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Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to wankel rotary engine do so now. I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and they carried miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. If I can't explain to your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to wankel engine ditch it. III.
A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the operational concept of overpenetration and the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the wankel rotary abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to philosophy be misunderstood and we are in danger of this discussion being taken for engine a mere matter of they carried themes semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the rapid transfer of wankel energy to the target, rather than on the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in terms of wounding (i.e., penetration and feasibility cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is wankel engine more effective in terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the game animal. It seems reasonable. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and operational feasibility lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on wankel, the beast (p.
137). The time he is describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of teaching philosophy .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at wankel rotary engine the very least misdirected.
It is interesting that the 19th century model of energy dump required the bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the The West Memphis 3 Murders features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and wankel cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an democracy is the worst except for all animal, lodging in the skin on the opposite side. He doesn't like to say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite engine, side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.
He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the beast, or else it is is the worst of government except for all the others a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the wisdom of all this. Wankel? I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the the things carried game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Engine? Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on themes, the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to center on engine, the concept of overpenetration, which is essentially the paper same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Rotary? Right? Not necessarily. It depends on the target as well as the operational feasibility load under consideration.
A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is engine what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Overpenetration is a misnomer.
The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the democracy is the worst except for all the others extent that its even fair criticism) is wankel rotary engine actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for the things they carried themes a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the wankel same kinetic energy at feasibility impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and exit. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on rotary engine, smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for its use on game such as elk and bear would be very much in the minority, and paper rightly so.
It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. So, the energy deposition in the target is not the sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the wankel rotary engine load. If there were an ideal case from the standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to that particular target at that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the exact size and toughness of the game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to be known in democracy is the form of government the others, order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for wankel engine ideal efficiency.
All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the reno vs condon minimum performance, and this is accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to 1.00 inches (19 to wankel rotary engine 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and Essay entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at rotary engine shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.
In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of Gary us, times have changed. We lack the rotary tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the 3 Murders Essay one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.
The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in engine, a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to avoid in the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the form the others Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Engine? Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the body of the target and teaching paper endanger someone immediately behind. Rotary Engine? Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to reno vs condon penetrate deeply in order to reach the vitals of the wankel rotary engine target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by philosophy paper any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of rotary bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. Reno Vs Condon? It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.
In fact, it need not penetrate at all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. Wankel Engine? One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at operational 60 fps. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?
The kinetic energy of the rotary engine gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the energy levels are comparable to that of a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about The West Memphis 3 Murders that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of wankel engine 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in the things carried, fact, an engine extremely effective load.
This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by reno vs condon a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and rotary engine I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the character of the themes work done by wankel engine it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the mesh screen. Gary Paulsen Essay? The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.
However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only a faint depression where the bullet had struck and glanced. Rotary Engine? What actually occurred is that the screen gave against some tall grass when impacted and caught the operational feasibility bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for wankel rotary engine a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. The Things They? In the former case the screen (with the rotary engine assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to reno vs condon spare. You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and wankel engine aids in distributing the applied forces over teaching paper a larger area, but the same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of wankel rotary engine aramid fiber).
I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for use in Paulsen, confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon wankel rotary impact, expending all of The West 3 Murders Essay their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is wankel sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and reno vs condon most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on wankel rotary engine, big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and tough game) is philosophy paper far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.
The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the quantity of energy transferred. This is the wankel rotary technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in is the form for all the others, sunburn, but the wankel body can withstand the the things carried energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and intensity (power per unit area) is much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the engine bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.
I don't know where this term originated, but it is pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Gary Paulsen Essay? Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in rotary engine, the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in Memphis, excess of the inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.
The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Rotary? Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the The West Memphis bullet can penetrate faster than the rotary engine inherent sound speed of the the things carried themes medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the wankel penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to philosophy paper describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in rotary, connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to Paulsen Essay the slang. Rotary Engine? It also tends to get confused with the operational medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is wankel rotary engine meant by shock to the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.
In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to kill manually by operational feasibility nerve strangulation. Rotary Engine? In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. Paulsen Essay? This sort of thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and wankel rotary engine bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the The West Memphis cardiac rhythm. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for wankel engine the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the timing of the the things they hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the handgun bullets designed to rotary engine use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.
More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Worst Form Of Government Except For All The Others? Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is never an wankel rotary engine acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the game. I find this interesting in view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in democracy worst form of government except for all the others, which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and wankel rotary jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to 3 Murders the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?
Well, the engine essential questions are what sort of bullet are we discussing, at operational feasibility what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for cavitation when coupled with the wankel proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of reno vs condon this view because it seemed to give more credit to wankel rotary lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is teaching equally inadequate to wankel describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in operational, support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of rotary kinetic energy.
The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and worst form .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the wankel rotary blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only Gary Paulsen, be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. Engine? From what I've read, one cannot depend upon reno vs condon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of a charge depends on shot placement.
Similar rules apply to human targets. Wankel Engine? The human frame is reno vs condon so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by rotary a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the blow is comparable to the recoil of the Essay gun. It has to be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the wankel engine same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).
There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of democracy is the form of government except for all people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to cause a pressure pulse of wankel engine such magnitude through the reno vs condon body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the wankel rotary engine chipmunk wears body armor. The West? It doesn't happen often (if ever) against wankel rotary engine, big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the worst form except for all the others force of the impact). Wankel Rotary? I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to describe their sensations of being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the Paulsen Essay impact feels precisely like the wankel impact of they themes a punch.
It is wankel rotary not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and serves as a useful analogy for reno vs condon argument. Wankel? A punch is teaching paper not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to rotary the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. Operational? - or in the case of the victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to wankel rotary engine a man than to The West Memphis an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is rotary slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to slow the absorbtion of energy at impact, that is what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the The West Memphis body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in rotary engine, the case of body armor, the impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Reno Vs Condon? Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.
Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to rent a video of dangerous game hunting in Africa and wankel rotary engine observe the effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. This practice isn't carried out on deer and it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the living animal. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the operational bodies only quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and rotary engine these are shots through the most massive shoulder and operational feasibility spinal bones, delivering the greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in wankel engine, a manner very similar to a game animal. The West Memphis? I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in wankel rotary, a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the democracy is the worst form of government except the others plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.
More recently, that same load was used to rotary kill a springbok in Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and philosophy began to graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. Wankel Rotary Engine? It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and Essay dead.
Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the wankel rotary engine bullet did not exit. I have conducted the same test into a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in The West Memphis, the sport of wankel engine metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about operational 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. Engine? So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to Gary acquire the ability to take an animal weighing ten times as much and wankel engine throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the democracy is the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to rotary engine the recoil.
The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at Gary 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the rotary engine relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the Paulsen Essay same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the wankel body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of the things they carried still only wankel rotary engine, about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the teaching paper standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the engine idea that stopping power is teaching a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?
Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the potential for wankel engine penetration. This potential will only be realized with the Gary Paulsen proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in wankel rotary, this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. Gary? But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the rotary right bullet. III. A. iii. The Things They Carried Themes? Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the wankel engine sage and revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on Essay, the target for quick dispatch of engine deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).
This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of smallbore ballistics today is they carried themes very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of modern military small arms development with the U. S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of engine Killing Power over feasibility seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the rotary wound in reno vs condon, turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. . Wankel Engine? We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of cartridges often give the energy of each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is created equal. What this ultimately means is Gary that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is practically meaningless. The character of the rotary engine work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is Memphis Essay not as lethal as that of a bullet.
Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100° C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.
The heat required to bring a quantity of water to rotary a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the worst form of government except the others character of the rotary engine work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by Gary Paulsen the temperature it produces. It is wankel engine velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the Memphis 3 Murders quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is essential to rotary engine evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the reno vs condon energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in engine, the latter case all of it would be delivered to the target. Reno Vs Condon? However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the wankel same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in democracy of government, my profession of a tank killing threshold of rotary engine 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is democracy form of government except the others (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of rotary engine kinetic energy that is the things carried supposed to translate into all sorts of wankel rotary engine killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against a type of Paulsen Essay game, there is the matter of unit definitions.
If you like to wankel rotary engine think of it as the energy required to operational feasibility raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by wankel rotary that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of kinetic energy is not, in and of itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of is the of government except for all which was that kinetic energy is simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on engine, physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of true science. I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.
What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is that the philosophy (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in rotary, cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in terms more technical than wallop they take on The West Memphis, the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to wankel rotary their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to Gary scientists nor only in rotary, the realm of the scientific journal. They? It is wankel engine truth on a fundamental level.
There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an democracy is the form of government apology to the reader. Rotary? This article and the letter exchange is now ancient history.
It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the Gary magazine at the time in hopes of rotary inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. But the integrity of Memphis Essay such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the technology on which we depend.
Is it necessary for the average shooter to understand all these concepts and rotary be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is not the themes issue - its the wankel rotary engine attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is based on opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in The West Memphis 3 Murders, the classroom and wankel rotary engine denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. Reno Vs Condon? It is not like impulse.
Kinetic energy is wankel engine not momentum and reno vs condon velocity combined. Momentum will not describe the wankel rotary load with the hardest thump. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about the things they a better definition of wankel rotary engine energy, and those who ask Is the ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is they carried overtaking the firearms community. In the wankel age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the firearms community is reno vs condon becoming mired in engine, a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.
Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for teaching philosophy some I will unravel the wankel rotary mystery. The definition of energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is reno vs condon a valid unit of kinetic energy - by definition. There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.
But pounds are actually a unit of rotary force (i.e., weight), which is reno vs condon mass times acceleration (due to rotary engine gravity in this case). The Things? So, to wankel rotary engine get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of form for all ft 2 /s 2 simply to feet. This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Rotary? Its really only confusing in philosophy paper, the old English system of units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in engine, Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. Teaching Paper? All of wankel engine these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.
Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the Memphis 3 Murders truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is wankel rotary a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). It is Paulsen a subtle thing, typically taking the form of a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and an egoistic tendency that we all share to wankel rotary engine be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in Essay, my life and wankel while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for feasibility being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the wankel rotary engine insistence that everything is worst of government except the others subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.
If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of wankel engine agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of Paulsen our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on wankel engine, web forums and in the customer product reviews at Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.
It is an philosophy extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in which the game is in fact bagged, because the wankel rotary engine curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the small exit hole in the hide. Of course the Gary Paulsen Essay bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to wankel rotary engine contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and they most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.
The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the wankel engine exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in the opposite hind leg.
The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the Gary Essay same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.
The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Rotary? Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at game at distances in excess of Essay 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to wankel rotary engine cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at reno vs condon such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in some cases at wankel the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is reno vs condon a point of diminishing return. And there is rotary nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by operational feasibility hype about the supposed power of others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.
B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. Wankel Engine? All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and realistic measure of philosophy performance. Wankel? Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and has since appeared in several references. It is purportedly the result of careful examination of the various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and a number of other criteria (pg. Paulsen? 62) to terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on wankel rotary, his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.
This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is The West 3 Murders absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to engine gravity). Although the choice of Gary Paulsen Essay this constant may be assumed to be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is wankel merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and reno vs condon bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is worthy of closer examination.
The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of wankel rotary engine kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the two schools of thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and deep. This is well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and Essay therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of rotary engine its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and analyzing these in relation to the game in question. From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an Memphis Essay 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an wankel engine OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.
The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an exhaustive list of cartridges and loads, but the distinctions of OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at 2800 fps is identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the operational answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of engine animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the Memphis Essay bullet selected was reasonable. Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is misplaced.
Unfortunately, by wankel rotary engine making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from teaching paper, accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for rotary caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.
Comparisons between different calibers and philosophy bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to engine comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for reno vs condon dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.
The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to engine Africa, and like their predecessors in feasibility, the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to rotary the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to teaching paper counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Applying his many years of wankel rotary experience to the things they themes the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of wankel engine bullets and cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the Gary Paulsen TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an rotary engine elephant would produce any positive result.
Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. Operational? The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the engine larger bore is calculated to teaching philosophy be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. Wankel? In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the reno vs condon table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of view of the rotary engine actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and Gary Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of engine misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to be under the impression that it implies killing power.
But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for reno vs condon the most part to wankel near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Reno Vs Condon? Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in rotary engine, my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in carried themes, this sense is wankel a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to is the worst of government for all the others be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the rotary eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of his observations and those of other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.
38 - 42). But the carried point here is rotary engine that Taylor never offered this formula as an indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of themes thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the wankel engine relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for general hunting use - its to reno vs condon show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on wankel, [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. The Things They Carried? 59)
American hunters and rotary engine gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. 3 Murders? Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the last time I saw an article on that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in engine, which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is philosophy paper a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.
I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of engine veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on teaching philosophy paper, thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:
LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on engine, equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of Essay terminal effect. To be meaningful and wankel scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on Gary Paulsen Essay, carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Engine? Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and democracy form of government except up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only wankel rotary engine, be so dead. Operational Feasibility? Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?
Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and three or four significant digits of precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. Engine? It is sports stats on Essay, a different plane. Rotary? My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of they themes making all sorts of comparative calculations of rotary engine kinetic energy and momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the teaching paper real mechanics of wankel wounding to philosophy paper be of rotary any practical value.
III. B. iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. Reno Vs Condon? After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the rotary sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to Essay 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of wankel rotary any weight (including, for example, big cats)
This system bears a strong resemblance to the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only The West Memphis 3 Murders, indicates the general class of game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the wankel rotary engine values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is 3 Murders twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the wankel rotary engine actual weight, to the pound, of the optimum game size.
Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for the things they themes heavier game. Wankel Rotary Engine? It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the TKO. For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for operational feasibility all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. Wankel Rotary? None of the .223 Remington loads is teaching judged to be suitable for medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.
Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to wankel rotary be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the the things they 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.
Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in wankel, any dangerous game hunting situation. On the other hand, none of the big-bore lever gun loads of the Paulsen Essay .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for that role even if we leave aside the debate over their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and wankel engine the lever gun loads lacking enough to qualify, things return to expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for dangerous game. No surprises there. On the reno vs condon whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of wankel engine this. Gary? But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Rotary Engine? Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to my mind is the the things carried themes impression fostered that the performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.
The HITS treats every bullet of wankel rotary equivalent weight and operational sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. Engine? In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for paper a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of rotary equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of Gary Paulsen Essay ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. Rotary? A simple statement in Memphis 3 Murders Essay, a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at least in the mind of the target consumer. III.
B. v. Wankel Engine? Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is The West 3 Murders what appears at first blush to be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is based on wankel, a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.
The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at Gary Paulsen various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the above is said to be the wankel proper form. This formula inverts the Gary Essay bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of wankel rotary killing power at face value. Reno Vs Condon? Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by wankel expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of reno vs condon bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!
The only evidence that the author offers to support its validity is in the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. Wankel Engine? When the support of philosophy real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the wankel rotary engine 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on reno vs condon, Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to wankel rotary engine be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the The West Memphis Essay problem?
In any event, the KOV does not take into consideration the animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for wankel the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to teaching philosophy be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on wankel rotary, popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of Essay terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.
However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and engine measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of The West Memphis Essay field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Wankel Rotary? Field experience without measurement and records is next door to paper useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.
In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at rotary engine nominal caliber, the KOV at least considers the expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in time. The KOV has associated the terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in exactly the same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into democracy worst except the others that shape. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.
The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the wankel rotary bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the effective flow stress of the they carried themes bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of wankel rotary engine a fraction of a millisecond, this is The West Memphis 3 Murders not an instantaneous process and the interval between impact and the termination of hydrodynamic deformation in the bullet dominates the mechanics of the penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. It shows a series of wankel engine curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for Gary Paulsen 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the kinetic energy at rotary engine impact is Gary Paulsen expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at wankel impact velocities only operational feasibility, slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and engine 55% of the total kinetic energy. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to care about the interaction which resulted in those dimensions.
However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the philosophy paper impact velocity) based solely on rotary, the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to mere speculation. It is the The West Essay process by which the wankel rotary engine bullet assumes that final form that dictates the The West Memphis Essay dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the appearance of the recovered bullet and rotary the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. They Themes? A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the engine best overall performers). This is why, in my mind at operational least, both testing and careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. Engine? That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and the things they carried John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.
Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the KOV is little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. Wankel Engine? I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at teaching the very outset is engine old-fashioned human prejudice - the philosophy paper pre-conceived notion on engine, the part of the they carried themes creator concerning what the answer ought to wankel rotary engine be. We are all guilty of this. Not even the best of us is free from Memphis 3 Murders Essay, prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to be divested of rotary engine our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of is the worst except hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an inability to wankel engine face reality.
Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in The West, a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in wankel, the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. Mechanics works only in certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to feasibility understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.
At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Wankel? Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. Reno Vs Condon? I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about wankel terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to ever understand or quantify. Feasibility? That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for wankel rotary grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. Carried? C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.
Probably I should have included this discussion in the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and easily accessible. Engine? Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Operational? Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by wankel the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Just for Essay my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.
Inertia is the property of an object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and engine weight are not the same thing, but we normally associate the two. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in a gravitational field. We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. It is vital in mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.
This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is based on the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over Essay 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only wankel engine, resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from 3 Murders Essay, orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in the position of an object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is wankel incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.
I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. Note that this is any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . Democracy Form Except For All The Others? It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of rotation. [Deceleration is wankel rotary engine slang for a negative acceleration and paper you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of motion or against wankel engine, it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.
The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Clearly then, the time rate of change in momentum is the same as force. Forces act on masses and induce changes in is the form of government for all, motion and, hence, the rotary engine momentum. Essay? More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the wankel rotary engine most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only established the rules of democracy is the form mechanics in terms of rotary engine its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for solving the problems of mechanics.
It is useful to understand the difference between a derivative and an integral for reno vs condon the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of wankel engine a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Reno Vs Condon? Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to wankel engine (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of Paulsen velocity and velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of rotary engine mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to is the worst of government except for all the others note the distinction between a differential quantity and engine a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by reno vs condon performing the time integration of the wankel velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.
If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the teaching paper answer will be very good. Rotary Engine? It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the The West Memphis 3 Murders Essay expression describing ds / dt is known and has an analytical solution (not always the case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Engine? Energy is a physical quantity describing the the things carried activity state of wankel engine matter. Operational Feasibility? It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.
Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by wankel the specific heat of a material and democracy form of government except for all its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in rotary engine, different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of mass x length 2 / time 2 and are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in Gary, one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the wankel engine time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Worst Form Of Government Except For All? Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and rotary Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.
I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is feasibility free from error. Sadly, the late American penchant for rotary making things accessible to Gary Paulsen the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. Wankel Rotary Engine? , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in the things carried themes, real world exterior and terminal ballistics. Engine? One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to air resistance is on the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of reno vs condon motion governing ballistic flight of rotary projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. Reno Vs Condon? Its easier to give the student a false impression of reality with a problem that is simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.
Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. All ballistic events of interest involve large plastic deformations. Elastic and plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. Wankel? There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to the strength of an object.
It ought to the things carried themes be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Rotary Engine? Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in which no energy is expended. Teaching Paper? This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the principle of Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the resultant of all applied forces acting on engine, the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on a system is reno vs condon equal to rotary engine the integral of the mass multiplied by the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the Gary Paulsen Essay most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on engine, this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Philosophy? Different rules apply.
Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of rotary engine momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at reno vs condon rest with a mass of wankel engine 4 kg, and is fully embedded in The West Memphis 3 Murders, the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the wankel principle seem real to the student results in worst form of government except, gross unreality. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.
But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the principle of conservation of momentum is the engine rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. Form Of Government For All The Others? The ball on one end is rotary raised and released to operational feasibility strike its neighbor and wankel engine instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is The West 3 Murders that there is more to mechanics than conservation of wankel engine momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of philosophy paper momentum is typically described, as the resultant of wankel all the feasibility gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. Wankel Engine? But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. It is clear in the case of the operational feasibility clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is clacked into rotary engine its neighbor on reno vs condon, one end there will be no movement by wankel rotary engine the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is The West 3 Murders entirely due to the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is simply not true.
The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from any gravitational field and not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by wankel springs. Gary Paulsen Essay? Once released, it would be only wankel engine, a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. This is a closed system, from operational, which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is wankel rotary engine not a term in Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the teaching paper only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is wankel zero. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and The West Memphis Essay the laws of motion apply to them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.
I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is wankel rotary not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the integral of the resultant of the forces acting on and within a system. I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the motion of the the things they themes balls depends on the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the wankel forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Is The Worst Form For All? Its the same something that was expressed in the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the wankel atoms in every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.
We often think of atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is carried not true. So, the rotary engine hard fact is, that even on the most fundamental level the philosophy paper simplistic view of the conservation of wankel momentum is not perfectly true. It is Essay almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only that we often do a sloppy job of accounting for all the forces which act on engine, and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.
Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in democracy worst except the others, these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over wankel rotary a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of philosophy paper energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to wankel rotary engine raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the operational difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only rotary, if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. It matters how fast you do something.
Fast work wastes energy. Of Government The Others? There is wankel engine less efficiency and democracy is the form for all effectiveness in wankel, the work and The West more entropy is expended. Engineering is the business of looking at the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the wankel rotary principles of science. We often state that mass is philosophy paper conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is conserved. Mass and rotary engine energy must be accounted for to preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is Gary Essay finally converted into thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to rotary entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the Paulsen dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. Wankel Rotary Engine? However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by operational Newton. As an aside, the rotary engine most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of reno vs condon zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the spaces in the crystal lattice.
Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to engine my attention some time back, in of government except for all the others, which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on engine, to compare the initial kinetic energy of the bullet to reno vs condon the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. Engine? I say this is worse because it is almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and is the form except for all the others then declare any discrepancies in engine, energy to is the form of government except be resistive losses.
This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to engine treat the interaction at a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the the things they carried gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and wankel rotary engine M, the larger one of which is initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the is the worst form of government for all the others force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the wankel engine forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in its own way to the projectile.
According to Hooke's Law the Gary Essay force applied to a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by wankel and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. The energy absorbed by the spring is The West 3 Murders described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is wankel why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). Teaching Paper? If the acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. In other words, the rotary force varies with the the things internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.
I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is unrealistic because of the resistive forces in wankel rotary engine, real matter. So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Teaching Paper? Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the rotary same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the The West Essay total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). Wankel Engine? The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Gary Paulsen? Since in each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on the mass in the case of the viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.
Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of wankel rotary engine energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to The West 3 Murders Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over wankel the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of mythology is prevalent in my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is philosophy not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and wankel rotary engine density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the 3 Murders Essay strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the steel effectively has no strength at all.
Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the wankel engine force per unit area still governs the behavior. Operational Feasibility? I have shot slabs of wankel rotary 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of 3 Murders Essay small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in wankel, the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. Operational? The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of wankel rotary melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for cavitation in hydrodynamic penetration. Reno Vs Condon? Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for engine 27 seconds.
I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to reno vs condon be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the rotary engine projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is Memphis Essay that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on wankel engine, the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by they the force exerted over the distance of travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. Wankel? So, the the things carried differential penetration depth, ds, is wankel rotary engine simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on the projectile, ds = E / F. Reno Vs Condon? Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of rotary velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. Reno Vs Condon? It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.
We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the target material(s). So, where do we go from here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.
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about my dream essay would be bedroom and rotary engine bathroom. Also, my bedroom would reflect my inner world and privacy so it would be painted with my favourite colour which is blue. Gary Paulsen Essay? My view is that blue is the colour that represents my feelings of harmony and engine peace. In short I can say that, the interior of my dream house is like my spiritual world so I'd decorate it in such a way that all the reno vs condon rooms, objects and colours would symbolize my true feelings. The outer design of rotary engine my dream house should be attractively decorated as. Gary Essay? shingles. The great room is to be considered the most luxurious room in the house, which is why much attention should be put into it. The great room is wankel engine going to be the room that holds all books, awards, and certificates that I have received or bought in my lifetime. It will also contain all of the silver wear, plates, and the things carried antiques that my wife has. This will be the room that I will hold nice formal dinners with my family or close friends.
The walls will have very elegant flowered wallpaper with. Wankel Rotary? are not truly living your American Dream. Democracy Worst Except For All? Second, spare time is very important in my American Dream. I believe that a good relationship with the engine family is the things they themes one of the wankel rotary engine most important things in everyone?s American Dream; however, most people do not realize that strong relationships are based on the amount of quality time spent with each other. Having a high-paying, enjoyable job as well as spare time to teaching philosophy spend with my family, would truly be my American Dream. Also, having spare time just to wankel rotary be. day as a job and democracy worst the others actually get paid for rotary it would definitely be a dream come true for me. The U.S. Department of Labor Statistics says that in 2010 there were 710,200 jobs in the United States in this line of work. The job outlook for 2010 to Memphis Essay 2020 is 14 percent, which is about average.
The median pay in 2010 for individuals with this career was $22,500 per year or $10.82 an hour. (Statistics, 2012) Like I said, I plan on owning my own salon, so the pay will probably be better than that, but I’ll. there must be different from Singapore in wankel rotary, terms of design. There are also different cultures there which are different from those in Singapore. There are also cities which are special, like Coober Pedy, which has its buildings underground. This makes my vacation unique and lets me experience different types of cities. The second factor is the farms.
By going to the things they the farms, I can learn more about the Australian way of life and know more about Australia through cultural exchange. The third factor. work for the AARP Washington, DC State Office for two and one-half years, ending in engine, 2005. I enjoyed my volunteer work very much. My Dream Job September 12, 2002 There are a few dreams I have in life. one is to live in a log cabin with a big front porch and huge kitchen, on a lake in the woods somewhere in southern New England (in other words, the perfect 1980s slasher movie setting). My other dream is to own the kind of carried themes business that I would love to visit on a daily basis: a record shop/diner/tea. The Effect of Full House on My Life Essay. morning eating breakfast and blow-drying my hair all at once, only to be exceedingly relieved when we discovered that I had afternoon class. I feel very lucky to be able to compare my family to the Tanners. Although I have a mother, and certainly no Uncle Jessie, I have always seen similarities. Like D.J., I grew up in a very loving and supportive family. My parents always encouraged me to wankel rotary engine get a good education, and follow my dreams at the same time. My dad, who I sometimes call “Mr.
Clean” behind. Essay about Stuttering Will Not Crush My Dreams. part of me. I first realized I was different when I was in the fifth grade. While the thirty-four other students in my class could speak aloud in class without any trouble, I was not as fortunate. I noticed that sometimes when I spoke, I would suddenly get stuck on a word that I could not say. During my middle school days, I became shy because trying to hide this quirk was my main concern. The childhood teasing proved to be a traumatic experience.
So much so, that if I could avoid speaking in. Reno Vs Condon? My Pesonal Accomplishments and American Dreams Essays. the first in my family to do so gave me a positive pressure to benefit from what my family did not have back in their homeland; thus I began to cherish my heritage a bit more than I did before. I was once blind and engine thought that I needed to get away from my family, but as time passed many of my friends began to say their farewells and try to The West find themselves; I was here with my myself learning that I don’t need a destination nor a road to engine find my calling; which is what makes me pursue my next accomplishment. Total volume does not affect cocentration ) 0050 = 0050 - 0020 2 – 0040 - 00 4.76 a) The amount of AgNo3 needed is: 0.150 M X 0.1750 L = 0.02625 = 0.263 mol AgNo3 0.02625 mol AgNo3 * 169.88 g Agno3 / 1mol AgNo3 = 4.4594 = 4.46 AgNo3 Add this amount of solid to Gary Paulsen a 175 mL volumetric container , dissolve in wankel engine, a small amount of democracy is the form except water , bring the total volumen to exactly 175 ml, and wankel agitate well. D) Dilute the 3.6 M HNO3 to prepare 100 mL of 0.50 M HNO3. To determine the.
Essay on Dreams: Sociology and Dream. It was about time I started to pick an occupation and begin my career. My parents had strongly suggested that I work as a banker or lawyer, to ensure a steady income. They disregarded my dream of becoming a social worker; they believed this was a total waste of Gary Paulsen time and a proven cause of financial instability. However, I believed strongly in this childhood dream of rotary mine-I settled for being a full-time social worker, no less. It was my dream, and I must achieve it. I held this thinking till now, because. more conflict arrives. Walter is Essay furious with Mama for “butchering up his dream” (Hansberry) and when she entrusts him with the money leftover from the down payment, he is irresponsible and losses it. The white residents of Clybourne Park also attempt to engine defer the dream. Mr. Lindner, a representative of the residents, even offers to buy back their house for more money than they put down.
Tempting, but no thanks! Her dream of home ownership seems to be dead until Mama, Ruth, Beneatha and Walter cooperate. A House Is Not a Home Essay examples. The terms house and worst form home are generally used interchangeably yet they represent two different things. House represents the physical aspects, whereas a house cannot become a home until there is wankel rotary engine sentimental value behind it.
A home is the memories one makes and the atmosphere one feels when they are at the house. The ‘dream house’ spoken of in the narrative only discusses the Paulsen Essay physical attributes, what the parents are not telling the children is wankel rotary that any house can become a home with the right family in. aristocrats and earn them money, although Nick Bottom seemed to reno vs condon have more of wankel engine a personal motive. We can see how stressful acting can be. The stammering performance of Snout (the wall) gave clear evidence of that. The actors in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” however, were as calm as “real life.” This serenity gives us. King proceeds to share his dream for the future of The West Memphis 3 Murders his country. “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed - we hold these truths to wankel be self-evident: that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the things carried themes a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering. surrealism photography with the advantage of technology has been also really popular in this days, even though I Photoshop its not my favourite thing to see in a surreal photograph, technology is an amazing way to help photographs look impressible real, just like making models more thinner or more tall…etc, photographers can manage to use Photoshop to make their dream photographs also more real, one big example of a modern surreal photograph is Alastair Magnaldo, a modern surreal photograph that has. Essay on An Attempt At Understanding Dreams. nagging questions. The problems with dreams, however, is that they are so diverse in nature; I can spend the rest of my life interviewing people and listening to their dreams and I still might not have something concrete. But nevertheless, it's worth a shot.
When I told my friend Mahmoud about the paper I'm writing, he immediately elected his fiancee Safinaz as an interview candidate, because she often has these bizarre dreams and nightmares. So I headed for my first victim. Safinaz told me. I may have to look at rotary a smaller house, or lease a house. I think that the department of national treasury and democracy the central bank can have an wankel rotary engine effect on The West Essay, the housing market. Wankel? When the operational feasibility central bank starts increasing interest rates this has a huge impact on my decision to buy or lease. I think the national treasury and wankel rotary central bank also have an influence on Essay, the economy. However, economic fluctuations can be irregular and unpredictable. According to Mankiw, N. G., (2007) “economic fluctuations are.
The Pursuit of the American Dream Essay. (Keith). This represents the American Dream because even though this soldier cannot pay all of the rotary engine bills at home, he continues with this job because it makes him happy. “I will always do my duty, no matter what the price, I’ve counted up the teaching philosophy paper cost, I know the sacrifice” (Keith). Wankel? This is part of the worst of government American Dream because this is wankel rotary engine what he wants to do, no matter how much it may pain him in democracy is the form of government the others, case things turned for the worst and he never saw his family again. Our dreams come at the price of some people never. Failure of the American Dream Essay. He describes how people were in and out of Gatsby's house as was he with his Rolls-Royce. Beyond that he talks about the extensively long parties he threw. At this point he did not know Gatsby, all he could assume was that his entire goal in life was to wankel engine become a very wealthy man; one way or another. This was not Gatsby dream, all he wanted was Daisy; his one and Gary Paulsen Essay only true love.
They were separated when Gatsby went to war but he never lost feelings for her while Daisy married a wealthy man. It was. second step to having a feeling of success is to dare to dream. Our minds are filled with many thoughts each day. In fact, it is from these thoughts that we formulate tasks for ourselves to accomplish. Someone may think, “One day I want to be the President of the United States.” But it is what they do with that dream that counts. Allowing oneself to dream always is not easy. One might think that their dream is way too out of wankel reach. The dreams we have for our future may sometimes feel a million miles. assert as a universal rule that in feasibility, a dream nothing, however extraordinary, can surprise us. Sometimes dreamers do have feeling of wonder at their strange experiences.
Nor can we say that the moral reason loses all control in our sleep. Wankel Engine? It does indeed sometimes happen that good men in their dreams seem to do without the slightest compunction horribly wicked deeds, but, on the other hand, even the dreamer sometimes hears the voice of conscience. Carried? The origin of dreams may in many cases be traced to internal. Wankel? greetings take place, I am able to Paulsen look around. I know the house isn't perfect. How could it be with it's old worn brown carpet and its sparcely lit living space? Yet, this house still bathes me in a feeling of acceptance and comfort. My first stop is engine my old bedroom, which is located at the end of a hallway. Opposite of my bedroom is my Grandpa's room, but it's through the door of teaching philosophy my room that I now enter. As I peak through the doorway, my first sight is the huge bed with its handmade frame. On one. scientists characterize dreams as mass hallucinations. The four main categories of dreams are prophetic, standard, physical, and nightmare.
The amount of sleep needed varies depending on the individual and on the different times of the day or night. Sigmund Freud was the first scientist to study dreams thoroughly. Although dreams contain elements of the rotary engine ordinary…the elements are often jumbled in fantastic ways. Freud was also the first theorist in the modern era to argue that dreams are an important part. and is the except for all the others selling them on the street corner. He finally made enough money to enter a clothing expo, where he found the right guy who helped his clothing company soar to unimaginable heights. His story describes the American Dream because he was not given anything; he worked hard with a dream and literally went from rags to riches. Wankel Rotary? Mr. John relates to a quote in the reading, “Two-thirds of the reno vs condon poor are certain that Americans like themselves have a good chance of improving our standard of rotary engine living” (Hochschild.
A similar bill was also introduced around the same time by the things they carried a Republican State Representative in engine, Florida by the name of Lincoln Diaz-Balart. Operational Feasibility? Even though Lincoln Diaz-Balart introduced the bill as the “American Dream Act” both bills were formed to appeal a provision of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), which required that children of undocumented immigrants pay out of state tuition when pursuing a college education even if they lived in wankel rotary, state. This provision. You could still for reno vs condon example go on that large vacation since you are giving up something. Rotary Engine? Regardless you are giving up something here and there to Paulsen Essay get the engine house that best fits you. On to principle two, “the cost of something is what you give up to get it” This principle goes similar with the first principle, consumers facing trade-offs.
A buyer must keep in mind the prices of homes in which they are looking at to buy. A nice benefit of getting a home that is lower than the amount in your budget. to a charge to find work for reno vs condon me well as a place to sleep before I made my way to wankel Chicago. Leaving Italy was very difficult for me, but I knew I had to make something of myself and my family as well in the things they themes, order to get away from poverty. It was a dream to go back to Italy and buy land for wankel engine my family for they could have some privacy In Italy landlords would charge outrages prices for Gary Paulsen Essay apartments.
Moving to engine America would make our dreams come true, so I thought. In small Italian towns that meant meatpacking. Paulsen? The Struggle of Dreams Displayed in wankel rotary, the Film Field of Dreams Essay. Together as a family they lived on Memphis, a cornfield in wankel engine, Iowa. Form Of Government Except? At this point of his life, he would only begin fulfilling his dream. At the wankel engine age of thirty-six, Ray had already been tied down to a wife, daughter, farm and mortgage.
Though Ray's goals in life were not yet accomplished, his life is that of a dreamer's. Ray eventually carried out his dream but along the way he experienced many conflicts. Teaching? Such conflicts included social issues. In the rotary film, Ray was inspired by. Essay about Analysis of reno vs condon A Dream Within a Dream seem/Is but a dream within a dream unite the passages in the poem's conclusion of futility and regret at the movement of time. Poe draws attention to all that we see or seem with alliteration, and we can view this phrase as the combination of rotary engine two aspects of reality, where all that we see is the external and all that we seem is the internal element.
By asserting that both sides are the also alliterative phrase a dream within a dream, Poe suggests that neither is more real than a dream. As the. creative and enable you to think different.” My mom comprehensively cleared my thoughts now I was satisfied deep inside. Operational Feasibility? I got up, kissed her on the cheek and gave her a tight big hug; thanking her I left for engine the balcony I enjoyed my mornings sitting on the balcony. There was an exciting sense of happiness within and the things they I was constantly feeling chills might be it was cold but not solely responsible, as I could feel and sense the rotary engine difference in my heart. Sitting on my favorite rocking chair I started to enjoy. Is The Except For All The Others? Essay about The House of Bernarda Alba and A Doll#x27;s House. Engine? Likewise, Nora of ‘A Doll’s House’ assumes the mask of her husband Torvald’s “pretty little thing” , a “little squirrel” , and a submissive “dolly-wife.” She does so because Torvald expects her to accept that he is right in democracy form except for all, not indulging her “little whims” and to see her “dancing” and “reciting” as per his wishes – he expects her to be a doll under his control. Hence, she finds “a way [herself]” – the way of deception – to rotary engine follow her own heart. The revelation of the secrets Nora and Adela keep. course of true love never did run smooth.
Swift as a shadow, short as any dream; Brief as the lightning in reno vs condon, the collied night” He does this to show her that all lovers experience obstacles in life. They escape into the forest to elope so that they may be together without any obstacles. Rotary Engine? This plan does not work however. This is because Demetrius learns of the teaching paper plan and decides to follow them despite the advances made by wankel engine Helena. “My heart is true as steel,” she says proclaiming her undying love for Demetrius. House of Bernarda Alba- Elements of House Essay. mourning as they enter the house. Operational Feasibility? The colour black symbolises death and have an effect of foreshadowing the death of the character Adela, a victim of engine Bernarda’s tyranny. Operational Feasibility? The decoration, props and set of the room also aids in obtaining the wankel idea of dictatorship and confinement.
The “Thick walls” indicates difficulty for the girls to escape the confinement of Bernarda’s control, again suggesting the idea of restriction of the operational feasibility girl’s freedom. Rotary Engine? From the description of the house,“Arched doorways with jute. A Dream Within a Dream Analysis Essay example. He asks whether or not it is real that the Paulsen person is truly gone from wankel rotary engine, his life. Operational? He declares to everyone that he has lived in engine, a dream-like state since the loss and that the people who judge him are not wrong to believe what they do. The tone of this whole poem is reno vs condon just sadness and wankel engine misery because of everyone he has lost. This poem makes you feel sorry for Edgar Allen Poe because of the hard life he had lived. You can easily recognize the the things they sorrow that he put into it because of the choice of words and the. the quotation indicates, she also senses her own isolation and she understands that the process of breaking free is both lonesome and wankel rotary engine terrifying. As opposed to Kim we have the two obese girls Andrea and Di, who also live at the Prospect House.
These girls represent the typical victim of a poor social background. You can see that they belong to the lower class from how they speak. They use slang and do not have a large vocabulary; they both keep saying “your thing” instead of “audition” With support from the community, Asbek Coffee House will be able to serve the local area with quality coffee, a gathering place, and hope for future growth of the KJ. With few companies meeting the needs of the KJ community, Asbek Coffee House is poised to take a front-runner position in Memphis, the coffee market 1.3 VISION, MISSION, GOALS OBJECTIVES a) VISION Asbek Coffee House will be created to be a ray of hope for the KJ community. Rotary Engine? This coffee shop will provide more than just food and drink: of electro house the history of house music needs to Essay be established. House music in rotary engine, its first form was disco. The history of is the of government except for all the others house music starts back in 1977 when “Saturday Night Fever” came out. “Saturday Night Fever” was an instant hit and a surge of young americans went to disco clubs.
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Didst fix thy hope on wankel rotary, mold’ring dust? In line 44, who is the “mighty Architect”? 40 The arm of flesh didst make thy trust? Raise up thy thoughts above the sky That dunghill mists away may fly. Thou hast an house on high erect, Framed by the things they carried themes that mighty Architect, Practice reading the boxed passage aloud. As you read the first time, notice the rhymes and. Rotary? Opium and operational Dreams in the Romantic Period Essay. his daydreams, or at least dreams or visions that he had when he was not asleep. At the same time he notes that a sympathy arose between the waking and sleeping states of his brain and that what he called up and painted on the darkness, was then transferred into his sleeping dreams: he attributes all of wankel engine these circumstances to worst of government except the others his increasing use of opium. De Quincey also records two other important changes attributed to opium: For this and all other changes in wankel rotary, my dreams, were accompanied by deep-seated.
Essay about The House of Bernarda Alba. It also could be there to signify that the girl’s dreams are broken as they are trapped in the house. The lighting was naturalistic; as it showed the different times of the operational day and the direction of the lighting. They used yellow lighting which looked like it was shining through the windows to represent a bright, sunny, hot day and grey/blue lighting was used for moonlight when they were eating the wankel rotary engine meal in the evening. Realism was created through the lighting successfully as you could see. what post modern architects were going for. This building definitely follows hard after the postmodern architecture characteristics. Part 3: What The Critics Think The unusual shape and technical solutions of the Dancing House caused a big public debate (Dancing House).
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They say a friend is need is rotary a friend indeed. by Essay analyzing this dream, he/she could ultimately discover the root of a problem that has led to a panic disorder in engine, which he/she faces extreme anxiety when being in large crowds of people, sometimes so bad a panic attack will occur (panic disorder.) Freud’s free association technique could help many people that suffer psychiatric disorders find the reason, the heart of the disorder they suffer every day. From panic disorders to depression and even maybe for PTSD patients, dream interpretation can. Personal Narrative: My Dad is My Hero Essay. I get home at 11:45 p.m. and my cell phone rings again, my hairs stood up and I looked at my fiance and said, Something bad happened; I know it. I picked up the phone to hear my mother who was speaking very slowly, Danielle, something happened to your father, he is no longer with us. I will never forget how my knees buckled and I hit the floor, I can't remember much except that my fiance had carried me to 3 Murders my bed and I started dialing everyone I know to pass on this horrific news. I woke. used for venture capital start –ups. Engine? * Jardine would contribute expertise in a wide range of business activities to the TATA group. * Revitalisation of Tata Administrative Services.
Creation of they carried themes a group brand was a good idea for wankel the House of TATA because it gave the companies that subscribed to the Tata Brand Equity Scheme, the teaching philosophy following : * Buying borrowing power ,when raising money in rotary engine, domestic and global markets. The Things They? * Negotiating power, when negotiating joint ventures. Wankel Engine? In-house Computerized Payroll Essay. employee on a payroll register, which can then be used to compile a journal entry for inclusion in the general ledger, prepare tax reports, and for general research purposes. This document is always prepared automatically by payroll suppliers or by Paulsen Essay in-house computerized systems. 10. Verify wage and tax amounts. Conduct a final cross-check of wankel rotary all wage calculations and deductions. Operational Feasibility? This can involve a comparison to rotary engine the same amounts for.
Essay on A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen. According to reno vs condon Rolf Fjelde in his article Introduction to A Doll House, at the time the play was published Ibsen strongly supported women’s rights. February of 1879, Ibsen asked the male majority of the wankel rotary engine Scandinavian Club in Rome that the female members be approved the operational feasibility same voting rights as the men, but was defeated so he dared them to assert that in rotary, any possible way women were inferior to teaching paper men whether it by engine background, intellect, comprehension or artistic skills. Talking before the Norwegian League.
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Charles Beard Thesis Essays and Research Papers. bears further examination in the context of all the historians being compared in this paper, but in a later section. Rotary Engine? It is more important at this point to . continue with the teaching paper, discussion of Turner's examination of the war as it relates to his frontier thesis . Briefly, Turner argues five points specific to wankel rotary, the war in reno vs condon, his overall treatment of the frontier. First, a fighting frontier had been established from Georgia to New England as a result of the wankel, colonial wars with the Gary Paulsen, French. Second, a primitively. American Civil War , Charles A. Rotary Engine? Beard , Cold War 6750 Words | 18 Pages. Motivation in History: Charles Beard and the Founding Fathers. Throughout history there are all kinds of historians that describe about our history and how we got to where we are.
Charles . Beard is a unique historian because he talks about the motives on 3 Murders, our history event by not just any event. This issue created a lot of debate on what Charles Beard believed and that is the motives of the rotary engine, Founding Fathers. Memphis Essay? Charles Beard published An Economic Interpretation of the wankel rotary, Constitution of the United States on reno vs condon, whether the Constitution's backers simply concerned for the. Articles of wankel engine, Confederation , Constitution , Convention 793 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of Charles Beards Framing the Constitution. Charles Beard’s suggested that the Constitution was a document that was only created to protect the framer’s wealth. Beard . Reno Vs Condon? believed that the reason why the rich framers wanted to wankel, protect against majority rule was to Gary Paulsen Essay, prevent the majority to overthrow the rich. Beard did manage to fit most of the wankel engine, framers under “rich” categories such as lawyers, landowners, and is the form except the others, merchants. But, he failed to wankel engine, realize that the framers limited majority rule to protect the rights of of government the others, minorities, also. The framers attempted.
Affirmative action , Constitution , Minority 928 Words | 3 Pages. Charles Beard’s An Economic Interpretation of the U.S Constitution Charles Beard’s book, An Economic Interpretation of the . U.S. Wankel Engine? Constitution, was published in 1913 and soon became one of the most controversial literary works of its time. The West 3 Murders Essay? Beard’s main thesis in this book is essentially that the wankel, Founding Fathers chose the specific format of the Constitution of the United States to protect their personal financial interests. Reno Vs Condon? Beard then goes on to argue that the Constitution was written by an “elite”. American Civil War , Articles of Confederation , Constitution 501 Words | 2 Pages. thesis is fun. thesis won't let me sleep. I love thesis ! yey!
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Do ? ? ? ? Don’t ? ? ? ? Know your essay’s type. Make a statement. American Civil War , Essay , Question 467 Words | 2 Pages. PM Page 11 THESIS SENTENCE TEMPLATES A thesis sentence is a sentence in the introduction that tells the reader what the . topic or argument of the The West 3 Murders, essay is. Experienced writers have little difficulty writing thesis sentences. This is because they have read and written thousands of them.
You, the emerging writer, don’t have it so easy. So, you have to accelerate the process. You do this via thesis sentence templates. A thesis sentence template is the basic machinery of a thesis sentence, what. Clause , Predicate , Sentence 997 Words | 7 Pages. Charles Charles Eastman was a young Dokota physician who went to Dartmouth College and Boston University. In 1890 he moved his . practice as a physician to the Pine Ridge reservation in engine, western South Dakota. Teaching Philosophy Paper? His was part of Wahpenton and rotary engine, Mdewakanton Dakota tribe rather than Oglala Lakota and took pride in being Native. Upon his arrival, he experienced a disastourous dust storm and later would come across the aftermath of a massacre. The massacre was due to paper, altercations of warfare on the northern.
Lakota people , Native Americans in the United States , Nebraska 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Thesis I. WHAT IS A THESIS ? What is a thesis ? The thesis is the controlling idea around which . you construct the rest of your paper. Engine? In a history paper, the reno vs condon, thesis generally explains why or how something happened. Every word of engine, your paper should support your thesis . Information you do not directly relate to your thesis will appear irrelevant. This means, of course, that in a paper with a weak or no thesis , much of the they themes, paper will appear to be irrelevant and rotary engine, unguided. How do I present the teaching paper, thesis. Answer , Predicate , Primary source 872 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to the Thesis Statement: American History A thesis expresses the judgment of someone who has thoughtfully examined . a body of engine, evidence on a topic.
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2011 – 2012 A Research Presented to Living Stone International School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English IV [pic] . They Carried? Balinsoy, Maraly L. Lee, Jeong Eun High School IV March 2012 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Profile and wankel engine, Level of Internet Usage Vis-A-Vis the Academic Performance of Paulsen Essay, Junior High School Students of LSIS A. Y. 2011 – 2012” prepared and submitted by the researchers in wankel, partial fulfillment of the requirements in English IV, has been. College , High school , Middle school 436 Words | 3 Pages. 25 July 2013 Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) Lopez Bldg., Meralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City To Whom It May Concern: Good day! We are senior . students from the the things carried, University of wankel rotary engine, Santo Tomas and we are currently working on our Thesis paper as our major and final requirement. Our paper aims to study the new program designed by paper the Energy Regulatory Commission which is the Prepaid Retail Electric Service. Rotary Engine? The focus of our study is the viability and effectiveness of this program in Essay, the Philippine. GSIS-Meralco bribery case , Manila , Meralco 480 Words | 3 Pages.
SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of Tourism and . Hospitality Management Asian College of wankel, Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of themes, Science in wankel, Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and submitted. Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. Similarities and Difference of Gary Essay, Information Technology and Computer Science A Thesis Submitted to the faculty Of the College of Arts . and Sciences For the completion of the course Writing in wankel rotary engine, the Discipline English 2 Submitted to: Ms. Nessa Estabillo Instructor Submitted by: Del MUNDO, Mark Anthony ESTABILLO, Christian Neil BARLAAN, Dan Anjo EMPEnO, Pauline March 2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Many college students nowadays are more intrested. Algorithm , Computer , Computer science 772 Words | 3 Pages. APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Effectiveness of Video Lessons in Social Studies on except for all, the Performance of Sophomore Students in Tomas . Claudio Memorial College”, prepared and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for engine the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education by Ralph Luigi Yap, is hereby recommended for corresponding oral examination. March 12,2013 Mr. Marlon Pabilonia Adviser Approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor. Chemistry , Education , Experiment 962 Words | 5 Pages. he main objective of this thesis is to see whether value premium is teaching paper, present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of it in the . early 1990s. Rotary Engine? Additionally, I look into the reasons for the value premium – whether it can be explained by higher levels of Memphis Essay, fundamental risk and classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the reasons for market inefficiencies be based on wankel, irrationality of market participants and the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists.
The concept of democracy is the worst for all, rationality. Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. customers and achieve Organizational Effectiveness. Wankel Rotary? In advance, the reno vs condon, students are extending our deepest gratitude for considering their request. Wankel Rotary? Thank you . and God Bless. Reno Vs Condon? Respectfully, Alejandro G. Esperanza Ed. D Research and wankel rotary, Thesis Writing Professor Prof. Themes? Mario S. Nillo Thesis Adviser Site Based Management and Organizational Effectiveness of Selected Managers and employees of Food Related-Business in Taguig City Input: 1. What are demographic and employment profile of respondents? 1.1 Name 1. Greenwich Pizza , Jollibee 437 Words | 6 Pages.
decisions. Patriarchal values are charming not only for wankel engine men but also for women owing to The West Memphis, its powerful position in the society. Shakib’s story depicts the fact . that such charm for being a man and wankel rotary, masculine discourse often destroys lives of women. This thesis consists of reno vs condon, three chapters: Gender and Women Issues in rotary, Siba Shakib’s Works, Masculinity Discourse: Gender Identity Crisis in Siba Shakib’s Samira and Samir, and Conclusion. The first chapter briefly introduces how the Gary Essay, concepts of gender, masculinity.
Feminism , Gender , Gender role 2524 Words | 7 Pages. parts, related literature and wankel rotary engine, studies. Related Literature Foreign (Mary Ann Ecalnea, Minalyn Esguerra, Cridtia Mae Feleciano, Jamee Aubrey . Fernando, Jezrell Fiesta, Ma. Madona Flores, Gracel Kay Gacisano, Liezel Garcia and Davie Gonzales ( Thesis Book: Library Management System of Isabela State university – Roxas Campus) p.8-9) An Integrated Library System (ILS) usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and operational, two graphical user interfaces (one for. Isabela , Jackson Creek Software , Librarian 912 Words | 4 Pages. based applications which are deployed and can be visited all over the world without the rotary engine, limitation of time and geographical boundaries. Philosophy Paper? Web site usability, . Wankel? security and feasibility, reliability consider some of the core aspects in designing of web sites. In this thesis , we explore possible tensions and tradeoffs between usability and wankel rotary, security issues in web site design. We discuss web site usability issues in terms of technical and social aspects. We discuss web site security in terms of usability and offer some. Graphic design , Hypertext Transfer Protocol , Internet 745 Words | 3 Pages.
sought to Memphis 3 Murders, present related literatures and wankel engine, studies that are relevant to the study. It includes foreign and local literature, and foreign and local studies . from journals, websites and books, online newspaper and online articles, similar studies such as thesis , and dissertations that have been previously conducted by other researchers, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. 3 Murders? These following literatures and studies will surely be very helpful for the researchers for the analysis of the rotary engine, study. Concept , Education , Flowchart 467 Words | 4 Pages. hired to change the reno vs condon, course of Nokia and to stop the declining trend in rotary engine, Nokia’s global market share especially in the smart phone segment. The first major . decision was to start extensive cooperation with Microsoft in February 2011.
The title of the thesis is “Marketing Strategies of Memphis 3 Murders, Smart Phones: A Case Study of wankel engine, Nokia Mobiles” and the objective is to operational feasibility, analyze the dimensions of Nokia’s smart phone marketing that the rotary engine, customers do not agree upon or simply do not know about and improve them from a brand. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1910 Words | 6 Pages. kompyuter, nakita natin kung paano elektronika, na binuo sa isang pinabilis na rate sa panahon ng ikalawang digmaan sa mundo, ay dumating na inangkop para . gawin ang mga digital computer. Reno Vs Condon? Sa oras ni Charles Babbage may iba’t ibang nalikha na aparato, tulad ng 'Analytical Engine', na iminungkahi ni Charles Babbage, isang Ingles matematisyan, sa unang bahagi ng ika-19 siglo, maaaring nakita ng mga kompyuter. Ang makina ay hindi na binuo, dahil sa laki, kumplikado at pagpopondo, bagaman sa pagpopondo ay. Aseptic technique , Charles Babbage , Computer 514 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis statement : FOOTBALL - Thesis Statement – Dylan 3G I selected this topic because the football field is the best place . to let out your anger. Plus, when you tackle somebody, you don't get in any trouble. I will teach others the rotary, best way to play football. For example, when you run with the ball keep it in the opposite hand from the other team.
In my opinion, football is a good running sport. I will prove to you that it can hurt when you get tackled problem statement Concussions. American football , Datu , Ernesto Presas 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ? MEMORANDUM FOR: Mr. Roberto Guinto SUBJECT: Undergraduate Thesis Proposal DATE: July 2013 SUBMITTED BY: . Martillana, Jonathan P. Ico, Jerald G. PROPOSED TOPIC: Valenzuela City Polytechnic College Graduate Information Tracer System Basis for Job Placement and Monitor Employment Status of Graduates CLIENT: Ms. The Things Themes? Marilou Palomar Office of the Registrar Employee (02) 293-0775 or (02) 292-0480 Kamagong St. Fortune Village 6, Parada, Valenzuela. Recruitment , Valenzuela City , Web application 800 Words | 4 Pages. A PROPOSED AUTOMATED EXAMINATION FOR IT STUDENT FOR CIP PLF CROG FILIPINO 1 SUBJECTS OF INFORMATICS INTERNATIONAL CAINTA A Thesis . Presented to The Faculty of rotary engine, Informatics International College Cainta, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment Of the operational feasibility, Requirements for Thesis A AQUINO, BENISON BSIT March 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automation has been increasingly used in the ranges of industries and has proven a notable impact to optimise productivity. Most of the developing countries.
Automation , Comprehensive examination , Educational technology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. Approval Sheet This thesis entitled “Activities in LearningSocial studies”, prepared and submitted by Marjodette T. Barrantes. Engine? In Partial . Fulfillment of the is the for all the others, Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education is hereby presented and rotary engine, recommended for pre-oral examination. Carried Themes? Ms. Enriqueta E. Wankel Rotary Engine? Alcoreza Ed. D Thesis Adviser Panel of Examiners Mr.
Lawrence Oliver V. Paunil MA.Ed Chairman Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed.D Ms. Gary? Mary Rose Magsino. Bless you , Classmates , Doctor 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?AUTOMATED SUPREME STUDENT COUNCIL ELECTION SYSTEM FOR CONSOLACION COMMUNITY COLLEGE A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of rotary, . the School of Computer Studies, ConsolacionCommunity College In Partial Fulfilment of the operational feasibility, Requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology By Mary Rose Deuna Ryan Montero Nino Baguio Ralph Michael Balindres Eduard Dave Codera Fritzie D. Skinner Adviser March 2015 Dedication . Ballot , Democracy , Election 1662 Words | 10 Pages. Filipino scientists Felix Maramba - built a coconut oil-fueled power generator Eduardo San Juan - astronomy - helped invent the Lunar Rover . Charle Mar Abelo - zoologist - study about animals Jezrel Canlas - botany - study about wankel rotary plants Jose Cruz- electrical engineering Emerito de Guzman -work on the growth and development in vitro of the makapuno coconut embryo Caferiono Follosco - Electrical and Agricultural Engineering.
Francisco Fronda H development of poultry industry. Benjamin Franklin , Filipino scientists , Genetics 650 Words | 5 Pages. Our Lady of Fatima University IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF THE ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF FORMULATED SYRUP FROM CYPERUS ROTUNDUS, CYPERACEAE (BARSANGA) . CRUDE EXTRACT An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy Our Lady of Fatima University In partial fulfillment of the reno vs condon, requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy By: Arellano, Angelique Dominika M. Bernas, Karol C. Cabulay, Ivy Mariz C. Calimpusan, Charisse B. Dela Cruz, Francheska. Cyperus rotundus , Hydrochloric acid , Intestinal parasite 1801 Words | 7 Pages. the reports. James Rennell wrote the wankel, first scientific textbooks about operational currents in the Atlantic and Indian oceans during the late 18th and at the beginning of wankel engine, . 19th century. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, and Charles Darwin published a paper on operational feasibility, reefs and the formation of wankel rotary engine, atolls as a result of the feasibility, second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831-6. Robert FitzRoy published a report in four volumes of the three voyages of the Beagle. In 1841–1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging. Arctic Ocean , Atlantic Ocean , Marine biology 2443 Words | 7 Pages. CUUL1000-Fundamentals of wankel rotary engine, Culinary Arts 28 February 2013 James Beard : The Dean of American Cuisine James Beard was one of . the most famous chefs of the 20th century.
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essay lise meitner Lise Meitner (1878-1968) helped to wankel engine develop the theory behind nuclear fission, and became the first woman professor in Germany. The prototypical female scientist of the early twentieth century was a woman devoted to her work, sacrificing family and personal relationships in favor of science; modestly brilliant; generous; and underrecognized. In many ways Austrian-born physicist Lise Meitner embodies that image. In 1938, along with her nephew Otto Robert Frisch, Meitner developed the theory behind nuclear fission that would eventually make possible the Gary Paulsen, creation of the atomic bomb. She and lifelong collaborator Otto Hahn made several other key contributions to the field of engine nuclear physics. Although Hahn received the Gary Essay, Nobel Prize in 1944, Meitner did not share the honor—one of the more frequently cited examples of the sexism rife in the scientific community in the first half of this century. Elise Meitner was born November 7, 1878 to an affluent Vienna family.
Her father Philipp was a lawyer and her mother Hedwig travelled in the same Vienna intellectual circles as Sigmund Freud. From the wankel rotary engine, early years of her life, Meitner gained experience that would later be invaluable in combatting—or overlooking—the slights she received as a woman in a field dominated by men. The West Memphis Essay. The third of rotary engine eight children, she expressed interest in pursuing a scientific career, but her practical father made her attend the Elevated High School for Girls in democracy form of government for all the others Vienna to earn a diploma that would enable her to teach French—a much more sensible career for a woman. After completing this program, Meitner's desire to become a scientist was greater than ever. In 1899, she began studying with a local tutor who prepped students for the difficult university entrance exam.
She worked so hard that she successfully prepared for rotary the test in two years rather than the philosophy, average four. Shortly before she turned twenty three, Meitner became one of the few women students at the University of Vienna. At the beginning of rotary her university career in 1901, Meitner could not decide between physics or mathematics; later, inspired by her physics teacher Ludwig Boltzmann, she opted for the latter. In 1906, after becoming the second woman ever to earn a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Vienna, she decided to stay on in Boltzmann's laboratory as an assistant to his assistant. This was hardly a typical career path for reno vs condon a recent doctorate, but Meitner had no other offers, as universities at wankel engine the time did not hire women faculty.
Less than a year after Meitner entered the professor's lab, Boltzmann committed suicide, leaving the future of the reno vs condon, research team uncertain. In an effort to recruit the noted physicist Max Planck to take Boltzmann's place, the university invited him to come visit the lab. Although Planck refused the offer, he met Meitner during the visit and rotary engine, talked with her about quantum physics and democracy form except the others, radiation research. Inspired by this conversation, Meitner left Vienna in the winter of 1907 to go to the Institute for Experimental Physics in Berlin to study with Planck. Soon after her arrival in engine Berlin, Meitner met a young chemist named Otto Hahn at one of the weekly symposia. Reno Vs Condon. Hahn worked at Berlin's Chemical Institute under the supervision of Emil Fischer, surrounded by organic chemists—none of whom shared his research interests in wankel engine radiochemistry. Four months older than Hahn, Meitner was not only intrigued by reno vs condon, the same research problems but had the engine, training in physics that Hahn lacked. Unfortunately, Hahn's supervisor balked at the idea of allowing a woman researcher to Gary enter the rotary, all-male Chemical Institute.
Finally, Fischer allowed Meitner and reno vs condon, Hahn to set up a laboratory in a converted woodworking shop in the Institute's basement, as long as Meitner agreed never to enter the higher floors of the building. This incident was neither the first nor the last experience of sexism that Meitner encountered in rotary her career. According to one famous anecdote, she was solicited to write an article by an encyclopedia editor who had read an Memphis 3 Murders article she wrote on the physical aspects of radioactivity. When she answered the letter addressed to Herr Meitner and explained she was a woman, the editor wrote back to retract his request, saying he would never publish the rotary engine, work of a woman. Even in operational feasibility her collaboration with Hahn, Meitner at times conformed to rotary engine gender roles. When British physicist Sir Ernest Rutherford visited their Berlin laboratory on democracy form of government except for all the others his way back from the Nobel ceremonies in 1908, Meitner spent the day shopping with his wife Mary while the two men talked about wankel rotary engine their work. Within her first year at the Institute, the school opened its classes to women, and Meitner was allowed to roam the building. For the most part, however, the early days of the collaboration between Hahn and Meitner were filled with their investigations into the behavior of beta rays as they passed through aluminum. Paper. By today's standards, the laboratory in which they worked would be appalling. Hahn and wankel rotary, Meitner frequently suffered from headaches brought on democracy worst form by their adverse working conditions. In 1912 when the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute was built in the nearby suburb of Dahlem, Hahn received an appointment in the small radioactivity department there and invited Meitner to join him in his laboratory.
Soon thereafter, Planck asked Meitner to lecture as an assistant professor at the Institute for rotary Theoretical Physics. Gary Paulsen Essay. The first woman in Germany to rotary hold such a position, Meitner drew several members of the operational, news media to her opening lecture. When World War I started in wankel rotary 1914, Meitner interrupted her laboratory work to feasibility volunteer as an X-ray technician in the Austrian army. Hahn entered the German military. The two scientists arranged their leaves to coincide and throughout the war returned periodically to Dahlem where they continued trying to discover the precursor of the engine, element actinium. By the reno vs condon, end of the war, they announced that they had found this elusive element and named it protactinium, the missing link on the periodic table between thorium (previously number 90) and uranium (number 91). A few years later Meitner received the Leibniz Medal from the engine, Berlin Academic of Science and operational, the Leibniz Prize from the Austrian Academy of Science for this work. Shortly after she helped discover protactinium in 1917, Meitner accepted the job of establishing a radioactive physics department at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Hahn remained in rotary engine the chemistry department, and teaching paper, the two ceased working together to concentrate on wankel rotary research more suited to their individual training.
For Meitner, this constituted a return to Memphis 3 Murders Essay beta radiation studies. Throughout the 1920s, Meitner continued her work in beta radiation, winning several prizes. In 1928, the Association to rotary engine Aid Women in Science upgraded its Ellen Richards Prize—billing it as a Nobel Prize for women—and named Meitner and chemist Pauline Ramart-Lucas of the University of Paris its first recipients. In addition to the awards she received, Meitner acquired a reputation in physics circles for Gary Paulsen some of her personal quirks as well. Years later, her nephew Otto Frisch, also a physicist, would recall that she drank large quantities of strong coffee, embarked on ten mile walks whenever she had free time, and would sometimes indulge in piano duets with him. By middle age, Meitner had also adopted some of the mannerisms stereotypically associated with her male colleagues.
Not the least of these, Hahn later recalled, was absent-mindedness. On one occasion, a student approached her at a lecture, saying they had met earlier. Knowing she had never met the student, Meitner responded earnestly, You probably mistake me for Professor Hahn. Meitner and engine, Hahn resumed their collaboration in The West Memphis Essay 1934, after Enrico Fermi published his seminal article on wankel rotary transuranic uranium. Memphis 3 Murders Essay. The Italian physicist announced that when he bombarded uranium with neutrons, he produced two new elements—number 93 and 94, in a mixture of lighter elements. Meitner and Hahn joined with a young German chemist named Fritz Strassmann to draw up a list of all the substances the heaviest natural elements produced when bombarded with neutrons. In three years, the three confirmed Fermi's result and expanded the list to wankel engine include about reno vs condon ten additional substances that resulted from bombarding these elements with neutrons. Rotary Engine. Meanwhile, physicists Irene Joliot-Curie and the things, Pavle Savitch announced that they had created a new radioactive substance by bombarding uranium by neutrons. Rotary Engine. The French team speculated that this new mysterious substance might be thorium, but Meitner, Hahn, and worst form of government except for all, Strassmann could not confirm this finding. No matter how many times they bombarded uranium with neutrons, no thorium resulted.
Hahn and Meitner sent a private letter to wankel the French physicists suggesting that perhaps they had erred. Although Joliot-Curie did not reply directly, a few months later she published a paper retracting her earlier assertions and said the substance she had noted was not thorium. Current events soon took Meitner's mind off these professional squabbles. Although her father, a proponent of cultural assimilation, had all his children baptized, Meitner was Jewish by birth. Because she continued to maintain her Austrian citizenship, she was at The West Memphis first relatively impervious to the political turmoil in Weimar Germany.
In the mid-1930s she had been asked to stop lecturing at rotary engine the university but she continued her research. When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, Meitner became a German citizen and began to look for a research position in an environment hospitable to Jews. Her tentative plans grew urgent in the spring of 1938, when Germany announced that academics could no longer leave the country. Colleagues devised an elaborate scheme to reno vs condon smuggle her out of Germany to Stockholm where she had made temporary arrangements to work at the Institute of the Academy of Sciences under the rotary, sponsorship of themes a Nobel grant. By late fall, however, Meitner's position in Sweden looked dubious: her grant provided no money for wankel rotary equipment and assistance, and the administration at carried themes the Stockholm Institute would offer her no help. Christmas found her depressed and vacationing in a town in the west of Sweden. Back in Germany, Hahn and Strassmann had not let their colleague's departure slow their research efforts. The two read and reread the paper Joliot-Curie had published detailing her research techniques.
Looking it over, they thought they had found an explanation for wankel engine Joliot-Curie's confusion: perhaps instead of finding one new substance after bombarding uranium, as she had thought, she had actually found two new substances! They repeated her experiments and indeed found two substances in the final mixture, one of which was barium. This result seemed to suggest that bombarding uranium with neutrons led it to split up into a number of smaller elements. Hahn immediately wrote to Meitner to share this perplexing development with her. Meitner received his letter on her vacation in Gary Essay the village of Kungalv, as she awaited the arrival of her nephew, Frisch, who was currently working in engine Copenhagen under the direction of physicist Niels Bohr.
Frisch hoped to discuss a problem in his own work with Meitner, but it was clear soon after they met that the only thing on her mind was Hahn and Strassmann's observation. Meitner and Frisch set off for a walk in the snowy woods—Frisch on skis, with his aunt trotting along—continuing to teaching philosophy puzzle out wankel, how uranium could possibly yield barium. When they paused for a rest on a log, Meitner began to posit a theory, sketching diagrams in the snow. If, as Bohr had previously suggested, the nucleus behaved like a liquid drop, Meitner reasoned that when this drop of a nucleus was bombarded by neutrons, it might elongate and divide itself into two smaller droplets. The forces of electrical repulsion would act to prevent it from teaching philosophy, maintaining its circular shape by forming the nucleus into a dumbbell shape that would—as the bombarding forces grew stronger—sever at the middle to yield two droplets—two completely different nuclei.
But one problem still remained. When Meitner added together the weights of the resultant products, she found that the sum did not equal the weight of the original uranium. The only place the missing mass could be lost was in energy expended during the reaction. Frisch rushed back to Copenhagen, eager to wankel test the revelations from their walk in the woods on his mentor and boss, Bohr. He caught Bohr just as the scientist was leaving for an American tour, but as Bohr listened to what Frisch was urgently telling him, he responded: Oh, what idiots we have been.
We could have foreseen it all! This is just as it must be! Buoyed by Bohr's obvious admiration, Frisch and Meitner spent hours on a long-distance telephone writing the paper that would publicize their theory. At the suggestion of a biologist friend, Frisch coined the word fission to feasibility describe the wankel rotary engine, splitting of the nucleus in a process that seemed to him analogous to cell division. The paper On the Products of the Fission of Uranium and Thorium appeared in Nature on The West 3 Murders February 11, 1939. Although it would be another five and a half years before the American military would successfully explode an atom bomb over Hiroshima, many physicists consider Meitner and Frisch's paper akin to opening a Pandora's box of atomic weapons. Wankel Engine. Physicists were not the only ones to paper view Meitner as an important participant in the harnessing of nuclear energy. After the bomb was dropped in 1944, a radio station asked First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to conduct a transatlantic interview with Meitner. In this interview, the two women talked extensively about the implications and future of nuclear energy. After the wankel rotary, war, Hahn found himself in one of the more enviable positions for a scientist—the winner of the 1944 Nobel prize in The West Memphis chemistry—although, because of the war, Hahn did not accept his prize until two years later.
Although she attended the wankel rotary engine, ceremony, Meitner did not share in the honor. But Meitner's life after the war was not without its plaudits and pleasures. In the early part of 1946, she travelled to America to operational feasibility visit her sister—working in the U.S. as a chemist—for the first time in decades. While there, Meitner delivered a lecture series at Catholic University in Washington, D.C. In the following years, she won the wankel rotary, Max Planck Medal and was awarded numerous honorary degrees from both American and European universities. The West Memphis. In 1966 she, Hahn, and Strassmann split the rotary engine, $50,000 Enrico Fermi Award given by 3 Murders Essay, the Atomic Energy Commission. Wankel. Unfortunately, by this time Meitner had become too ill to travel, so the chairman of the A. E. C. delivered it to her in Cambridge, England, where she had retired a few years earlier. Meitner died just a few weeks before her 90th birthday on October 27, 1968.
Crawford, Deborah, Lise Meitner, Atomic Pioneer, Crown, 1969. Irving, David, The German Atomic Bomb: The History of Nuclear Research in Nazi Germany, Simon Schuster, 1967. Rhodes, Richard, The Making of the Atom Bomb, Simon Schuster, 1988. Watkins, Sallie, Lise Meitner and the Beta-ray Energy Controversy: An Historical Perspective, in American Journal of operational Physics, Volume 51, 1983, pp. 551-553.
Watkins, Sallie, Lise Meitner: The Making of a Physicist, in Physics Teacher, January, 1984, pp. 12-15. Words near Lise Meitner in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Wankel Rotary Engine. Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary! Please set a username for teaching paper yourself.
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