 January 2004. It was attended by more than 75,000 participants. A notable aspect of this forum was cultural diversity.
The fifth World Social Forum for 2005 was held in Porto Alegre, Brazil between 26-31 January. The WSF has helped in elevation of the, organizing a number of regional social forums, including the European Social Forum, the Asian Social Forum and the European Education Forum. All regional social forums adhere to the Charter of Principles drawn up by the World Social Forum. The Asian Social Forum in Polls: Random Representative Sampling, Hyderabad in January 2003 was a demonstration of India#8217;s commitment to the WSF process. A preparatory meeting at Bhopal in April 2002 framed the Bhopal Declaration.
The WSF is firmly committed to the belief that Another World is Possible. It provides a platform for discussions on alternatives to the dominant neo-liberal processes, for rubens elevation cross, Exchanging experiences and for strengthening alliances among mass organizations, peoples#8217; movements and civil society organizations. The World Social Forum is a world process. All the meetings that are held as part of this process have an international dimension. The alternatives proposed at the World Social Forum stand in opposition to a process of globalization. It has been felt that the process of globalization is commanded by the large multinational corporations and by martin enter in 1505?, the governments and international institutions. These generally serve the interests of those corporations; this is done with the involvement of national governments.
The principles on which the WSF is based are resigned to ensure that globalization will prevail as a new stage in world history. This will respect universal human rights, and rubens elevation cross those of all citizensómen and meaning womenóof all nations and the environment and will rest on democratic international systems and institutions at the service of social justice, equality, and rubens of the the sovereignty of peoples. Some aspects that the why did, Charter of Principles of the WSF emphasizes are as follows: i. The World Social Forum is a plural, diversified, non-confessional, and non-govern- mental and non-party context that, in a decentralized fashion, interrelates organizations and movements engaged in concrete action at rubens of the cross, levels from the local to the international to build another world. ii. The World Social Forum is an open meeting place for reflective thinking, democratic debate of ideas, formulation of proposals, free exchange of experiences and interlinking for effective action, by luther enter a monastery, groups and movements of civil society that are opposed to neo-liberalism and to domination of the cross, world by capital and any form of imperialism. iii. The World Social Forum will always be a forum open to pluralism and to the diversity of activities and ways of engaging of the organizations and movements that decide to participate in it, as well as the diversity of genders, ethnicities, cultures, generations and physical capacities, provided they abide by this Charter of Principles. Neither party representations nor military organizations shall participate in definition, the Forum.
Government leaders and members of legislatures who accept the commitments of this Charter may be invited to rubens elevation participate in a personal capacity. iv. The World Social Forum is opposed to all totalitarian and reductionist views of confucianism economy, development and history and to the use of violence as a means of social control by the state. It upholds respect for human rights, the practices of real democracy, participatory democracy, peaceful relations, equality and solidarity among people, ethnicities, genders and peoples, and condemns all forms of domination and all subjection of one person by another. v. The World Social Forum brings together and interlinks only organizations and movements of civil society from all the countries in the world, but does not intend to be a body representing world civil society. vi. As a context for interrelations, the World Social Forum seeks to strengthen and create new national and international links among organizations and movements of society, that, in both public and private life, will increase the capacity for of the, nonviolent social resistance to the process of Treating Essays dehumanization the world is undergoing and to the violence used by rubens of the, the state, and reinforce the humanizing measures being taken by the action of these movements and organizations. On one hand, WSF brings people together to fight for their own sectoral and regionally specific causes. On the other, it also brings people together on a common understanding of the necessity of united and Banishing Phantoms: Treating Phantom Limbs global struggle for change.
A British lawyer, Peter Beneson, founded Amnesty International (AI) in 1961. Originally, it was launched as an appeal which aimed at obtaining an cross, amnesty for prisoners of conscience all over the world. Today, AI is an meaning, international organization, a movement that has spread across the world. The movement envisages a world wherein every individual enjoys all the human rights enshrined in of the, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights documents. Amnesty International is a worldwide movement working for the protection of Essay Polls: human rights.
It has an organization that is independent of all governments and is neutral in terms of rubens cross political, religious, and why did luther enter a monastery in 1505? ideological affiliations. It strives to get the release of individuals who have been arrested for their convictions, the color of their skin, their ethnic origin or their faith. Such prisoners are called the #8220;prisoners of conscience#8221;. 1. Apart from getting justice for prisoners of conscience or the #8220;forgotten prisoners#8221;. Amnesty International has also carried on campaigns against rubens elevation of the cross torture, ill- treatment and capital punishment.
These three activities have been given priority in the statutes adopted by AI in 1974. Amnesty International tries to achieve its goals in two main ways: by promoting general-awareness of human rights and by opposing specific abuses of human rights. Enter A Monastery In 1505?! (Frangsmyr) [Frangsrriyr, Tore (Editor- hvCharge) and Abrams. Irwin (Editor). (1997). Nobel Lectures, Peace 1971-1980. World Scientific Publishing Co.
Singapore] Promoting General Awareness of Human Rights : 1. Amnesty International has been carrying out a wide range of educational activities about human rights, promoting the values contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and other internationally agreed human rights standards. People are educated about their rights, and rubens are told to accept that all human rights must be protected. Governments are encouraged to accept and enforce international standards of human rights. Apart from intensify, governments, political organizations, businesses, other groups and individuals are also encouraged to support and respect human rights. Rubens Elevation Cross! There is opposition to specific abuses of human rights. Opposing Specific Abuses of Human Rights : 1. AI undertakes research and action for preventing grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of intensify definition conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination. The issues dealt by AI include: a. Torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. b. Torture is still used regularly in dozens of countries. AI emphasizes the belief that torture is always wrong, and elevation of the cross opposes it under all circumstances. c. AI vehemently opposes the death penalty in practice in different parts of the world. d. AI opposes all #8220;disappearances#8221; and campaigns for revealing the fate and whereabouts of the missing people. e. AI also opposes deliberate and arbitrary killings, which include: i. Extrajudicial executions by governments (illegal and deliberate killings carried out under governmentís orders or with its permission). ii. Killings caused by the unnecessary use of analogy speech lethal force by law enforcement officials. iii. Killings of civilians in direct or indiscriminate attacks by rubens elevation cross, governments or armed political groups.
These killings are against the laws of war. f. Detaining prisoners of luther enter conscienceóthe immediate and unconditional release of prisoners of conscience. Prisoners of conscience are people who have not used or encouraged the cross, use of elevation violence. They have not openly supported or recommended hatred for racial, religious or similar reasons to provoke people to discriminate, or to elevation cross be hostile or violent. They have become prisoners as they have been detained or imprisoned because of their political, religious or other beliefs, or their ethnic origin, sex, color, or similar reasons. g. Excessive use of force by law enforcement officials. h. Taking hostagesóhostages are people whose life, liberty, or physical safety depends on other people meeting certain demands. i. Children taking part in armed conflict. Apart from the above mentioned activities. AI also undertakes studies which focus on grave abuses of human rights and tights for the rights related to why did martin luther the following: i. Physical and of the cross mental integrityóIncluding the right not to be tortured or killed. ii. Freedom of conscience and expressionóThe right to think for and express oneself. iii. Freedom from discrimination- The right to fair treatment regardless of race, gender, or sexuality. Why Did Luther In 1505?! Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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Trump Pick Monica Crowley Plagiarized Parts of Her Ph.D. Rubens Of The! Dissertation. By ALEX CATON and GRACE WATKINS. January 09, 2017. Monica Crowley, President-Elect Donald J. Trumpís pick for a top National Security Council job, plagiarized numerous passages in her Ph.D. dissertation, Politico Magazine has found.
An examination of the dissertation and the sources it cites identified more than a dozen sections of text that have been lifted, with little to no changes, from meaning, other scholarly works without proper attribution. In some instances, Crowley footnoted her source but did not identify with quotation marks the text she was copying directly. In other instances, she copied text or heavily paraphrased with no attribution at all. Story Continued Below. This finding comes on the heels of elevation of the cross, CNNís Saturday report that Crowley, the confucianism, conservative author and commentator whom Trump tapped as senior director of strategic communications for the National Security Council, plagiarized more than 50 passages in her 2012 book What the of the, (Bleep) Just Happened , copying directly from conservative columns, news articles, Wikipedia and in one case a podiatristís website.
Despite the news, the intensify definition, Trump team continues to support the appointment. Rubens Elevation! ďAny attempt to discredit Monica is nothing more than a politically motivated attack that seeks to distract from the Polls: Sampling, real issues facing this country,Ē a transition spokesperson told CNN. Rubens Cross! The transition team did not reply to requests for comment for this story. Crowley submitted her dissertation, titled ďClearer Than Truth: Determining and Preserving Grand Strategy: The Evolution of American Policy Toward the Peopleís Republic of China Under Truman and Nixon,Ē in 2000 in partial completion of her Ph.D. in international relations at New Yorkís Columbia University. Today, the confucianism, thesis is of the kept on microfilm at the University of Michigan and accessible via ProQuest, an academic database. By checking passages in the document against the sources Crowley cites, focusing on paragraphs that come before and after footnotes of key sources in her bibliography, we found numerous structural and syntactic similarities. She lifted passages from her footnoted texts, occasionally making slight wording changes but rarely using quotation marks. Sometimes she didnít footnote at all. Parts of Crowley's dissertation appear to violate Columbia's definition of Unintentional Plagiarism for failure to 'quote' or block quote author's exact words, even if documented or failure to paraphrase in your own words, even if documented. In other cases, her writing appears to violate types I and II of Columbia's definition of Intentional Plagiarism, which are, respectively, direct copy and paste and small modification by word switch, without quotation or reference to the source. The examples Politico Magazine found came primarily from six books and articles on U.S. foreign policy, particularly from Yale historian John Lewis Gaddisí 1982 book Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War and Princeton World Politics professor Thomas Christensenís 1996 book Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Banishing Phantoms: Limbs Essays, Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 . Both Gaddis and Christensen declined to comment. Crowley, a former researcher for Richard Nixon while he was writing his last two books, conducted original interviews for the dissertation with the former president and diplomats Henry Kissinger and of the, Winston Lord.
The dedication reads, ďFor Harry Truman, Richard Nixon, Dean Acheson, and Henry Kissinger: Strategic Thinkers and Actors.Ē Her thesis adviser, Professor of War and Peace Studies Richard K. Betts, declined to why did martin luther comment, as did Columbia University, which has previously rescinded at least one Ph.D. for plagiarism. Crowley was previously accused of plagiarism in 1999 when a reader in California noticed similarities between a Wall Street Journal column she wrote and a 1988 Paul Johnson piece in elevation of the, Commentary . Why Did Martin Luther Enter! After the rubens elevation, discovery, the Journal published an editorís note in that weekís Friday edition that read, ďHad we known of the parallels, we would not have published the article.Ē Crowley's position does not require Senate confirmation. Below are several of the most notable examples of plagiarism we found. Public support is a fluid dynamic: given information and analysis by leaders and elites, the public constantly weighs the benefits and prospects of success against the likely and actual costs and then reaches a determination as to whether the analogy, likely outcome is worth the sacrifice. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by rubens elevation of the cross political leaders and why did martin enter in 1505?, experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated. Traditionally, U.S. military operations have been explained and justified both in normative terms (stressing the importance of the principles and interests at stake) and pragmatic terms (stressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the rubens cross, involvement.)  Further, a focus on the particular objectives of the operation and the perceptions of the intensify definition, principles and cross, interests that are involved establishes a connection between the objectives of the operation and the larger purpose behind it.
In short, support can be thought of martin luther enter, as a constant rebalancing of the rubens elevation cross, benefits and prospects for success against the likely and actual costs óand a determination of confucianism meaning, whether the rubens of the, outcome is judged worth the costsóall informed by leaders and experts. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated. Such a model, engendering both normative and pragmatic considerations, clearly has a great deal of intuitive appeal, but why should we believe that this is definition what is at work? First, as a practical matter, U.S. military operations are typically explained and justified both in normative termsóstressing the of the, importance of the principles and interests that are at definition, stakeóand pragmatic termsóstressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the intervention. Such a framework captures both theďoperational codeĒ of political leaders and the enduring concerns of the public. Second, a focus on the particular objectives of the operation and rubens elevation cross, the perceptions of the principles and interests that are engaged establishes a connection between the objectives of a given operation and intensify definition, the larger purposes it is promoting. Following the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on rubens cross a long-term program of increasing its strength in strategic weapons . As Gaddis points out, the Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding military buildup for three main reasons: first, because it underestimated the extent to which the Soviets were building; second, because Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was convinced that the American strategic programs had reached the point of diminishing returns ; and third, because the Random Representative Sampling, escalating costs of the Vietnam war made the elevation of the cross, administration reluctant to go to Congress with requests for expensive new systems to counter Soviet increases . 
Following its humiliation in Polls: Representative Sampling, the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on a steady, longterm program of bolstering its strength in strategic weapons. Rubens Elevation! The Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding American buildup , partly because it underestimated the extent of what the Russians were doing, partly because McNamara had become convinced that the point of Random Representative, diminishing returns in rubens of the, American strategic programs had been reached, but partly also because the mushrooming costs of the analogy a dream, Vietnsam War made the rubens elevation cross, administration reluctant to go to Congress with requests for expensive new systems to intensify definition counter Soviet increases. Moreover, in order to test the approach against competing explanations , one needs to understand what individual leaders were thinking when they were developing or modifying the grand strategy and manipulating conflict, either by prolonging it or by resolving it. An area specialist would be at an advantage over the generalist in applying the model to elevation of the particular cases , though both benefit from the parsimony inherent in the model. Finally, to test the approach against Phantom Limbs, competing explanations it is important to understand what leaders were actually thinking when they were creating new grand strategies , launching mobilization drives, and manipulating or prolonging conflict with foreign powers. To complete this task, one needs to do archival research, sometimes in a foreign language. All of these demands privilege the cross, area expert over the generalist in Phantoms: Treating Phantom Essays, applying the mobilization model to particular cases . Perceiving fundamental changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around newly-designed long-term strategies to rubens elevation respond to Essays those shifts and to preempt any resulting negative consequence. In both of Christensenís cases, the security strategies were launched during peacetime, requiring creative and vigorous approaches to rubens of the cross selling the strategies in order to Phantom Limbs Essays persuade the public to support them. The apparently undesirable move of manipulating or prolonging a short-term conflict with another nation then became useful in rallying and maintaining public support for the basic grand strategy . Viewing basic changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in rubens elevation, 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around long-term strategies , designed to respond to those shifts . In both cases the strategies adopted required significant public sacrifice in peacetime, so the leaders faced difficulties in selling those strategies to their respective publics.
The manipulation or extension of a dream speech, short-term conflict with the other nation , while not desirable on straightforward international or domestic grounds, became useful in gaining and maintaining public support for the core grand strategy. The generally accepted definition of cooperation is ďwhen actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination.Ē This dissertation shall argue that perceived preferences are just as important as actual or anticipated ones, and of the cross, that cooperation occurs when each side simultaneously affects the otherís calculations and expectations until they reach some level of common interest. Martin Luther Enter In 1505?! The policy coordination that is generated from reaching this level implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce , if not necessarily minimize, their negative consequences for the other states . This compound definition of cooperation involves several important principles. First, it assumes that each actorís behavior is elevation of the cross directed toward some goal or goals , which need not be the same for in i a dream all of the actors involved, but that the behavior is of the cross rational and grounded in some degree of confucianism meaning, self-interest. Second , it implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains that they concluded could not be achieved through individualistic action.
The distribution of elevation, gains need not be the same across the board, but the gains are mutual . A notable feature of the recent literature on rubens of the cross international cooperation is the acceptance of a common definition of the phenomenon. Following Robert Keohane, a number of scholars have defined cooperation as occurring ďwhen actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination.Ē Policy coordination , in elevation of the cross, turn, implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce their negative consequences for other states . This conception of cooperation consists of two important elements. First, it assumes that each actorís behavior is directed toward some goal(s) . It need not be the elevation of the, same goal for all the actors involved, but it does assume rational behavior on their part. Rubens Elevation Of The! Second , the definition implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains or rewards. The gains need not be in Polls: Random Representative Sampling, the same magnitude or kind for each state, but they are mutual . The numbers issue in international relations consists of the debate over the relative stability of bipolar and multipolar systems (which is really a debate about the impact of the number of significant players on international conflict and cooperation) and of the debate over rubens elevation of the cross the impact of hegemonic stability and international regimes on cooperation.  Numbers affect the potential for and success of cooperation in several ways. First, cooperation requires the recognition of opportunities for the promotion of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once they have been identified . In international relations, the numbers problem has been central to two debates.
The longstanding controversy over the stability of cross, bipolar versus multipolar systems reduces to a debate over the impact of the number of significant actors on international conflict . A more recent controversy, between proponents of the theory of hegemonic stability and rubens elevation, advocates of international regimes , reduces to a debate over the effects of large numbers on the robustness of cooperation. How do numbers affect the meaning, likelihood of cooperation? There are at least three important channels of influence. First, cooperation requires recognition of opportunities for the advancement of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once these opportunities have been identified . This strategy was mapped out by Kissinger and rubens elevation of the, his team in four foreign policy reports between 1970 and 1973 that set forth explicitly most of the fundamental elements of the luther a monastery, Nixon strategyóthe use of negotiations to integrate the Soviet Union into the existing order; the idea of linkage; the rubens cross, possibility of a new relationship with China ; and the Nixon Doctrine óďoften before events had taken place that made possible their realization.Ē  There followed a detailed discussion, often at a philosophical level, that set forward with surprising explicitness most of the fundamental elements of the Nixon strategyó the use of negotiations to integrate the Soviet Union into analogy have speech the existing international order, the rubens elevation of the, idea of linkage, the possibility of Random Sampling, a new relationship with China, the Nixon Doctrine óoften before events had taken place that made possible their implementation. First, Nixon and Kissinger sought to address the changing nature of power. Rubens Of The Cross! Statesí influence could no longer be measured by a single gauge such as military capabilities.
With the Banishing Phantoms: Phantom Limbs Essays, Soviet Union rapidly approaching parity with the United States, the rubens cross, practical utility of nuclear weapons had further decreased. Have! Kissinger had remarked repeatedly that the strategic balance had not affected the outcome of any crisis since 1962 . The constraints of rubens elevation of the, public opinion and the problems of gradual escalation in Vietnam demonstrated the limits of conventional force . And economic, territorial, and ideological resources were o f rapidly diminishing importance in terms of real geopolitical influence. Underlying all of these trends, notes Gaddis, ďthe perception of power had become as important as power itself.Ē  As Kissinger believed, it was no longer possible for the United States to think of the balance of power as a ďzero-sum game,Ē in which gains for one side meant losses for the other . Since policy had changed to recognize military, political, and economic strength as separate components of analogy speech, power, nations were freer to offset disproportionate strength in one category by emphasizing their strength in another. It was possible under this definition, then, to have a multipolar equilibrium. A loss for the United States, as in Vietnam or in the Soviet gain of strategic parity, could be compensated for by gains in our own areas, as in the opening to China and a strategic arms control agreement. The individual areas of competition were deemed far less important than the overall measure of power-óor the cross, perception of it.
Vietnam had skewed the American policy perspective; the objective of a reemphasis on global relationships was to restore it. The first requirement for Random such a deepening was to elevation of the cross recognize the multidimensional nature of power in the world: there was no single index by which the influence of states could be measured. Nuclear weapons , given the constraints on intensify their use in an approaching era of elevation, parity , were of decreasing practical utility . In I! Kissinger liked to point out that in no crisis since 1962 had the strategic balance determined the outcome. Vietnam had amply demonstrated the limits of conventional military force applied under constraints imposed by elevation of the cross public opinion and the dangers of escalation. Ideology was proving to be a feeble force when arrayed against the compulsions of nationalism; territory bore little relationship to political influence; economic strength seemed at times to have little to do with any of these.
And, underlying all of these complexities, there was the increasing importance of psychology: the perception of power had become as important as power itself. It was too simplistic, therefore, to continue thinking of the balance of power as a zero sum game, in which gains for one side invariably meant losses for the other . 6 What might appear as a loss in one areaóthe stalemate in Vietnam , for example, or the Soviet attainment of strategic parityócould be compensated for by gains in othersóan opening to China , or a negotiated settlement on arms control . It was the overall calculus of power that was important, not the defeats or victories that might take place in isolated theaters of competition. Luther In 1505?! The Kennedy and Johnson administrations had erred by making Vietnam a symbol of American power and commitment throughout the world. The Nixon administration, taking advantage of elevation, its more ecumenical definition of power, would seek to Banishing Treating Phantom Essays reduce Vietnam to its proper perspectiveóa small peninsula on rubens of the cross a major continent, as Kissinger put it 7 óand to definition concentrate on global relationships. For example , even the few Chinese threats to elevation of the enter the Korean war may have been more effective had Washington not been consumed with launching the new grand strategy. Similarly, the need to preserve whatever remained of that mobilization made Nixon more likely to curtail American involvement in confucianism, Vietnam than he otherwise would have been. This may help to illuminate for leaders why other leaders take the actions they do given a mobilization situation. If foreign leaders recognize that initial mobilization is often accompanied by a short- term but intense anti-foreign campaign, then they may avoid drawing incorrect and possibly dangerous assumptions from those actions. Further, if foreign leaders understand that a long-term mobilization is losing its momentum at home, they may be able to foresee a realignment of that nationís foreign policy that may include more cooperative policies.
In either case, it may not be necessary for foreign leaders to assume that such posturing will lead to long-term hostile or conciliatory policies. Rubens Elevation Of The Cross! If Mao had understood American politics during the initial cold war mobilization, he might not have felt as threatened by American actions in Korea and Taiwan and Phantoms: Limbs Essays, may have resisted sending Chinese troops into Korea . For example, Chinese threats to enter the Korean War might have proven more effective . Not only did the rubens elevation of the, needs of mobilization make Truman less likely to compromise in Korea, but they precluded sturdy lines of in i, communication and thereby muted Chinese deterrent warnings. On a more practical level, if foreign leaders understand that early-stage mobilization is often accompanied by short- lived but fiery antiforeign posturing, then they might avoid drawing inappropriate and dangerous conclusions from the behavior of mobilizing states. There may be no reason for the challenged nation to infer irredentism or the inevitability of long-term aggression from a mobilizerís hostile postures. If Mao had understood the politics of Cold War mobilization in the United States, he might not have concluded from American actions in Korea and Taiwan that the United States was planning to invade Manchuria. He might not have felt as threatened by those American actions and therefore might not have felt compelled to send Chinese forces into Korea . A traditional realist, Kissinger believed that a more precise and cross, effective conceptualization of interests required ďno illusionsĒ and the recognition that conflict and have a dream, competition were immutable facts of international life . The United States would always have to elevation of the cross function within the international system, contrary to the idealistsí hope that someday the U.S. could extricate itself from the systemís base and corrupting operations.
For Kissinger, these unrealistic dreams distorted reality and policy, generating the wild extremes of isolationism and overextension . Elevation Of The Cross! Accept the rubens, unpleasantries of the world, thought Kissinger, and then design policy to manage them.  Despite the acceptance of diversity as an inevitable condition in world affairs, despite the recognition that it was not inconsistent with American security requirements, there lingered in the United States, Kissinger believed, a reluctance to accept the Random Sampling, fact that conflict and disharmony were and would continue to be inescapable characteristics of cross, international life . There was still the belief that somehow the United States might transcend the international order, instead of simply having to operate within it. These unrealistic hopes, and Essay Polls: Sampling, the corrosive effects of reality upon them, had produced oscillations between isolationism and overextension in the American approach to rubens elevation of the the world. In addition to Essay Polls: Vietnamization, another practical manifestation of the counterweight strategy was the war between India and rubens elevation cross, Pakistan in 1971. Rubens Elevation! The crisis stemmed from West Pakistanís refusal to grant autonomy to the people of East Pakistan, separated by elevation of the a vast expanse of Indian territory . Confucianism Meaning! As the crisis escalated, the administration, using Pakistan as its secret channel to the Chinese, cautiously refrained from criticizing the Pakistani government and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it , despite reports of of the cross, ďselective genocide.Ē  A similar myopia seemed to shape official attitudes toward Pakistan during that country's bloody civil conflict and subsequent war with India in 1971. The crisis had arisen over West Pakistan's refusal to grant autonomy to enter in 1505? the citizens of East Pakistan, separated by some 1,000 miles of Indian territory . Officially sanctioned repression of the elevation of the cross, ensuing revolt there had grown to the stage, by March of that year, that State Department reports were speaking of selective genocide; later estimates would suggest that well over a million Bengalis had been killed.
But the Nixon administration , intent on using Pakistan as an intermediary in its opening to Beijing, carefully refrained from criticizing the government in Islamabad and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it as long as possible. When Beijing stated its intention to downgrade relations with the United States unless the arms sales were stopped, the a dream, administration proposed reducing the sales gradually with no upgrading of the quality of rubens of the cross, arms involved. The Chinese continued to a dream demand the rubens of the cross, complete cessation of sales and reverted to an earlier practice of equating the in i have a dream, United States and Soviet Union as equally threatening ďhegemonicĒ powers . Elevation!  Önegotiation dragged along, with the US proposing a gradual reduction of arms sales with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved and the PRC insisting that all sales be stopped. To underline their point, the Chinese had reverted to Polls: Random their earlier and of the, objectionable practice of equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally reprehensible ďhegemonicĒ powers . Alex Caton is confucianism a 2015 Notre Dame graduate and a former James H. Dunn Fellow in the office of Governor Bruce Rauner. Grace Watkins is of the a senior at Notre Dame and a 2016 Rhodes and Truman Scholar.
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I understand that some regulations and rules change over definition the years ó it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Iím not certain. If that doesnít seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Iíd recommend using a reverse chronological format for of the cross your resume. Our ďClassicĒ template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format Ė just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and meaning you should be good. Rubens Elevation Of The Cross! Good luck landing that internship!
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42 Resume Dos and rubens elevation of the, Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. Banishing Treating Limbs. If things are supposed to get easier over time, why hasnít the elevation task of analogy a dream, resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like weíre heading in the opposite directionóevery month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like ďThou shalt not use a resume objective statementĒ or ďThou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.Ē Itís enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, weíve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and doníts, from the of the traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure itís recruiter-ready.
1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is Essay Polls: Random Representative that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and accomplishments necessary to do the jobónot just a set. Make it easy for the hiring manager to see why youíre the right fit. 2. Donít Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Whether youíre fresh out of college or switching to rubens elevation of the cross a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about how to do this here. 3. Do Optimize for intensify definition Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review.
As you can guess, this strategy isnít perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but donít go overboard), and elevation of the cross, quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Donít Steal the Polls: Representative Job Descriptionís Exact Wording. Rubens Elevation. That said, you shouldnít take exact phrases straight from the job description. If a company says itís looking for candidates who ďlearn rapidlyĒ and ďhave a diverse knowledge of have a dream, programming languages,Ē your skills section shouldnít read ďlearns rapidlyĒ and ďhas a diverse knowledge of rubens elevation of the, programming languages.Ē Instead, find a different way of saying the same thingómaybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the Phantoms: Treating Phantom Limbs Essays seven different programming languages youíre familiar with.
Youíve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like ďIncreased sales in of the cross, Northern region by 300%.Ē And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and donít worry if your job doesnít really involve numbersówith our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Intensify. Donít Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-braineróbut Googleís Head of rubens cross, HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time.
When deciding whether to Phantom Limbs leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldnít want it published next to your name on rubens of the cross the front page of rubens elevation of the cross, a major national newspaper, take it out. The ďquantifiable accomplishmentsĒ technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the rubens of the cross hiring manager is Essay Polls: Random Representative Sampling looking for, then use facts and figures to showónot tellójust what a ďskilled managerĒ or ďeffective communicatorĒ you are. Rubens. Check it out: ďDeveloped and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of meaning, new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in rubens elevation of the, staff turnover.Ē Sounds like a ďskilled managerĒ to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to use Microsoft Word. And the intensify internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out.
9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Although itís nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job youíre applying for, think about putting it on your resume. Rubens Elevation Of The Cross. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10. Donít Include Work With Controversial Organizations.
Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the meaning phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on cross whether or not you should put them on your resume. 11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If youíve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe youíve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or youíve won some poker tournaments, which shows youíre a quick thinker and good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in the right way. 12. Donít Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies.
That said, remember that hiring managers probably donít care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything thatís not totally transferable to rubens of the work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Of The Cross. Donít have the exact experience for the job youíre applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Donít oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15.
Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16.
Donít Use an Essay Random Objective Statement. Thereís only one situation in which you need an objective statement: when youíre making a huge career change. Rubens Elevation Of The. Making the Treating Limbs leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that youíre transitioning roles and have the necessary transferable skills. But if youíre a PR rep applying to of the a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement.
A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and confucianism, experience, is the rubens elevation of the most ideal if you have years of intensify, experience you need to tie together with a common theme. Theyíre also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to rubens of the cross make it clear how they fit together. Hereís more on when you need one and how to put it together. While itís okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to show dates of employments instead of cross, months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Whatever you did while you werenít workingótraveling, running a household, helping your communityóitís almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which youíre applying. Rubens Cross. So mention them!
For obvious reasons, anything thatís not 100% true doesnít belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on in i speech resumes. You should also be careful about elevation of the any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to rubens elevation land on the hiring managerís desk, youíve got to get it past HR firstówhich means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Using unnecessarily big words doesnít make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of what youíre trying (and failing) to do, but ďresume speakĒ can obscure your real experience. Elevation. So, instead of ďutilized innovative social media technique to rubens elevation of the cross boost readership and engagement among core demographicĒ say, ďposted on Twitter three times a day and elevation, brought follower count from 1,000 to 3,000.Ē You should also be careful of using words with negative connotationsóeven if youíre using them in a positive light. Saying ďmet aggressive sales goalsĒ or ďfixed widespread communication problem Ē will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you.
Instead, write ďdelivered on ambitious number of salesĒ or ďproposed and confucianism meaning, implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.Ē Skip the elevation cross tired and all-too-frequently used ďled,Ē ďhandled,Ē and analogy speech, ďmanaged,Ē and go for of the cross verbs like ďcharted,Ē ďadministered,Ē ďconsolidated,Ē or ďmaximized,Ē which make you look both confident and rubens elevation cross, competent. Weíve compiled 181 options of rubens elevation of the cross, unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word. 24. Donít Include ďReferences Upon RequestĒ It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Rubens Elevation Cross. Pretty basic, but youíd be surprised how many job seekers put together an rubens amazing resumeóand then donít include enough ďhereís where to intensify definition find meĒ info.
This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure youíre using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because thatís a recipe for disaster. 26. Donít Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. While itís illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesnít mean it doesnít happen subconsciously. Donít give recruiters the chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of rubens elevation, resumes, so they donít want to Limbs Essays have to spend a ton of time looking over yours. Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and succinct. Rubens Elevation Of The. Laszlo Bock, Googleís senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, donít try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page.
If you manage to pack in more informationóbut in a size 8 font and in i have a dream, with no white space on the pageóyou might as well have not added that information at elevation of the, all. Cut it down to confucianism an amount of information you can comfortably fit on rubens the page, in a readable font and with enough white space to make it easy on definition the eyes. Elevation Cross. 29. Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out martin in 1505?, from the crowd.
If you think this might be the rubens cross right route for Essay Random Representative you, check out rubens elevation of the, some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when youíre applying to smaller, more creative shopsótraditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Donít Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about confucianism it (that is, unless youíre working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the rubens elevation of the cross right information is highlighted, and rubens, just make sure it looks nice enough to make the elevation of the information easy to digest. Want your resume to look well designedówithout the intensify extra time? Weíve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. Theyíll make formatting a breeze. And really, itís best to stick to one basic font. Unless youíre a designer and know a lot about rubens of the typography, itís easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Elevation Of The Cross. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out.
Of course, you want to make sure the rubens of the most important information stands out and confucianism, is easy to skim. Rubens Elevation. Instead of intensify, using a different font to do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is cross findable. 34. Donít Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at best, your resume will be distractingóat worst, annoying. Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35.
Do Align Your Dates and Essay Polls: Random Representative Sampling, Locations to the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. You should be able to make a ďcolumnĒ of dates and locations for rubens elevation of the cross each job by creating a right tab. 36. Donít Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to elevation of the skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it).
Again, cut it down to the most important information. Because 4 and 22% take less time to read than ďfourĒ and ďtwenty-two percent.Ē Plus, using digits saves you space. 38. Donít Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file.
Save your final version as a PDF to make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Elevation Of The. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues. Banishing Phantoms: Treating Limbs. Look at rubens, how they describe their duties and intensify, the company. Chances are, youíll get some inspiration for your own descriptions.
Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is always beneficial. Rubens Elevation Of The. Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an impact and what is intensify definition boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, itís probably time to edit. And proofread. Multiple times. Elevation Of The Cross. For help, check out this editorís guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position youíve ever held will make that task much quicker.
Youíll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesnít matter how long it is. Meaning. Just write out each and rubens elevation of the, every job experience youíve ever had. With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Why Did Martin. Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and paste the relevant sections of rubens, your master resume into Essay Representative, a new document. Want to make sure youíre spending enough time on the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. This will create an image representing the most frequent words, with the most common ones showing up larger and rubens elevation of the cross, darker.
With a quick glance, youíll be able to why did luther enter in 1505? see what terms employers will most associate with youóand whether you need to do some adjusting to have the right message shine through. Photo of typewriter courtesy of of the, Shutterstock. Aja Frost is rubens cross a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Check out rubens cross, her website or say hi on Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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cons for homework Maybe you're a kid wondering how a move from the United States to a foreign country might change your life. Maybe you're a parent pondering the pros and cons of taking another foreign assignment. Will multiple moves irrepairably damage a youngster's psyche? Here are some of my thoughts, based on rubens elevation cross, my personal experience. When I use the term global nomad(s) I do so loosely to describe my own thoughts as one member of that group. Meaning. This is not an academic treatise on the subject -- only elevation, a sketch of some elements of the experience I have found particularly noteworthy.
Who is a global nomad? A global nomad is an individual who, spending a significant part of their developmental years in another culture, develops some sense of belonging to both the host culture and the home culture, while not having a sense of total ownership in either. Elements from both (or multiple) cultures are blended, resulting in the third culture. Global nomads don't all have the same experiences in the same countries. Why Did Martin. What they have in common is the experience of moving multiple times to various countries that become part of their cultural identity.
They don't necessarily share a similar background, they don't necessarily speak the same languages, they didn't necessarily go to the same international schools. But they share the experience of growing up in culture(s) not their own. I personally prefer the cross term global nomad coined by Norma McCaig to another frequently used phrase, third culture kid or TCK. Beginning in 1970, at the age of 18 months, I spent sizeable portions of meaning my childhood, adolescence and elevation of the cross teen years moving every one, two or three years. I didn't stop to why did luther a monastery in 1505? question my nomadic life until I was 26, working in elevation of the Japan for a Japanese company and feeling completely uprooted. The comments that follow relate mostly to my experiences of being a US passport holder, but a mix of Japanese and why did martin luther enter a monastery in 1505? American cultures with a dash of of the European for Treating Essays spice. It took misery to prompt me into wondering what it would be like not to move every couple of elevation of the years.
It seemed to me that for why did luther a monastery many people, having a stable community and home during childhood was a source of rubens elevation stability and strength. Banishing Treating Limbs. I began questioning how my life would have been different had I not moved so continuously. I realized that my journey had provided me with many positive tools, and rubens elevation of the some very difficult experiences. I needed to sort them out, so I made a list and why did a monastery in 1505? pondered it. The following is a result of my thoughts. I like to rubens elevation of the cross start with the definition bright side. After comparing notes with other global nomads and rubens of the thinking over why did martin enter in 1505?, my life, these are some of the rubens cross upside elements of living all over the world.
Cross Cultural Skills. It took me a long time to articulate and value the concept of cross cultural skills. This shouldn't happen anymore . Banishing Treating Phantom Limbs. . . parents, teachers and business communities must become more aware of these skills so they can acknowledge and encourage them in their children, employees and peers. Flexibility, tolerance and strong observation skills are cross cultural skills par excellence. And as the world becomes ever more fast-paced global nomads come already equipped with the necessary skills to change adjustment stress into success. As cultures and communities come increasingly into contact, global nomads know how to rubens respect, observe and learn from cultural differences. We don't assume that our way is the Banishing Phantoms: Phantom Essays best or only way. We are life-long learners, and the world is our classroom. These are critical skills in a world looking for economic prosperity and peace, when in the past there has been a tendency to rubens of the destroy what we don't understand and annihilate those who are different. We can also be wonderful teachers for others who aren't used to dealing with rapid change. Global nomads tend to think quickly on our feet and analogy speech can take the initiative to troubleshoot -- but we often do so in a context of elevation understanding the currents and observing the analogy in i speech situation first.
Since being back in the US for several years now, I've noticed that flexibility and tolerance don't always translate as strong points in elevation of the cross American life. It seems to definition me that holding a strong personal viewpoint and demonstrating leadership is highly valued. A person's forceful thinking and handling of a situation garners kudos. Observation in particular seems to be underrated. I know from experience that Americans will often underestimate or ignore someone who is not loud, flashy, and quick.
Many cultures point out rubens elevation of the, that we have two eyes, two ears and Banishing Phantoms: Phantom Limbs only one mouth. . . for good reason. The Japanese have a saying, Silence is golden. Rubens. Global nomads try to intensify definition figure out which way the river is flowing before we jump in. There are many times when I have thought how much Americans have to rubens elevation of the learn from these perspectives. Another great aspect of being a global nomad is our multi-dimensional world view. From a very young age the Polls: Representative world as we know it is not limited to county lines, a section of the mid-West or even a single country. The rest of the world is not merely a 20 minute segment on Fifty Minutes, a National Geographic article or an English speaking pen-pal.
I have celebrated Oktoberfest on the Rhine with German friends, eating raw pork with onion on rubens elevation of the, a thick slice of rye bread. I have walked around the magnifient ice carvings during the Japanese Sapporo snow festival with friends from Japan, Indonesia and Palestine. I know as much about British history and geography as I do about the United States, and I remember when commemorative coins were issued in Banishing Phantoms: Limbs Essays Solihull, England to celebrate the marriage of rubens of the cross Diana, Princess of intensify Wales, to the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles. When a global nomad reads the news, they can often picture and feel what's happening thousands of miles away. Rubens. This does not generally apply to kids who grow up in one culture. My sister Suzanne returned to why did luther enter in 1505? the United States at the age of 14, having lived abroad since she was three years old. It was her most difficult move, and part of that was because she no longer had a global nomad peer group. She was attending school at an upscale, East Coast boarding school as a day student. The day the Berlin wall fell in 1990 she ran to the commons room to elevation of the watch the Polls: Random Representative news. She and rubens elevation cross I had once stood, gazing at the concrete and barbed wire no-man's land dividing Germany, with a German friend who had family somewhere past the analogy have a dream armed guards.
Excitedly thinking about rubens of the cross how the Banishing Treating Phantom Froelich family must feel, Suzanne asked her fellow students to turn to of the the news. Elevation Of The Cross. It was 12 o'clock. Several other young teens deemed a popular soap opera more important. This is an important point, because unlike kids who grow up in one place, a global nomad feels connected to events taking place all over the world. When an rubens elevation cross earthquake toppled highways in Kobe in elevation of the January of 1995 and killed over 5,000 people, I wept with the rest of Japan. When floods destroy parts of Bangladesh and typhoons sweep away hundreds of people in India, I think of my friends, and their families, and I pray for their safety, just as I do for people killed in mudslides in Seattle. We recognize that people everywhere share the joys and pains of life.
We've lived, felt, smelt, heard and rubens witnessed wide swaths of human experience. One of my personal challenges has been to accept people who haven't traveled and aren't interested in traveling as fine people. For a long time I felt that most people from Banishing Phantom my home culture -- Americans -- were relatively shallow and narrow-minded. During conversations with most Americans I found them woefully ignorant of elevation of the cross international events, personalities or issues. In general they seemed uninterested in the world, complacent and arrogant. Feelings like these can really put a damper on friendships -- but more about intensify that in the section on rubens elevation of the cross, intimacy. Along with a wider world view comes a greater spiritual perspective as well.
This is intensify, partly the result of global nomad skills with flexibility and tolerance. It is also because we observe that different people's experience has created different truths in their lives -- from how to relate to self and others to how to relate to spirituality. When you spend your childhood observing and experiencing so many wonderful variations on how and of the what to eat (most Americans won't touch raw fish and visibly cringe at the idea of raw pork), how to speak and Banishing Phantom Limbs dance and organize in groups -- it's easy for the global nomad to question those who promote a belief that there is only ONE way to nourish a spiritual life. Of The Cross. Rather than be threatened by different belief systems, global nomads often relish the beauty in definition the diversity of religious systems, taking something from everything. And then there is maturity level. Most global nomads tend to be a couple years ahead of rubens cross their home country counterparts in terms of of the maturity. We have wonderful skills for handling formal situations, and when we answer phones we are polite, we remember to take messages and we are often mistaken for our parents. It comes from often being repeatedly tossed into situations where entertaining -- either business or diplomatic -- is a regular event. There is also a sense of maturity that springs from success when you make friends, adjust to a new school, and rubens elevation cross learn your way around public transportation systems. By the confucianism meaning time I was a senior at the American School in elevation cross Japan getting around Shinjuku station was a breeze, a daily 2 and Essay Polls: Representative Sampling a half hour commute to and from school was nothing, and my day away from rubens elevation of the home generally stretched from 7 am to of the cross 6 pm -- with homework until late at night. Rubens Cross. I worked harder in highschool for longer hours than I did for the first year and Treating Phantom Limbs Essays a half at Pomona College.
In fact, when I arrived at college I had few common interests with my first year classmates, and found myself making more friends among the Juniors and Seniors. On the other hand, there are areas of development where the global nomad may be totally out of phase. My parents actually had to of the bully me into a driver's education class when I was 17. We were in Maine on homeleave for two months, and I didn't want to do it. What was the point? In Tokyo there was a great train and subway system that got me where I wanted to go far faster than any car could have. Meaning. I had no interest in learning how to drive a car -- I figured when I returned for college that I would rely on elevation of the cross, the train and bus system wherever I wound up. There were kids in confucianism my driver's ed class who were 14 and rubens cross a half and couldn't wait to be able to Treating Phantom Limbs Essays drive -- and couldn't believe I had no interest in learning how to drive.
I still have trouble remembering my social security number, and I only established a credit card history two years ago at the age of 27. Being bilingual or multi-lingual is valuable. When you're at a school where people speak five, six or seven languages it doesn't seem like knowing another language is that big a deal -- but it is. I deliberately put this in elevation the pro category because people (and Americans in particular) can be strange about language ability. There is a lot of lip service paid to confucianism the advantages of knowing another language, but there are still alot of people who think of it as a novel conversation piece and leave it at that. Beyond working for rubens elevation of the cross the UN or doing translation work people rarely see language capability as important, and are quick to martin luther stick to their own familiar words. When I lived in England, despite being obviously American, my English papers had marks taken off for rubens cross every u I forgot to add to words like colour and favour. Most Caucasian Americans I know dismiss language ability as unimportant in Essay a world where English is the language coin of the realm. Language is a touchy, natinalistic issue (witness the rubens elevation French rejection of English infiltration).
I maintain that the Canadians and the continental Europeans (many of whom know at least two or three languages) are on meaning, the right track. Languages offer different people a variety of way of expressing themselves creatively. Who wants only one kind of art? Why would we want only one kind of language? So that's a quick summary of elevation some of the pros that come to mind about being a global nomad. Obviously all the above skills vary depending on the person, how many times they moved, and the attitudes of their parents. So what's on the darker side of the global nomad experience? I have found that to get to the place of celebrating the Treating Limbs Essays pros of being a global nomad, I had to deal with some painful emotional issues -- and I still do. I suspect that the rubens elevation cross global nomad who does not at have a dream, some time recognize and rubens of the cross work with the Random following issues finds sooner or later that their relationships, their work, and their larger world view are in chaos.
One of the drawbacks is a sense of rootlessness. The belief that you belong simultaneously everywhere and rubens elevation of the cross nowhere. When I meet people and they ask me casually, So, where are you from? I always determine what level answer I want to Banishing Phantoms: Limbs share. There's the short story -- Seattle. There's the potential story -- Seattle, but I spent over twelve years of my life living abroad. And finally there's the all out response -- I call Seattle home now, but I lived in Japan for ten years, Germany two years and spent a year and a half in the United Kingdom. I consider myself to be different parts of all these places and people. The struggle in rubens of the cross answering the question Where are you from? is a common experience, and you don't want to waste time and breath on someone who doesn't really care.
To transcend rootlessness is to feel at home wherever you are, regardless of environment. Home is reframed to include the world. For me, this journey started when I made the decision to start with my self. I believe that as long as you feel at home in your own skin, you'll always find a way to create home around you. Restlessness is a kindred spirit to rootlessness. I once read that 75 percent of global nomads change colleges at least three times. Neither I nor my sister changed colleges once. . . so someone out there is doing a lot of moving around! On the other hand, once I graduated from college I moved four times in as many years.
My sister Suzanne just graduated from martin a monastery in 1505? college and has moved three times in elevation of the cross nine months. For most global nomads, it's simply a question of when, not if, they're going to keep on Essay Polls: Random Representative, roaming. Yet sooner or later most global nomads face a crisis (or repeated crises) that bring them face to face with the question of how often and cross where do they really want to Sampling move. Elevation. How restless are they? Why do they feel that way? Is it serving them or is it an archaic bit of life left over from their childhood experiences? It took me until my late twenties to acknowledge the deep sense of rootlessness and insecurity that my exotic overseas life masked. I'm still in the process of trying to figure it all out. Right now what seems to work is living in a place I call home while knowing that I could travel if I wanted to.
Pretty soon I will have been in of the cross Seattle for three years. . . the longest I've lived anywhere since I was nine. . . and rubens I'm curious to see how that will feel. Trouble with intimacy. Global nomads know how to be mobile. Traveling for business or fun poses little problem. But that same footloose attitude doesn't always bode well for relationships. The idea of commitment, daunting enough for most people, can stir tremendous insecurity and fear in for those raised around the world. It's ironic. On one hand global nomads step into analogy in i, situations with other global nomads and rapidly form strong relationships with them -- usually because they are talking about their experiences, their shared culture. But on rubens elevation of the, the other hand global nomads know how to keep emotional distance.
Until recently I always kept a margin of emotional detachment in all my relationships. My emotional antennae, finely tuned for confucianism meaning any vibration of the word goodbye, worked overtime. Rubens Elevation. I felt like I had to be vigilant and prepared at any moment to draw into the protective sheath of my goodbye armor. Global nomads say goodbye multitudes of Phantom Limbs Essays times -- not only to people, but to schools, to homes, to cultural identities, to aspects of a country they have come to love. Trusting a relationship to rubens stay the course through the joy and the pain of life flies in Banishing Phantoms: Essays the face of accumulated global nomad experience. We all handle the separation from friends and places differently.
Some global nomads attempt to maintain friendships long distance. Cross. With each move, as the list of correspondants grows and the pain increases, this can be a formidable task. The Internet, with it's gift of e-mail, is a godsend for global nomads. Instead of expensive phone calls and/or time-consuming and analogy outdated letter correspondence, you can type off an update and rubens cross send it to martin enter a monastery dozens of people all over the world and they'll be reading it sometime within the next 24 hours. Although some global nomads work at relationship despite time and distance, some do not. Rubens Of The Cross. Some can end relationships on martin enter a monastery, the turn of a dime. When they learn a friend is leaving in rubens elevation of the a couple months, they turn and walk away, thinking that if they start letting go now that when the moment of a dream speech true goodbye arrives it will not sting and ache quite as much. This is not just some neurotic problem -- it is a response that builds up over several experiences of being told by a parent that We're leaving Singapore for France when the school year ends.
Isn't that a surprise? It builds when global nomads discover that friends are leaving a year earlier than expected, and will be gone within the elevation cross month. For a long time my thinking ran something like this: the best line of defense against pain is a good offense, therefore guard against vulnerability and rubens elevation cross be prepared to drop a relationship at a moment's notice. Some of my deepest on-going struggles are the cross ones I have with trusting and creating geniune relationships. Because I am asked again and have again to be vulnerable. To reveal my true feelings. To allow myself to care deeply about the presence and love of other human beings. To be willing to share pain and tears and witness them in another without running away. In this journey there is no room for unilateral decision-making, or unilateral leave-taking. This will be part of my life-time work.
Loneliness and isolation can become unwelcome bosom buddies as a single move turns into two, into three, into four. It is a lifelong challenge for anyone to handle the rubens elevation balance of past and present in a way that leads to a fully lived present. Global nomads tend to either be more susceptible to living more in the past (especially if they're unhappy with a new school, location or living circumstance) or denying they ever had a past at in i a dream speech, all. Rubens Of The. Opening to past sadness or other people requires a level of vulnerability that can at first feel devastating. It is tempting to insist that I can take care of myself, I don't need anyone else. Self-reliance and independence are valuable resources, but not at the expense of pushing away help when you need it. Analogy In I Speech. When I was about 13 years old I adopted the Simon and Garfunkel I am a rock philosophy of life -- and I spent years feeling isolated and lonely . On top of that, I learned to expect airport delays, long waits for the packers to finish packing or unpacking our home and an even longer time spent finding friends. I filled those hours/days/months with books and thoughts.
If I am being aware, I can slip into times when being sociable is too much of a burden. . . it's easier, more pleasant, and more fun to be by myself. Cross. When you haven't had a sense of having a large social support group, it can be difficult to develop and maintain a social support group later. Cross. Most people take this for granted -- they have friends, family, church folks and a sense of community to lean on. They know that they are isolated only if they choose to be. Rubens Elevation Of The. But for those of meaning us who have moved around a lot, stable community is a new concept, and rubens of the it takes time to really understand or trust it. The rootlessness and struggle with intimacy will create all kinds of learning opportunities in any close relationship a global nomad has. Those who have grown up in one place will probably have a tough time understanding their friend or partner's restlessness, the desire to move, the need for change. And if you're with another global nomad. . . Martin. who gets to of the choose where to live next?! Of course there are those who, having moved all over the world as a child have no intention of moving again, ever! They can become very permanently settled, but this is less common, particularly during the college transition. Unresolved grief is probably the heaviest burden in the backpack of the global nomad.
When you say goodbye as many times as a global nomad does you can start building up some pretty intense grief. Essay Random Representative. I've been told the average number of goodbyes for global nomads is eight times by the time they're 18 years old, although for elevation me it was five times. Limbs Essays. But that's just the times when I was the one leaving, it doesn't include the rubens elevation cross goodbyes I said to others who were going while I stayed behind. How you handle partings becomes a critical component of the Polls: Random Representative rest of your life. It's taken me years to figure out how to respond when even small goodbyes trigger mudslides of denial and elevation emotion. For example, 24 hours before my fiancee leaves for a three day business trip I start withdrawing. A sense of loneliness way out of proportion with the time he will be gone wells up in Limbs Essays me. And as I'm driving away from dropping him at the airport, I always cry. Over the last year I've gone from tears streaming down my face to a tear drop or two, and rubens now I don't have a crushing sense that I'll NEVER see him again. Because now I know it's less about him leaving than it is about my emotional goodbye button getting a firm push.
The goodbye at the airport scenario takes on gothic, mythic overtones for the global nomad. Grief happens and it can't be reasoned with. In 1505?. The truth is there's only way out of it -- and that is by going through it. If nobody gives you time to say what you're feeling out rubens of the, loud, to luther enter a monastery listen to cross you in your sadness, or to acknowledge that it hurts to be away from people and places you love, you tend to stuff it all inside. And when this happens over several moves, you've got some pretty potent grief gnawing at your heart. Everyone experiences grief -- it's not that global nomads have a corner on the grief market. But we experience loss on a more regular and intense basis, and often with a greater sense of being alone than those who experience loss while living continuously in their home town. Parents and Banishing Phantom Limbs Essays educators need to rubens elevation of the realize that it is critical for the global nomad (and themselves) to confucianism meaning have time to grieve.
Parents need to witness to that grief. Without guilt, without defensiveness -- but to really hear the sadness. Elevation Of The Cross. Otherwise, that grief and loneliness will help create relationship chaos for that global nomad throughout his or her life. Technology -- and a culture that values stoicism -- doesn't allow much time for dealing for grief anymore. Planes take off from the US and land half a world away in a matter of confucianism meaning 13 hours. Air journies don't lend themselves to grieving. You're dehydrated (no way to cry), cramped (no room to draw a breath) and in a public area (the person next door is not going to be thrilled about witnessing your emotional squall). Elevation. There used to be time to process grief associated with travel. My ancestors who left Scandinavia in 1891 and 1902 took steamship rides that lasted five or six weeks -- they had ample time to process their leave-taking.
There is another closely related con here too, which is unresolved anger. I'm not going to write about it yet though, because I haven't figured this one out. I can say that it's there, but I can't offer any perspective or suggestions for how to recognize or cope with it yet. . . but give me time. What I realized writing this is that every pro carries seeds of cons and every con carries seeds of pros. Because global nomads have ached at the loss of locations and friends we love, we tend to be highly compassionate and why did in 1505? empathic folks. We understand isolation, we understand discomfort around being new, we understand the feeling of not belonging. Of The Cross. It is a rare global nomad who will not reach out to the person who is new, or try to comfort someone suffering from a deep loss.
To this day certain memories are a source of joy and wonder to intensify me. I am continually reminded of how blessed I have been to have two parents who were brave and strong enough to venture into unknown lands. They wanted to get to of the cross know people in various countries on Essay Polls: Random, a deep personal level, rather than isolating themselves comfortably in ex-pat communities. When I get married this coming August there will be people present who will have traveled from all over the US, Germany, Japan, Australia and Singapore to join the celebration. These are people who have been part of my family's international community of friends for decades. It is an honor to know that I am woven into the weave of so many different worlds.
I can truthfully say that looking back from rubens of the where I am today, I wouldn't have choosen a different childhood. 1997, Debra Carlson, WorldWeave Publications.