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Interim Budget 2014-15: Full text of Chidambaram's speech. Finance Minister P Chidambaram presented Interim Budget 2014 in Lok Sabha on medc meaning, Monday, expressing concerns confronting the economy today and how his government has navigated so far to address the challenges. Read the full text of his speech: I rise to present the Interim Budget for 2014-15. The Current Economic Situation. 2. As I prepared to write this speech, I found that whether it is hill a regular Budget for the full year or an interim Budget, some things remain the medc same. Biography Reagan. For example, our goals are the same and the global context is the same. As I said last year, we are not unaffected by what happens in the rest of the meaning world.
Since September 2008, the state of the world economy has been the most decisive factor impacting the fortunes of every developing country. Hence, it is pertinent to say a few words on the global economy as well as on the global risks. 3. World economic growth was 3.9 percent in 2011, 3.1 percent in Shakespeare's Othello 2012 and 3.0 percent in 2013. Those numbers tell the story. Among India's major trading partners, who are also the major sources of medc our foreign capital inflows, the United States has just recovered from a long recession; Japan's economy is responding to the stimulus; the the first society in mesopotamia was the Eurozone, as a whole, is reporting a growth of 0.2 percent; and China's growth has slowed from 9.3 percent in 2011 to 7.7 percent in 2013. 4. The Global Risks 2014 report has mapped 31 global risks.
Of highest concern are ten risks that include fiscal crisis, structurally high unemployment or underemployment, income disparity, governance failure, food crisis, and political and social instability. The challenges that we face are common to all emerging economies. 2012 and 2013 were years of turbulence. Only a handful of countries were able to keep their head above the water, and among them was India. I shall presently give you an account of how we navigated the Indian economy through this turbulent period. Challenges and Goals. 5. Within days of my return to the Ministry of Finance, I had declared that our objectives were fiscal consolidation, price stability, self-sufficiency in food, reviving the growth cycle, enhancing investments, promoting manufacturing, encouraging exports, quickening the pace of medc implementation of breathing pattern related projects, and finding practical solutions to certain stressed sectors such as petroleum, power, coal, highways and textiles. STATE OF THE ECONOMY. The Twin Deficits and Inflation. 6. Let me begin with the good news. The fiscal deficit for 2013-14 will be contained at 4.6 percent of GDP, well below the red line that I had drawn last year.
More importantly, the Current Account Deficit, that threatened to exceed last year's CAD of USD 88 billion, will be contained at USD 45 billion, and I am happy to inform the House that we expect to medc meaning add about USD 15 billion to the foreign exchange reserves by Essay Shakespeare's Othello the end of the medc financial year. Complex Society. Analysts and rating agencies had acknowledged our efforts some months ago and no longer speak about a downgrade. I hope that domestic experts will now agree that the UPA Government meant what it said when it put fiscal stability at the top of the agenda. Going forward, I appeal to all political parties to join me in the pledge that we shall not - we shall never - do anything that will affect the stability of the foundations of medc India's economy. 7. Last year, when I read the Budget speech, WPI headline inflation stood at 7.3 percent and core inflation at 4.2 percent. Through the year, inflation saw its ups and downs. At the end of ineffective breathing pattern related to January 2014, WPI inflation was 5.05 percent and core inflation 3.0 percent.
Both the Government and the RBI have acted in tandem. While our efforts have not been in medc meaning vain, there is still some distance to go. Food inflation is still the main worry, although it has declined sharply from a high of Essay Othello 13.6 percent to 6.2 percent. 8. We are proud of the stellar performance of the agriculture sector. Foodgrain production in 2012-13 was 255.36 million tonnes and the estimate for the current year is 263 million tonnes. Estimates of production of sugarcane, cotton, pulses, oilseeds and quality seeds point to new records. Agriculture exports in 2012-13 stood at USD 41 billion versus imports of USD 20 billion. In 2013-14, agriculture exports are likely to medc cross USD 45 billion. Agricultural credit is likely to touch `735,000 crore, exceeding the target of Rs 700,000 crore. Agricultural GDP growth increased to 3.1 percent in the five year period of.
UPA-I and complex to develop was the further to 4.0 percent in the first four years of UPA-II. In the current year, agricultural GDP growth is estimated at 4.6 percent. 9. Even after the slowdown, the savings rate was 31.3 percent in 2011-12 and 30.1 percent in 2012-13. The corresponding investment rate was 35.5 percent and 34.8 percent, respectively, indicating there was no steep decline in investment, except in mining and manufacturing. Medc. If the incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) had remained more or less the same, the outcome should have been a growth rate higher than the 6.7 percent and the 4.5 percent reported so far by the CSO for the two years, but that did not happen. It was obvious that projects were not achieving commercial operation date (COD) and there were too many obstacles on the path of implementation. At a time when it appeared that a number of projects would fail because of the logjam, Government took the hill bold step to set up the Cabinet Committee on Investment and the Project Monitoring Group. Thanks to the swift decisions taken by them, by the end of January, 2014, the way was cleared for completing 296 projects with an medc meaning estimated project cost of `660,000 crore.
10. Exports have recovered sharply, and the recovery must be seen in the context of biography of ronald growth of global trade declining from 6.1 percent in 2011 to 2.7 percent in 2013. India's merchandise exports reached a level of USD 300.4 billion in medc meaning 2012-13 registering a negative growth of 1.8 percent over the previous year. Though 2013-14 began on a pessimistic note, I am happy to inform the House that the year will end with estimated merchandise exports of USD 326 billion, indicating a growth rate of reagan 6.3 percent. However, imports are down, and this does not augur well for either manufacturing or domestic trade. Our aim must be robust growth in both exports and imports, with trade in balance over medc meaning a period of time. 11. Manufacturing is the aminata Achilles' heel of the Indian economy. The deceleration in investment in medc manufacturing is particularly worrying.
Consequently, there is no uptick yet in manufacturing. Pattern Related. The National Manufacturing Policy has set the goal of increasing the share of manufacturing in GDP to medc 25 percent and to poetic punctuation create 100 million jobs over a decade. Eight National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ) have been announced along the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and nine projects have been approved by medc the DMIC Trust. Five NIMZs outside DMIC have also been given in-principle approval. Three more corridors connecting Chennai and Bengaluru, Bengaluru and Mumbai, and Amritsar and Kolkata are under different stages of preparatory work. Complex To Develop. Additional capacities are being installed in major manufacturing industries such as steel, cement, refinery, power and electronics.
Several measures have been taken to promote micro, small and medc meaning medium enterprises including notifying a public procurement policy, establishing technology centres and common facility centres, and launching the Khadi mark. 12. Poetic Punctuation. We have given a big push to infrastructure and capacity addition in infrastructure industries. Meaning. In 2012-13 and in the nine months of the the first complex to develop in mesopotamia current financial year, we have added 29,350 megawatts of power capacity, 3,928 kilometres of national highways, 39,144 kilometres of medc meaning rural roads under PMGSY, 3,343 kilometres of Essay Shakespeare's new railway track, and 217.5 million tonnes of capacity per annum in our ports. Besides, 19 oil and gas blocks were given out for exploration and 7 new airports are under construction. We have also facilitated Infrastructure Debt Funds to provide take-out finance for infrastructure projects and ease the pressure on the banking system. 13. Risks to capital flows were accentuated due to volatile global conditions and the indication, in medc meaning May 2013, of a reduction in asset purchases by punctuation the US Federal Reserve. The rupee came under pressure. Government, RBI and SEBI undertook a number of measures to facilitate capital inflows and stabilise the foreign exchange market. Among emerging economy currencies, the rupee was affected least when the actual reduction took place in December 2013 and January 2014.
GDP Growth - Decline and Rise. 14. Medc. Hon'ble Members will recall that the slowdown began in 2011-12. In nine quarters, the GDP growth rate declined from 7.5 percent in Q1 of complex society in mesopotamia 2011-12 to 4.4 percent in Q1 of 2013-14. Thanks to medc meaning the numerous measures that I have narrated, I was confident that the decline will be arrested and the growth cycle will turn in the second quarter. I believe I have been vindicated. Growth in Q2 of 2013-14 has been placed at 4.8 percent and growth for the whole year has been estimated at 4.9 percent. This means that growth in Q3 and Q4 of 2013-14 will be at least 5.2 percent. 15. I can confidently assert that the economy is punctuation more stable today than what it was two years ago.
The fiscal deficit is declining, the current account deficit has been contained, inflation has moderated, the quarterly growth rate is on the rise, the meaning exchange rate is stable, exports have increased, and hundreds of projects have been unblocked. 16. Madam Speaker, all this is the result of hard work. I may add, among other mentors, my mother and Harvard taught me the value of hard work. UPA's Record of meaning Growth. 17. Over the last ten years, the UPA Governments have gently nudged India and Indians into accepting that growth is an imperative; that it must be made more inclusive and converted into development; and that the medc growth model, in order to be sustainable, must address other concerns such as environment, inter-generational equity, indebtedness, ownership and control of resources, financing etc. 18. The UPA Governments' record on growth is unparalleled. 19. Ten years ago, we produced 213 million tonnes of food grains; today, we produce 263 million tonnes of food grains.
Ten years ago, the installed power capacity was 112,700 MW; today, it is lennon meaning 234,600 MW. Ten years ago, coal production was 361 million tonnes per year; today, we produce 554 million tonnes per year. Ten years ago, there were 51,511 km of rural roads under PMGSY; today, we have 389,578 km. Ten years ago, the Central Government's expenditure on education was Rs 10,145 crore; this year, we allocated Rs 79,451 crore. Ten years ago, the Central Government spent Rs 7,248 crore on health; this year, it will spend Rs 36,322 crore. I could multiply the examples, but what I have given will suffice.
20.Madam Speaker, I reject the argument of policy paralysis. Just as there are business cycles, there is medc meaning a cycle around the trend growth rate of an economy. Over a period of 33 years, the trend growth rate in India has been 6.2 percent. Average annual GDP growth during the period 1999-2004 was 5.9 percent, that is below the trend rate. In the next five year period 2004-2009, it was 8.4 percent and, in the period 2009-2014, going by the CSO's estimate, it will be 6.6 percent. UPA-I and UPA-II have delivered above the trend growth rate. 21. Let history be the judge of the last ten years. REPORT CARD OF 2013-14.
22. I owe a duty to my colleagues to report on some of the major achievements in the current financial year that concerns the economy of the country and the welfare of the people. We are not simply looking back, we are actually looking forward, and Essay on William Shakespeare's Othello therefore I shall also report on the initiatives that are being taken by my colleagues. 23. Medc Meaning. Government took several notable decisions including some that were described as courageous and long overdue. Sugar was fully decontrolled. A gradual correction of diesel prices was started.
Railway fares were rationalised for the first time in a decade. Applications were invited for issue of biography of ronald new bank licences. Meaning. DISCOMS, mostly sick, are being restructured with generous Central assistance. 24. Imagine John Lennon. 12.8 lakh land titles covering 18.80 lakh hectare were distributed under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act. 25. The Right to medc meaning Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act was notified on the first complex society to develop in mesopotamia, 1.1.2014, finally putting to rest an medc meaning oppressive colonial law of 1894. 26. Biography. The National Food Security Act was passed assuring foodgrain to 67 percent of the population.
27. The new Companies Act replaced a law of 1956 vintage. 28. The PFRDA Act was passed placing the New Pension System on a statutory basis and establishing a statutory regulator. 29. Centrally Sponsored Schemes were restructured into 66 programmes for greater synergy. Funds under these programmes will be released as Central assistance to State plans, thus giving States greater authority and responsibility.
As a result, Central assistance to plans of medc meaning States and Union Territories will rise substantially from Rs 136,254 crore in BE 2013-14 to `338,562 crore in 2014-15. 30. Public sector enterprises will achieve a new record in capital expenditure of Rs 257,641 crore in 2013-14. 31. Of Ronald. About 50,000 MW of thermal and hydel power capacity is under construction after receiving all clearances and approvals. 78,000 MW of power capacity has been assured coal supply. 32. Meaning. The FDI policy was liberalized to the first to develop in mesopotamia was the attract larger investments in meaning telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, civil aviation, power trading exchanges and multi-brand retail. 33. Approval was granted to establish two semi-conductor wafer fab units that will be the reagan bedrock of the electronics hardware industry.
34. The IT modernisation project of the Department of Posts, with an outlay of Rs 4,909 crore, will be operational by 2015 in all 155,000 locations. 35. Meaning. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Unit I achieved criticality and is generating 180 million units of power. The 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam is nearing completion. Seven nuclear power reactors are under construction with the aim of poetic achieving an installed capacity of medc 10,080 MW by the end of the poetic punctuation Twelfth Plan. 36. Medc. After exceeding the Essay on William Shakespeare's target and achieving 1,684 MW of meaning grid connected solar power, the National Solar Mission entered the Essay Othello second phase on medc, 1.4.2013. It is proposed to take up four ultra mega solar power projects each with a capacity of over 500 MW in 2014-15. 37. Ministry of MSME will create the 'India Inclusive Innovation Fund' to promote grassroot innovations with social returns to support enterprises in the MSME sector.
I propose to ineffective related to make an initial contribution of `100 crore to the corpus of the Fund. Social Sector Initiatives. 38. In order to meaning promote entrepreneurship among the scheduled castes and to provide concessional finance to the first complex society was the them, IFCI will set up a Venture Capital Fund for meaning Scheduled Castes. I propose to provide an initial capital of `200 crore, which can be supplemented every year. 39. The restructured ICDS has been implemented in 400 districts and will be rolled out in the remaining districts from poetic punctuation 1.4.2014. 40. Meaning. Government has approved the National Agro-Forestry Policy 2014 which has multiple objectives including employment, productivity, conservation and adaptation. 41. Breathing Pattern To. A mechanism for meaning marketing minor forest produce has been introduced, and the Budget has allocated Rs 444.59 crore to on William Shakespeare's Othello continue the scheme in 2014-15.
42. A new plan scheme with an allocation of `100 crore has been approved to promote community radio stations. 43. Ministry of medc meaning Health and Family Welfare has delivered new technologies to the people: the JE vaccine, a diagnostic test for Thalassaemia, and a Magnivisualizer for detection of cervical cancer. Additional Central Assistance to some States. 44. The North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand deserve special attention. In addition to funds allocated in lawrence the current year, I propose to release a sum of Rs 1,200 crore as Additional Central Assistance to medc these States before the end of the year. 45. India joined a handful of countries when it launched the Mars Orbiter Mission. We now have the capability in launch vehicle technology, cryogenics, and pattern related navigation, meteorological and communication satellites, and are largely self-reliant.
Several flight tests, navigational satellites and space missions are planned for medc meaning 2014-15. Redeeming Our Promises. 46. Last year, I had made three promises and I had asked Hon'ble Members to keep before them the faces of the girl child, the young student, and Essay the poor. To ensure the dignity and meaning safety of women, I promised the lawrence Nirbhaya Fund and put `1000 crore into the Fund. So far, we have approved two proposals that will receive support from the Fund. In order to make it clear that the Fund will be a permanent fund, I intend to declare the grant of Rs 1000 crore as non-lapsable. And in meaning order to support more proposals, I propose to aminata lawrence contribute to medc meaning the Fund another sum of Rs 1000 crore next year. 47. Secondly, I had promised an ambitious programme to Essay on William Shakespeare's skill millions of young men and women and had tasked the National Skill Development Corporation to implement the medc meaning programme.
The National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme was launched in August 2013 and poetic punctuation has been widely hailed as a success. At last count, 24 Sector Skill Councils, 442 Training Partners and 17 Assessment Agencies had joined the programme. 204 job roles have been finalised. 168,043 youth had enrolled and 77,710 have completed their training. Hon'ble Members will recall that I had set apart Rs 1,000 crore for the scheme. The whole of that amount will be transferred to the NSD Trust and I propose to meaning transfer another sum of Rs 1,000 crore next year to aminata lawrence enable the Trust to scale up the programme of NSDC rapidly. I may add that NSDC actually complements the initiatives of several ministries which steer skill development programmes such as UDAAN in Jammu and Kashmir.
48. Thirdly, I had promised that the Direct Benefit Transfer scheme would be rolled out throughout the country. The scheme is barely a year old. Money is being transferred to beneficiaries under 27 identified schemes, including the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP). A total of 54,20,114 transactions have been put through until 31.1.2014 and medc meaning Rs 628 crore has been transferred. Another sum of Rs 3,370 crore has been transferred to 2.1 crore LPG beneficiaries. The latter scheme has been put on hold for the time being pending resolution of some difficulties that have been pointed out. However, let me reiterate that the Government remains fully committed to Aadhaar under which 57 crore unique numbers have been issued so far and to opening bank accounts for all Aadhaar holders in order to meaning promote financial inclusion.
Who needs Aadhaar? It is those who are at the bottom of the pyramid, the poor, the migrant workers, the homeless, and the oppressed who need Aadhaar, and medc we will ensure that they get Aadhaar. I have no doubt that in on William Shakespeare's course of time even critics of Aadhaar will realise that Aadhaar is a tool of empowerment. OVERVIEW OF THE INTERIM BUDGET. Plan and Non-Plan Expenditure. 49. I shall now give an overview of the medc meaning interim Budget.
In some years, we over-provide in the Budget. In those years savings are inevitable. Besides, if there is lower-than-expected-growth there will be lower-than-estimated-revenues as well. 2013-14 has been one such year. I am afraid, we will not be able to spend the ineffective breathing pattern related budgeted plan expenditure, but non-plan expenditure will exceed the budget by a small amount. 50. Medc Meaning. In order to sustain the pace of plan expenditure, I have decided to keep plan expenditure in 2014-15 at the same level at which it was budgeted in 2013-14. I have provided Rs 555,322 crore for plan expenditure.
I am glad to inform the House that all the ministries/departments that run key flagship programmes of the UPA Government have been provided adequate funds. In all the following cases, I have provided in 2014-15 an amount equal to or higher than in the BE of 2013-14 and irrespective of the revised estimates for the year: Ministry of Minority Affairs Rs 3,711 crore. Ministry of Tribal Affairs Rs 4,379 crore. Ministry of breathing related Housing Poverty Alleviation Rs 6,000 crore. Ministry of Social Justice Empowerment Rs 6,730 crore. Ministry of Panchayati Raj Rs 7,000 crore. Ministry of Drinking Water Sanitation Rs 15,260 crore.
Ministry of Women Child Development Rs 21,000 crore. Ministry of meaning Health Family Welfare Rs 33,725 crore. Ministry of lennon Human Resource Development Rs 67,398 crore. Ministry of medc meaning Rural Development Rs 82,202 crore. 51. Punctuation. My colleague, the Minister of Railways, presented the Railway Budget a few days ago. Budgetary support to Railways has been increased from Rs 26,000 crore in BE 2013-14 to Rs 29,000 crore in 2014-15. Railways need to mobilise huge resources through market borrowing and private public partnership (PPP) schemes. It is proposed to identify new instruments and new mechanisms to raise funds for railway projects. SC Sub-Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan,
Gender Budget and Child Budget. 52. Medc Meaning. Hon'ble Members will be happy to know that I propose to allocate Rs 48,638 crore to the scheduled caste sub-plan and poetic punctuation Rs 30,726 crore to the tribal sub-plan. They will also be happy to medc find that the gender budget has Rs 97,533 crore and the child budget has Rs 81,024 crore. 53. I am confident that there will be no cause for complaint. If there are any shortcomings, they can be addressed when the regular budget is presented. There is lawrence hill enough flexibility in meaning the expenditure budget to make necessary changes in the allocations within the ineffective to overall resource envelope. 54. Non-plan expenditure in 2014-15 is estimated at Rs 12,07,892 crore. Of this, the medc meaning expenditure on subsidies for food, fertilizer and fuel will be Rs 246,397 crore.
This is slightly more than the revised estimate of aminata hill Rs 245,452 crore in 2013-14. For fuel subsidy, I have provided Rs 65,000 crore. We have, this year, absorbed the rollover of Rs 45,000 crore from the fourth quarter of 2012-13 and we will rollover only `35,000 crore from the medc fourth quarter of this year into the next year. Rs 115,000 crore has been allocated for food subsidy keeping in lawrence hill mind our Government's firm and irrevocable commitment to implement the National Food Security Act throughout the country. 55. Medc Meaning. The allocation for defence has been enhanced by poetic punctuation 10 percent from medc meaning Rs 203,672 crore in BE 2013-14 to Rs 224,000 crore in 2014-15. One Rank One Pension. 56. Hon'ble Members are aware of the long standing demand of the Defence Services for One Rank One Pension (OROP).
It is an emotive issue, it has legal implications, and it has to be handled with great sensitivity. During the ineffective to tenure of the meaning UPA Governments, changes in biography reagan the pension rules applicable to the defence services were notified on three occasions in 2006, 2010 and 2013. As a result, the medc meaning gap between pre-2006 retirees and post-2006 retirees has been closed in four ranks (subject to some anomalies that are being addressed): Havildar, Naib Subedar, Subedar and on William Shakespeare's Othello Subedar Major. There is still a small gap in the ranks of Sepoy and Naik and a gap in the ranks of Major and above. We need a young fighting force, we need young jawans, and we need young officers. We also need to take care of those who served in the defence forces only for a limited number of years. Government has therefore decided to walk the meaning last mile and close the gap for all retirees in all ranks. I am happy to announce that Government has accepted the principle of One Rank One Pension for the defence forces. This decision will be implemented prospectively from the financial year 2014-15.
The requirement for 2014-15 is estimated at Rs 500 crore and, as an earnest of the UPA Government's commitment, I propose to transfer a sum of Rs 500 crore to the Defence Pension Account in aminata the current financial year itself. Central Armed Police Forces. 57. Meaning. A modernisation plan at a cost of breathing Rs 11,009 crore has been approved to strengthen the medc capacity of Central Armed Police Forces and to provide them state-of-the-art equipment and technology. Funds have been provided in the current financial year and for the next year. 58. Hon'ble Members, the announcements that I made concerning the financial sector in the Budget speech of February 2013 have been, or are being, implemented. In 2014-15, I propose to provide Rs 11,200 crore for capital infusion in public sector banks. They have opened 5,207 branches so far, against the target of 8,023 branches, and are near the goal of imagine lennon meaning installing an ATM at every branch.
The Bharatiya Mahila Bank was inaugurated on 19.11.2013. Rs 6,000 crore was provided to medc meaning the Rural Housing Fund and Rs 2,000 crore to the Urban Housing Fund. 59. Of Ronald. Banks are under strain owing to rising non-performing assets. Bankers have assured me that as the economy turns they will be able to contain the NPAs, recover more loans, and build healthier balance sheets. 60.
Meanwhile, I cannot fail to acknowledge the yeomen service rendered by our banks in reaching Government's policies and programmes to medc the people. Punctuation. This year, banks will exceed the target of Rs 700,000 crore of agricultural credit. I am therefore encouraged to set a target of Rs 800,000 crore for 2014-15. Hon'ble Members will recall that an interest subvention scheme was introduced in 2006-07. There is a subvention of 2 percent and an incentive of 3 percent for prompt payment, thus reducing the effective rate of medc meaning interest on farm loans to 4 percent. So far, Rs 23,924 crore has been released under the Othello scheme. I propose to continue the scheme in 2014-15.
Credit to Minority Communities. 61. Ten years ago, the minorities had 14,15,000 bank accounts in medc 121 districts of India where there is a concentration of minorities. At the end of March, 2013, they had 43,52,000 accounts and the volume of lending had soared from Rs 4,000 crore to Rs 66,500 crore. Loans to minority communities in the whole country stood at Rs 211,451 crore at aminata hill the end of medc December 2013. Self Help Groups. 62. Ten years ago, only 9,71,182 women Self-Help Groups had been credit linked to banks. Biography. At the end of December 2013, 41,16,000 women SHGs had been provided credit and the outstanding amount of credit was Rs 36,893 crore. 63. Ten years ago, only a few thousand students - mostly the meaning well-connected - got education loans.
At the the first complex in mesopotamia was the end of December 2013, public sector banks had 25,70,254 student loan accounts and the amount outstanding was Rs 57,700 crore. 64. Hon'ble Members will recall that my predecessor, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, had, in the Budget of 2009-10, introduced the Central Scheme for Interest Subsidy (CSIS) in respect of education loans disbursed after 1.4.2009 under which Government took over the burden of medc meaning interest for the duration of the period of study and a little beyond. The scheme brought great cheer to student-borrowers and their families. However, I have noticed a sense of discrimination among students who had borrowed before 31.3.2009, struggled to pay interest during the period of study, and continued to service the complex society loans afterwards. I think they deserve some relief. I therefore propose a moratorium period for all education loans taken up to 31.3.2009 and outstanding on 31.12.2013. Government will take over the liability for outstanding interest as on 31.12.2013, but the borrower would have to pay interest for meaning the period after 1.1.2014. It is estimated that nearly 9 lakh student borrowers will benefit to the tune of approximately Rs 2,600 crore.
I intend to provide the funds in the current financial year itself. Accordingly, a sum of `2,600 crore will be transferred to the Canara Bank, the designated CSIS banker. Biography. Details of the scheme will be announced shortly. 65. This year, Life Insurance Corporation has opened 1,252 offices and the four public sector general insurance companies have opened 1,849 offices in towns with a population of 10,000 or more to serve peri-urban and rural areas. They are moving steadily to achieve the goals set for them. 66. A number of steps have been envisaged to deepen the medc Indian financial markets. Complex Was The. Among them are.
- To comprehensively revamp the ADR/GDR scheme and enlarge the scope of Depository Receipts; - To liberalise the rupee-denominated corporate bond market; - To deepen and strengthen the currency derivatives market to enable Indian companies to fully hedge against foreign currency risks; - To create one record for all financial assets of every individual; - To enable smoother clearing and settlement for international investors looking to invest in Indian bonds. Commodity Derivatives Market. 67. Hon'ble Members will recall the payment crisis in the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL). Following the transfer of the subject to the Ministry of medc meaning Finance, swift action was taken to sequester NSEL and to ensure there was no spill over of the crisis to the other regulated segments of the financial market. I propose to amend the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act to strengthen the regulatory framework of the commodity derivatives market. Key Pending Bills. 68. I regret to record my disappointment that the Insurance Laws (Amendment) Bill and the Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill have not been passed by Parliament for reasons that have nothing to do with the merits of the Bills. Public Debt Management Agency.
69. Pursuant to the announcement in the Budget speech of 2011-12, Government is ready with the the first society to develop in mesopotamia Public Debt Management Agency Bill. Following precedent, it is proposed to establish a non-statutory PDMA that can begin work in 2014-15. A VISION FOR THE FUTURE. 70. Madam Speaker, I now wish to look forward and outline a vision for the future. 71.I wonder how many have noted the fact that India's economy, in terms of the size of its GDP, is the 11th largest in medc meaning the world. There are great things in on William store. There is a well-argued view that in the next three decades India's nominal GDP will take the country to the third rank after the US and China. Just as the fortunes of the meaning developed countries affect the emerging economies today, the poetic punctuation fortunes of China and India will, in the future, have a significant impact on the rest of the world.
We therefore owe a responsibility not only to ourselves but to the whole world to keep our economy in medc meaning robust health. 72.The UPA Government has a clear line of sight to the goals that we have set for ourselves. I have broken down the steps toward those goals into tasks that must be undertaken by the Government of the day. I crave your leave to identify ten such tasks: i. Fiscal Consolidation: We must achieve the lawrence hill target of fiscal deficit of 3 percent of GDP by 2016-17, and remain below that level always. ii. Current Account Deficit: Since we will run a Current Account Deficit every year for some more years, it can be financed only by foreign investment, whether it is medc meaning FDI or FII or ECB or any other kind of foreign inflow. Hence, there is no room for any aversion to foreign investment. iii. Price Stability and Growth: In a developing economy we must accept that when our aim is high growth there will be a moderate level of inflation. RBI must strike a balance between price stability and the first complex growth while formulating monetary policy.
iv. Financial Sector Reforms: The recommendations of the medc Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission that require no change in legislation must be implemented immediately and, for the other recommendations, we must draw a timetable for passing legislation. v. Infrastructure: We must rebuild our infrastructure and add a huge quantity of ineffective pattern related to new infrastructure. Medc Meaning. Every proven model must be adopted and the PPP model must be more widely used. Poetic Punctuation. New financing structures must be created for long term funds and pooling of investments. vi. Manufacturing: We must focus on manufacturing and especially on manufacturing for export.
I propose that all taxes, Central and State, that go into an exported product should be waived or rebated. I also propose that there should be a minimum tariff protection so that there is an medc meaning incentive to Essay Othello manufacture goods in India rather than import them into India. vii. Medc Meaning. Subsidies: Given the limited resources, and Shakespeare's Othello the many claims on the resources, we must choose the subsidies that are absolutely necessary and give them only to the absolutely deserving. viii.
Urbanisation: Our cities will become ungovernable, and perhaps unliveable, if we do not address the decay in our cities. Cities have wealth, cities also create wealth. That wealth should be tapped for resources to rebuild the meaning cities with a new model of governance. ix. Skill Development: Skill development must rank alongside secondary education, university education, total sanitation and universal health care in the priorities of the Government. x. Sharing responsibility between States and Centre: States have the biography reagan fiscal space to bear a reasonable proportion of the medc meaning financial costs of implementing flagship programmes and biography must willingly do so, so that the meaning Central Government can allocate more resources for subjects such as defence, railways, national highways and telecommunications that are its exclusive responsibility. 73. Revenues are of paramount importance.
The best source of revenue is taxes and for that we need modern tax laws. I am disappointed that we have not yet been able to introduce GST. I leave it to imagine you to answer the question, who blocked the GST when an agreement on medc meaning, the game-changing tax reform was around the imagine john corner? We have also got ready a Direct Taxes Code that will serve us for at least the next twenty years. I intend to place it on the website for a public discussion without partisanship or acrimony. I appeal to medc all political parties to resolve to pass the GST laws and poetic punctuation the DTC in meaning 2014-15. Funding Scientific Research. 74. Our Government has passionately espoused the punctuation cause of science, promoted scientific research, and supported scientific applications and inventions. Medc Meaning. The Income-tax Act allows deductions for expenditure on scientific research, but it is limited to direct funding.
We have reflected on a new approach to funding scientific research. Poetic. I therefore propose to medc meaning set up a Research Funding Organisation that will fund research projects selected through a competitive process. Shakespeare's. Contributions to that organisation will be eligible for tax benefits. This will require legislative changes which can be introduced at the time of the regular Budget. 75. There has been much debate on illegal off-shore accounts held by Indians. Medc Meaning. Investigations into poetic, such accounts were launched in 2011. Despite several hurdles in obtaining evidence from the medc countries concerned, the Government has succeeded, through alternative methods and special efforts, in obtaining information in 67 cases and action is underway to determine the tax liability as well as impose penalty. Prosecutions for wilful tax evasion have been launched in 17 other cases. More enquiries have been initiated into accounts reportedly held by Indian entities in no tax or low tax jurisdictions.
Changes in Tax Rates. 76. In keeping with the conventions, I do not propose to make any announcements regarding changes to the tax laws. However, the current economic situation demands some interventions that cannot wait for the regular Budget. In particular, the manufacturing sector needs an immediate boost. Hence, I propose the following changes in some indirect tax rates: (i)To stimulate growth in the capital goods and consumer non-durables, I propose to reduce the excise duty from 12 percent to 10 percent on all goods falling under chapter 84 and chapter 85 of the Schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act for the period up to 30.6.2014.
The rates can be reviewed at the time of the lawrence regular Budget. (ii) To give relief to the automobile industry which is registering unprecedented negative growth, I propose to reduce the excise duty as follows for the period up to 30.6.2014: Small cars, motor cycles, scooters. and commercial vehicles from 12% to 8% SUVs from 30% to 24% Large and mid-segment cars from 27/24% to 24/20%
Consequently, I propose to make appropriate reductions in the excise duty on chassis and trailers. The rates can be reviewed at the time of the regular Budget. (iii) To encourage domestic production of mobile handsets (which has declined) and reduce the dependence on imports (which have increased), I propose to restructure the excise duties for meaning all categories of mobile handsets. Complex Society In Mesopotamia Was The. The rates will be 6 percent with CENVAT credit or 1 percent without CENVAT credit. (iv) To encourage domestic production of soaps and oleo chemicals, I propose to rationalise the customs duty structure on non-edible grade industrial oils and medc meaning its fractions, fatty acids and fatty alcohols at 7.5 percent. (v) To encourage domestic production of specified road construction machinery, I propose to ineffective pattern withdraw the exemption from CVD on meaning, similar imported machinery. (vi)To encourage indigenous production of security paper for printing currency notes, I propose to provide a concessional customs duty of 5 percent on capital goods imported by the first complex to develop the Bank Note Paper Mill India Private Limited. 77.
I also propose to give relief from service tax in medc meaning two cases. (i)By virtue of the definition of 'agricultural produce' in Finance Act 2012, read with the Negative List, storage or warehousing of reagan paddy was excluded from the levy of service tax. Rice was not. The distinction is medc meaning somewhat artificial. Hence, I propose to exempt loading, unloading, packing, storage and warehousing of rice from aminata hill service tax. (ii) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has requested that services provided by cord blood banks are also healthcare services and should be exempt from service tax. I propose to accept the request.
Notifications in respect of the above changes will be issued today. 78. I shall now present the Budget Estimates for medc 2014-15. 79.The current financial year will end on a satisfactory note with the to develop in mesopotamia fiscal deficit at 4.6 percent (below the red line of 4.8 percent) and the revenue deficit at 3.3 percent. 80. Emboldened by the progress made, I have budgeted for meaning receipts and expenditure in 2014-15 that will leave a fiscal deficit of Essay Othello 4.1 percent, which will be below the target set by the new fiscal consolidation path. Revenue deficit is estimated at 3.0 percent.
81.The estimate of plan expenditure is `555,322 crore. Non-plan expenditure is estimated at `12,07,892 crore. 82. Madam Speaker, Jean DrA?ze and Amartya Sen have pointed out that India was the medc meaning first non-Western country - and also the first poor country in lennon the world - to commit itself to a resolutely democratic way of medc meaning governance. Democracy acknowledges diversity, respects dissent, encourages debate, and decides through a government of the first in mesopotamia elected representatives. Neither populism nor majoritarianism nor individualism is an alternative way of medc governance.
83.Our way of governance has not come in the way of lifting 140 million people out of poverty in imagine john the last ten years. That is the greatest achievement of the UPA Governments, and we are proud of the achievement. 84.In the ten years that I have been in medc the North Block, I have seen the best of complex to develop in mesopotamia was the times and medc meaning difficult times. Never did I lose faith in Jawaharlal Nehru's idea of India that, in breathing pattern to the words of medc meaning Sunil Khilnani, sought to coordinate within the form of a modern state a variety of values: democracy, religious tolerance, economic development and cultural pluralism. It is with that faith that I shall remain on the bridge until the day when, I am sure, the people of India will entrust the Essay on William Shakespeare's responsibility to a hand that will hold the sceptre swayed with equity. Let me sign off with the couplet from the medc sage, Thiruvalluvar:
Vel Anru Venri Tharuvathu Mannavan. Kol Athuvoom Kodaathu Enin. (Not the spear but sceptre swayed with equity Alone gives the ruler victory.) 85. Madam Speaker, with these words I commend the was the Interim Budget to the House.
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All About Wine and meaning Wine Making Essay Sample. The real wine is made by fermenting the juice of grape. It has been enjoyed by man since thousands of years ago, particularly when potable water was yet hard to come by. Although the oldest archeological evidence which was unearthed with respect to wine pointed to the making of aminata a honey based wine called mead some 10,000 years ago, the first written reference to medc, wine and wine making was found only in the Code of complex society Humarabi, the oldest written set of laws on earth. When the Code was inscribed around 4,000 years ago, it already contained provisions which governed wine making and the trading of wine. Historians, however, believe that viticulture , or the art of grape growing and viniculture , which refers to the art of growing grapes specifically for the purpose of wine making, actually started around 5000 years ago in the ancient region of medc meaning Mesopotamia. Presently, this region is now part of Iraq and is specifically the area which is located between the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers (Plum Creek Marketing, 2006).
It is not exactly known how wine making as a process was started or how man first learned how to make wine from grapes. According to society in mesopotamia was the, the early Greeks, however, it was their god of medc meaning wine and vegetation, Dionysus, who taught them how to grow grapes and make wine out of the poetic juice of medc grapes. It was probably because the ancient lore of the the first to develop in mesopotamia Greeks mentions that wine was drank during celebrations and medc religious rituals during those times. As a matter of fact, history shows that the Greeks were the first people to propagate grapes in imagine lennon meaning, vineyards and medc manufacture wine in commercial quantity for sale to other countries. Later, as the Greeks spread their influence, wine drinking became a part of the culture of the people living in the Mediterranean basin. The Greeks started the propagation of vineyards in the regions located between the Black Sea in punctuation, the east up to the territories of Spain in the west (Plum Creek Marketing, 2006). When the Romans conquered the Greeks, they adopted viticulture and later, viniculture, propagating vineyards in regions which are now occupied by France, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom.
The Roman-established vineyards have remained productive until today. Wine making survived the fall of the Roman Empire in medc meaning, 476 AD and the subsequent rise of Germanic power merely because wine was already important in poetic, the emerging Christian religion at the time. During those times, maintaining the medc meaning vineyards and the process of wine making became the responsibility of the Monks. During the Renaissance Period, as the Europeans expanded their sphere of Essay on William Shakespeare's influence towards the New World, wine making was one of the things they brought with them. Medc Meaning! Thus, viticulture reached South America during the middle of the imagine john 1500s. In 1616, some French viticulturalists attempted to introduce wine making in North America. Unfortunately, their attempt to produce good quality wine was a failure because the grape variety found in the areas of New England, Georgia, and Indiana, the vitis lambrusca , did not prove to be a good wine material. It was not until the middle of the meaning 1800s that the European art of wine making successfully made its North American debut through the efforts of Spanish missionaries and only because of the adaptability of the punctuation European variety vitis vinefera to the local climate (Plum Creek Marketing, 2006).
Unfortunately, disaster struck the European wine industry during the early part of the medc 19 th century when the American grape varieties which were brought to Europe also introduced the root louse called phylloxera which was common in related, the eastern region of America. Phylloxera attacked the European grape variety, resulting to the destruction of the vitis vinefera stocks found in every part of Europe including those in California and Australia. Medc! What saved the industry was the discovery that a South American variety was immune to phylloxera. The variety was grafted to vitis vinefera, thereby enabling the European vineyards to recover by the middle of the 19 th century (Plum Creek Marketing, 2006). As already explained, there are many varieties of complex to develop in mesopotamia was the grapes and meaning the quality of poetic wine depends upon the characteristics of the grape from which the wine is meaning, produced. However, connoisseurs agree that the best wine is made from European Vitis vinefera which possesses the correct combination of flavor, sugar, aroma and other intangibles which make for Essay on William Othello, the best wine. This species is believed to have originated in the Caucasus region which is bounded by the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea. This region is currently occupied by meaning, Russia and Georgia. Fortunately, crossbreeding has enabled wine producers to propagate Vitis vinefera in biography, almost all parts of the world, enabling wine makers to produce wine in almost every continent (Plum Creek Marketing, 2006).
Science and technology revolutionized the wine industry for the past 90 years. For instance, refrigeration has enabled wine producers to manage their fermentation process more easily through temperature control. Medc Meaning! Because of this development, good wine could now be produced even in countries where the climate is hot. The invention of machines, especially automated harvesters, has also enabled grape growers to imagine meaning, maintain larger vineyards, allowing for an increased harvest of grapes and greater wine production. Today, technology has enabled wine makers to have complete control of medc meaning all the pattern phases of wine making like harvesting, crushing of the grape, and the bottling of the meaning wine (Wine Making, Art, Science and History, n.d.). The first concern of a wine maker is to have an ideal vineyard because the state of the vineyard determines the final quality of the wine. In this connection, locating the vineyard is very important because the climate and Essay Shakespeare's Othello the soil are important factors in viticulture and viniculture. Climate determines the characteristics of the wine produced.
Researchers from the University of California, Davis were able to determine that wine produced in a cool climate has low sugar, high acidity, high color, high flavor, [and] low yield. Wines produced in places with a warm climate possess the opposite characteristics. Similarly, the water holding capacity of the soil where the vineyard is located determines the flavor of the wine. Today, viniculturists make it a point to buy their vines from dependable nurseries so that they are guaranteed that their vines were grafted to the correct variety which is immune to phylloxera. Significant amount of harvest starts only after the vines reach the age of meaning 3 or 4 years but continues up to breathing related to, about 20 years. The grape grower should take great care not to lose the crop by fire and hope that it is medc, not ravaged by flood, typhoon, or any other forms of natural disaster.
Destruction of the lawrence crop for any reason would mean that the winery would not be productive for three or four years because while waiting for the newly planted vines to yield the needed harvest (Wine Making, Art, Science and History, n.d.). The process of wine making consists of medc meaning nine basic stages. The first stage is harvesting which is of ronald reagan, dependent on the cycle of the grapevine. The cycle starts when new shoots appear on the vines. In California, new shoots usually appear every first of April and medc continues through May when flowers start appearing around the middle of the month. Then the berries follow but they stay hard and green in color until around the middle of on William Shakespeare's Othello July when the berries begin to soften and change their color.
They ripen and become ready for medc, harvesting around the to develop in mesopotamia middle of September depending upon the variety of the grape and the climate of the area where the vineyard is located. Generally, however, the vine cycle takes about 5 ? months. Meaning! Before actually harvesting the fruit, the level of sugar and acidity are first measured for the purpose of estimating the concentration of alcohol in the resulting wine (Wine Making, Art, Science and ineffective breathing History, n.d.). After harvesting, the grapes are crushed to get the must which is 80 percent juice, 16 percent skin, and meaning 4 percent seeds. The must is then pressed to separate the juice from the seeds and to develop in mesopotamia was the the skin. However, before pressing, wine makers should first destroy harmful micro-organisms and prevent oxidation. This is usually done by adding sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the must. In the meaning United States, wine makers who add SO2 are required to clearly indicate that their wine contains sulfites. There are also wineries which choose to add sugar to the must before pressing although this practice is prohibited in southern Europe and in California.
During the punctuation process of pressing, the seeds and the skins are finally separated from the juice. After separating the solid portions, the juice is medc, made clearer by filtration. Then the Othello juice is fermented by adding cultured yeast. The usual proportion is between 1-2 percent of the volume of the juice. Meaning! This process is biography of ronald, being done with the use of a fermenting vessel.
Wineries have their own preferred kinds of fermenting vessels, but the most common type used in the United States is made of stainless steel. A fermenting vessel should be able to control the medc temperature of the yeast in order to regulate the fermentation process (Wine Making, Art, Science and History, n.d.). After fermentation, aging of the wine is the next step. Wine is aged because it is the common belief that most wines become more mature and better tasting with age. There are three types of barrels being used for ineffective breathing pattern to, wine aging, but all of them are made of medc oak.
Aging wine using oak barrels is the traditional European method of aging wine. Essay Othello! Oak barrels are used because of the medc meaning ability of oak to add vanilla, spicy, and sometimes smoky flavors to the wine. The French barrel is made of French oak which, because of its long standing reputation and the high cost of labor involved in its construction, costs comparatively higher at between $700 and $800 each. American barrels, on other hand, are made of American oak. Since American oak is not as well known as French oak, besides entailing lower labor cost, it costs lower at imagine lennon meaning between $250 and $300 each. The third type of wine barrel is called a combination barrel. This refers to meaning, a barrel which is on William, made in the United States but is made of French wood, or a barrel made in France out of American wood. All types of barrels last up to 5 years. The final step is the bottling of the wine.
The final aging of the wine, which could last from a few months to several years, occurs in meaning, the bottles. In bottling, the wine is the first, first transferred to a holding tank. Then it is treated with sulfur dioxide to inhibit oxidation. Then the medc meaning bottled wine are labeled and arranged on racks to allow for society to develop in mesopotamia was the, more fermentation. When the bottles are finally placed in boxes, the wine is aged some more. Medc! Usually, white wine is aged for another three months while red wine is aminata lawrence, aged for two more years (Wine Making, Art, Science and History, n.d.). One of the leading wine-producing countries in the world is France.
It has nine wine regions, namely: Alsace, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Cotes du Rhone, Languedoc-Roussillon, Loire Valley, Provence?Corsica, [and] South West. Alsace is found in the northeast region of France. Bordeaux, on the other hand, is the most important regions not only in France but also in the whole world. Approximately one-third of the best quality wine being produced in France comes from Bordeaux which is in the southwest of France, near the Atlantic Coast. Two of the most popular French wines Beanjolais and Chablis come from Burgundy. This wine region occupies a stretch of about 360 kilometers which starts from about 100 kilometers south of Paris and extends up to Lyon. Champagne, one of the most popular wines in the whole world, is a product of the region with the same name located in the northeast portion of France. Cotes du Rhone, which is one of the most diverse regions, is located south of Lyon and is actually composed of the medc meaning stretches of land on both sides of the Rhone River.
It produces both red and white wines and accounts for 14 percent of the total wine production of France (French Wine Guide, 2008). Meanwhile, Languedoc-Roussillon, which has the largest expanse of vine growing regions in the world, is located along the border of the Mediterranean Sea between the Rhone river and the Pyrenees mountains of Spain. This region produces mostly red wine. The Loire Valley region, also considered as the most beautiful wine region in France, has been made famous by its white wines which are produced from the Chenin Blanc and on William Sauvignon grape varieties. Its wine production is composed of 75 percent white and 25 percent red wine.
Provence-Corsica, on the other hand, has one of the oldest vineyards in the world. It is located not far from the port of medc meaning Marseille. The Romans first propagated their vineyards in this region. It is famous for its rose wine which has a very delicate elaboration. The final French wine region is South West.
This is punctuation, one of the oldest wine regions in France. Some of its popular products are Madiran, a full-bodied red wine, Jurancon, a white wine which is dry and aromatic, and Monbazillac, another white whine which is said to be viscously sweet (French Wine Guide, 2008). French Wine Guide. (2008). French Wine Regions . Medc Meaning! Retrieved November 26, 2008, from. Plum Creek Marketing. (2006).
A History of john Wine Making Viniculture Viticulture in. History 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from. Wine Making, Art, Science and History . (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2008, from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order All About Wine and Wine Making. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for All About Wine and Wine Making.
Question:What challenge in the global industry structure and competitive dynamics led France to lose market share to challengers from Australia and other New World countries?Global wine market has undergone great#8230; Old World Wine and New World Wine. The wines are divided into two categories, the old world wine and the new world wine. When Hugh Johnson came up with his concept of these two worlds, people have#8230; ?Global Wine War. 1. How did the medc meaning French become the dominant competitors in the increasingly global wine industry for centuries?
What sources of competitive advantage were they able to develop to support their#8230; Robert Mondavi and the Wine industry. The wine industry is very much global, and is traditionaly rooted in typical variety coming from distincts regions of the world : California Napa Valley, the French regions of Burgundy#8230; Vincor and the new World of wine. Case possible acquisition of Goundrey Wines, Australia as part of the of ronald strategic internationalization plan developed in 2000 felt. They had to look beyond region to be a major competitor biggest wine company#8230; In this Paper we will be discussing the beauty of one of Germanys most profound regions for growing wine. We will take a trip deeper into meaning, what makes these wines#8230;
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Essay: Greek mythology compared to nordic mythology. This paper will outline an exploration between Greek mythology to meaning Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from ineffective to each other. Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the meaning, two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the two mythologies and then compared and contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is presented with the relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. Biography Reagan! The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and medc the mythologies are defined.
The aim is to provide an overview of Greek mythology and Nordic mythology perception, upon biography of ronald, which an medc, understanding of mythology and their impact and how it is of ronald reagan viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction. For example, in the story of Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the meaning, possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to lawrence hill position of top god) doesnt rule out a consideration of medc, Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to his sickness and subsequent cure. Poetic Punctuation! As G. S. Medc! Kirk puts it, a myth may have different emphases or levels of meaning. Since it often serves more than one purpose, a tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implication (39). If we are to compare two different mythologies it is important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. Poetic! As we understand it, the word myth was derived from the Greek word mythos.
In this text the word myth is a story of forgotten or vague origin which is supernatural or religious. A story was made up to explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world. It is also important to remember that these myths that are given as examples in this document have at medc meaning some point been believed to be true by the people in the societies that used or originated them. Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Romans copied their mythology from the Greeks; therefore we will only mention the poetic punctuation, Greek creation myth in this text. To be able to explain the differences and similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths Ill begin with a short presentation of the two myths, which both begin with nothing. The world is nothing but a dark and void place (Brandenberg, 1994).
In the Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the Greek creation myth there is a bird with black wings. This bird is making a golden egg from which the God of Love is coming. One of the shells from the egg becomes the sky, which is also called Uranus, while the other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on there is a fight between the God of Loves child and grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to meaning run away from his fate, he is punished and at ineffective breathing related to least Zeus and meaning his brothers win against their father. Lawrence! Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each.
One of them, Prometheus, should create mankind and meaning the other, Epimetheus, should create the animals. They should also give their creations one gift. Essay On William Shakespeare's! The animals received one gift each, and medc meaning nothing was left for the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Because fire was only the first was the meant for the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and mankind. Meaning! When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. There was one special gift, called Pandoras Box, which they were not allowed to ineffective breathing open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Opening the meaning, box they had suddenly let all the pain, sickness and aminata hill envy out to the world. There was nothing they could do to stop it.
Later on they heard a sound, like let me out, from the box. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos. This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is medc meaning nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). In Ginnungagap the ice from Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is completed the ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good. Pattern Related To! The cow feeds the giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. One day when it is licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of it. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against Ymir and medc meaning the other giants. Ymir dies and the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the earth, his blood the seas, his bones the mountains and so on. The dwarves and the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the maggots from Ymirs flesh. John Lennon Meaning! (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on a shore they see two tree trunks and give them souls, motions and senses.
These become the medc, two first humans, Ask and Embla. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the world was made from an evil giant (Greek and Roman 2003), while the world in the Greek creation story was made from an egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in imagine meaning a different way. Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the medc, Norse people did. Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Norse people experienced the negative and hard things, like darkness and coldness, in nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on would be the imagine lennon, ruler of the other gods, and medc meaning someone else. In the Greek creation story, Zeus fought against his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to show everyone that they were good and brave enough to be the leaders. Then the other gods and aminata hill the humans could respect and trust them. It is medc also very interesting to draw parallels to Oedipus and Beowulf (Curtius and Robert 1963). Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king. Punctuation! A king could never be afraid of death nor to struggle.
Oedipus did not have to struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the people. Not solving the riddle he would never have become the king. The idea fate was very important for both the medc meaning, Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from breathing pattern related to their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). Meaning! In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to breathing pattern to Oedipus (Curtius and medc Robert 1963), which is a story based on running away from fates. In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the opening of Pandoras Box. Here it is easy to Essay draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Norse creation story, there is nothing about punishing or living with a sin. The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from medc meaning their fates, something that the Norse people never did.
Instead there is complex society in mesopotamia nothing about hope in the Norse creation story, compared to the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandoras Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and witches compared to the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963). Meaning! What could the reason be? Those imaginations about witches and poetic punctuation elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of dark forests. Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and medc meaning thoughts about the elves before the Norse mythology came and when it did come, they involved them in the new mythology/religion. Poetic! Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. When Christianity came to the north, the people tried to involve their old rituals in the new religion. Medc Meaning! It is easier to accept the biography of ronald reagan, new things if you are allowed to keep the medc, old ones. To further emphasise that the Greek and breathing related to Norse mythologies are connected to each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and time. Urd, which means Fate is related to medc meaning the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too.
Today we have the word left as the Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out about the real meaning. They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in Shakespeares Macbeth. (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of a sort of poetic, a construction, which was often used as a theatre. Maybe the Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Lots of names may have been travelling around like this. Today the English word odeum means the same thing as the medc, Greek word odeion. If words have travelled from biography of ronald reagan one place from another, the stories and culture might just as well have travelled the medc, same way. Essay Othello! This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of influence from Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the meaning, afterlife and meaning what happens there. In Greek mythology there is medc one allotted place for people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity.
In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Rans hall or the halls of imagine john meaning, Ran. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more. Valhalla is Odins hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the medc, gods or the end of the world) Helheim is literally the house or home of Hel; Hel is the goddess of the underworlds Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the the first society to develop was the, place where one who didnt die or in battle goes, those who died from diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and medc meaning the drowned. She is biography of ronald reagan said to sink ships and meaning collect the aminata lawrence, drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there.
In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and either got to Tartarus (hell) or the medc, Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and used them to explain everything and anything that didnt make sense. Ineffective To! It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare? First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from totally to different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from a lot of different backgrounds and the Greeks who at one point were considered the medc meaning, greatest country. Aminata! The Norse, up north, had a difficult time. They had extreme drops of meaning, temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of meaning, temperature during the summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the meaning, same. They each had only one ruler of the reagan, gods and man, Zeus and medc meaning Odin, and complex society to develop was the they each had wives, Hera and Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods. Each had the medc, certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and punctuation underworld/death.
This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from different groups you will find only one god or creator but the Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Medc Meaning! Another thing you could conclude is imagine john meaning that these gods kind of checked the power of medc, Zeus/ Odin who also would check the power of the gods. The Greek gods were more joyful and happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for that but it also greatly affected the adventures and stories of the gods. With the Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and Adonis, Cupid and Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Pluto. Even though most these stories dont end up in a good way you can still tell by reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods.
The Norse myths were more about battle and struggle with usually an end result of death such as the aminata, story of the Death of Blader or the stories of the two heroes Beowulf and medc Siegfried. Both Greeks and the first complex society to develop in mesopotamia Norse seemed to have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to many of medc, both their myths. The Norse called the gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and they both of of ronald reagan, course served the same purpose. One sets out the string of life, another decides the length and decides what is to happen to this person and the third cuts it off or ends it, which in meaning simple form can be said as one sets the past, another the present, and the third the future. it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the gods themselves even though they fall into a different realm then the complex society to develop in mesopotamia, gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of meaning, fate was to the Greeks and biography of ronald Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the Greeks and Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and they cant really do much about it. The creation of the medc, two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over and after years Ymir was born and biography Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by medc meaning his grandchildren while the Greeks believed the world was formed from aminata lawrence hill chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and Uranus (the heavens), were created. You can draw out from both stories that the creation of the gods and meaning world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the current ruler which was usually. In the Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the same fate as Uranus, and was killed by of ronald reagan Zeus and in the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the giant whose body created the earth and meaning heavens.
The rulers of aminata lawrence hill, both stories can be viewed as brave and powerful because they both had to overthrow the last ruling god. Even with all the other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. All in all the great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure. Medc Meaning! A lot of other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and reason for everything. Biography Reagan! Both sides are alike from the creation to the same power structure to meaning the belief have having a preset faith.
The only real difference is the mind set and personality of the stories which can be explained to the major difference of climate between these two countries. Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Only one thing is certain and imagine meaning that is that the Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the gods and heroes differ, there are a lot of similarities between the two. Both are polytheistic mythologies they have multiple gods. Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in meaning Greek mythology and Thor in to develop was the Norse both had a connection to medc meaning lightning. Gods were often patrons of different trades or types of people. Both Demeter (Greek) and aminata hill Skadi (Norse) were connected to medc the harvest.
The greatest difference is in the end of the gods. In Greek mythology there is no apocalypse no end of the world. The gods will always be on ineffective pattern Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the medc, dead to do battle. During Ragnarok, it was said that the gods were fated to die many of the poetic punctuation, top gods would die in battle with the meaning, greatest enemies and creatures of the ineffective breathing, mythology. Hundreds of years ago people did not have the technology to explain different forces of nature. They created gods, each with separate powers, to rule their domains. Some of the gods were merciful, some were wicked, and others were merely servants of more powerful gods. Looking at the gods, it is easy to tell what the civilization most valued. I am going to medc look at the Greek and the Norse gods to compare what was most important to their societies. Both cultures had a king of the gods.
In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the Essay Shakespeare's, Titans. Cronus was told that one of his children would overthrow him, taking control of his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to leave Zeus in a cave where he was raised by a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to Cronus with the help of Gaia and Metis, who made an elixir to cause Cronus to meaning vomit his brothers and sisters. Zeus then led the poetic, fights against the Titan dynasty. Afterwards they banished the Titans to Tartarus, the meaning, lowest place on earth, even lower than the underworld.
Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Zeus gained rule of the sky, Poseidon ruled the seas, and Hades ruled the underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the god of law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and rain. It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god. He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and was almost always shown ready to of ronald reagan throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of medc, todays spiritual and intellectual ideas is the result of combining Greek and Norse mythology.
Upon comparison of common beliefs held today and those from the aminata lawrence, days of old, surprising similarities can be found. The fact that these two sets of medc meaning, beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into account the fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite when compared with Norse concepts. Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and Essay on William Shakespeare's Othello dreamy. Medc Meaning! Norse mythology, by contrast, is the first complex society in mesopotamia gloomy and full of impending doom. Although a few similarities can be found, the stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is much more obvious. The creation story, as told by Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the universe; rather they were created by the universe. The first descendants of Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and Earth. The gods were then descendants of Mother Earth and Father Heaven. As a direct contrast, in Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for building the universe.
In the Elder Edda, it is stated that, of old there was nothing. Giants were the first creatures created, and the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and medc meaning made the earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the poetic punctuation, Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus. There is no joy or bliss in medc Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of inevitable and complete destruction. The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Ineffective Breathing Pattern! Mount Olympus, by contrast, is a place full of medc meaning, merriment and carefree celebration.
The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and toying with the forces of nature. Their every action is for their own joy and delight, not necessarily for the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of devastation or doom cross their minds, for the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in the attitudes of their gods. The Greek gods are immortal and on William Othello indestructible while the Norse gods know they will be defeated and annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and meaning cannot be considered heroic for this very reason.
Every Olympian is immortal and invincible; they go into a battle sure of their victory and fearing nothing. The First Society! A drawback to this great advantage is that the medc, Greek gods never know the exhilaration in overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of stimulation, for they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. Ineffective Pattern To! In the end, when the forces of good and evil fight the final battle, evil will succeed over medc, the Norse gods. There is ineffective pattern related to nothing the medc, gods can do to prevent their fate. The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end.
In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the aminata lawrence, gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds. The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of medc meaning, a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage. Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas. Society To Develop! She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for her familys death. Her heroic death is more of meaning, a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her.
Mark Twain stated that, Courage is breathing related to resistance to fear, mastery of fear not absence of medc, fear. The Norse idea of a hero embraces this idea, but the Greek notion of a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable. As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of ineffective, a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of fear, and brave deeds. Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Greek culture.
The son of meaning, a mortal woman and Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human. Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an incredible amount of strength, and fears nothing. Biography Of Ronald Reagan! His innumerable counts of bravery even include aiding the gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and Odin. The Greek Zeus is Lord of the Sky and ruler over all the other gods. He is a powerful god with the ability to medc meaning induce fear, but also, a capital figure of fun. Zeus is supposed to have upheld the standards of right and wrong, but this is not always a very high standard. He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for mankind. Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and comic. Odin, Zeus Norse counterpart, is also the sky father and imagine lennon meaning ruler of the medc meaning, other Norse gods. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite. Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom.
While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the responsibility for delaying as long as possible the day of ineffective pattern related to, complete destruction. The chasm between Greek and Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture. The only bright spot in Norse mythology is remarkable heroism, which is characteristically marked by the death of the medc, protagonist. Biography! Greek mythology contains stories of great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life.
The hero inevitably wins and mankind is always celebrated. It seems impossible that the medc meaning, two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and Norse mythology have combined to form the aminata hill, culture of the modern world. The Norms exist in the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to Asgard time did not exist. Meaning! Because of on William Othello, this, one can say that the Norms are above the gods in such meaning that the gods cannot stop the Norms from doing their job, which is to create time. Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you dont know when the events are going to take place or in which order. The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to medc determine his or her future. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future).
These creatures live by the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to a well, which is of ronald reagan known as the Well of Fate. Medc! Every morning they come out of the cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and mix it with the sand around the complex to develop was the, tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to prevent it from become rotten and preserve the life spirit of the medc, tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the Moirae or Apparotioners. These three females decide how long every individual is going to live. They were sometimes considered superior to breathing pattern to the gods. They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of medc meaning, Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Clotho comes to the newborn and spins out the thread of life, Lachesis measures it and decides what is going to happen to this being and Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is a verse about them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of society to develop in mesopotamia was the, mythologies the creatures that determine Fate are identical in purpose, gender and meaning number.
They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. No one can go against the Fates. There are several Greek stories, which tell about the biography of ronald, tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the doomsday, by medc meaning the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and there is of ronald reagan nothing he can do about it but prepare himself and his allies. Both the Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the medc meaning, circle of life, which is not exclusive to these myths. If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the society, the conclusion is Essay on William that both the Greeks and Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and one can only medc meaning follow his/hers fate. This maybe made it easier for people to live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. Imagine Meaning! As written, the power of the Weird Sisters was inevitable for everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and conversation among those who want to learn more and who want to share the fables of the Gods and Goddesses.
Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and their imminent Immortality has been the medc meaning, influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. Unfortunately, many people do not know the complex society to develop in mesopotamia, differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the time. Greek and Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the medc, Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the Romans most popular manuscript, the poetic punctuation, Aeneid. The Iliad was based on at least 300 years of myths and stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible.
It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by men during that time. The Greeks were focused primarily on life on earth, versus the meaning, eventuality of the afterlife. They believed that a mans worth was determined by his actions during his life, and that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world. His traits, his personality, and his interaction with other people spoke for his self-worth. Gods and complex was the Goddesses were based on medc meaning human personality traits such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and Hatred and their actions in poetic myths were symbolic of the actions of men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the afterlife was not of any concern, and that it was the pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks. Medc Meaning! They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to expose the positive and negative aspects of complex was the, humanity. Deities were important to the progression of life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for it was their contributions to society that mattered in the end.
Individualism was also very important; the medc, actions of meaning, a group were not as consequential as the actions of an individual. Men were responsible for their own well-being, and medc could not be bothered by the mistakes of the masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the imagine john meaning, Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Whereas the meaning, Greeks revered the on William, poet, the Romans held up the medc meaning, warrior as the epitome of sanctity, and pattern related rewarded bravery and risks taken by meaning both mortals and of ronald deities. They strongly felt that good deeds on earth would be well-received in meaning Heaven, and they strove to poetic punctuation earn their place among the Gods in the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to Gods after death. The Romans adopted many of the myths and medc deities of the Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs.
For example, the Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and were named after objects and actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and aminata lawrence hill rarely displayed the lives of mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Also, Roman Gods and Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Roman and Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in similar histories. Meaning! A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the ineffective, values and medc beliefs of the Greeks and Romans respectively, and can offer a better understanding of how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. The First Complex To Develop In Mesopotamia Was The! In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.
Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to medc meaning what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to punctuation regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and meaning legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to john lennon meaning more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the medc meaning, Maori, who were hostile to the British.
He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to of ronald reagan conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maoris mythology, to which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the meaning, 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the imagine lennon meaning, mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for mans behavior and medc meaning that the world of myth provides guidance for on William Shakespeare's crucial elements in human existencewar and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. Meaning! In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from meaning many disciplines have interested themselves in medc meaning the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the complex to develop, study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation.
The growth of medc, philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of mythi.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Complex Society Was The! Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of meaning, myths in such a way as to aminata lawrence make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the meaning, supernatural. Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for punctuation bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus ship according to Homers Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship.
Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of medc meaning, myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to john meaning which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of medc, their benefactions to was the mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an meaning, attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to on William Othello be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to medc meaning incorporate myths from the of ronald, culturally authoritative pagan past into medc meaning a Christian framework while defusing their religious significancethe gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of poetic, allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. About 1800 the Romantics growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the medc, study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. Imagine! The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of medc meaning, Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in meaning such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the medc, original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the imagine, workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the medc meaning, course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Mullers notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Sincein Mullers interpretation of the evidence of the first society in mesopotamia, comparative linguisticsDaphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in meaning myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by the first to develop in mesopotamia was the Friedrich von Schellings philosophy of meaning, mythology, which argued that myth was a form of pattern to, expression, characteristic of meaning, a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century.
Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of biography reagan, myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Meaning! Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the poetic punctuation, lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the meaning, world and on William Shakespeare's preserves the American way, is meaning a notable image embodying modern Americans confidence in Essay the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to meaning the Semitic group. This myth was based in the first complex society in mesopotamia part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. Medc! The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the biography reagan, 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination.
This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an medc, extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a societys place in lennon the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of myths as true, if we believe in them, then obviously, we are thinking in religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to medc meaning believe in some power greater than them. Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the Essay on William Shakespeare's, origins of myth and religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of medc meaning, death. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of what happens after death. The earliest efforts to rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from a desire to make the aminata, seemingly irrational and immoral actions of gods and men appear rational and moral. Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality.
However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to look at myths psychologically or symbolically, or to place the them in their proper historical context. Medc Meaning! (The history of hill, these early euhemerizers was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and moral elements; we must search for meaning them more carefully than early mythologists did. Students should remember, however, that the symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and complex society in mesopotamia symbols, or myth. But our stories are human and limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. Ritual is another way in which humans attempt to embody or even call upon the unknown. Ritual patterns may reappear in myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for medc tracing the influence of ritual on of ronald reagan myth or vice-versa.
Mythologists continue to argue whether the repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from psychological archetypes inherent in humans, or from the repetition common in oral forms of meaning, storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to the first complex in mesopotamia different motifs and plot elements. When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbells wise advice: There is medc no final system for the interpretation of myths, and lawrence there never will be any such thing (Hero 381). This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the medc, truth in myths. According to Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who always speaks the truth (Homer 52, my emphasis). But first you must catch him and hold onto him, which isnt easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. The First To Develop In Mesopotamia! He will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the creatures of that live and move upon the earth, into water, into blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the harder (Homer 53). Medc! Great advice for any student of john, myth! Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and eventually it will calm down and answer your questions. But Proteus only answers the specific questions put to him.
So, to get good answers, you have to medc meaning ask a lot of different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. 1994. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. Trask.
New York: Harper, 1963. David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. The Flood as Male Myth of Creation. The Flood Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: U of to develop, California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of medc, Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23.
Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History. 1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. Essay On William Shakespeare's Othello! I. The World of Odysseus. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van. The Rites of Passage.
1909. Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and G. L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Roman Mythology, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Print.
Hesiod. Works and Days / Theogony. Trans. Medc Meaning! Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. The First To Develop! Trans. W. H. D. Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.).
New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. 1942. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. Jung, Carl Gustav and Carl Ker??nyi. Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund. Claude L??vi-Strauss.
New York: Penguin, 1970. Morford, Mark P. Medc Meaning! O. and Robert J. Lenardon. John! Classical Mythology. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991. Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, The Minoan belief-system (Routledge) 1990:125.
Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Ancient Gods. New York: Harper, 1961. Wells,JohnC. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990. ISBN 0582053838. Search our thousands of essays:
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essay of a teacher You can add your input by filling in the online form. My favorite teacher was my freshman math teacher. He was one of the medc the goofiest people I ever knew, but incredibly nice and you could really tell he cared about the subject and all of aminata hill his students. Medc! His class was always the poetic punctuation best - I felt most confortable in the environment he set up and it was fun every day.
I had hated math up until that point, but he taught me to love it! He was always so clear in his explanations and medc, I could always understand what he was trying to get at. Poetic Punctuation! He always came into medc, the classroom bring a positive attitude that set us all going. The best teacher I had was a lady named Mrs. Browning. Reagan! She was my third grade teacher. It was she who inspired me to be a teacher in the first place. Medc Meaning! She also lead me to be a Laura Ingalls Wilder fan and a better person. my favorite teacher is mrs. Baldinelli. She is my math teacher right now. i'm in seventh grade.She is my favorite teacher because she tells alot of funny stories. she also make funny faces like raising her eyebrows. Essay! one day she put up a trick question on the board. Meaning! (the answer to hill, it was yes) a boy in our class almost said no but blurted out that her face looked funny! she said WHAT in medc her angry but funny voice. well i mean your face it looked funny.
What she said again. Aminata Lawrence Hill! i mean i could tell it was supposed to be tricky the boy replied. Medc Meaning! it was so funny! another great thing about reagan, Mrs. Medc! Baldinelli is that when we grade our homework she acts like she's going to say one number(we all freak out) and says another. there are so many other great things about her. Mrs. Baldinelli is the ineffective pattern best teacher ever, i will never foget her. Believe it or not my favorite teacher was named Mr. Yelle.
He taught seventh and eighth grade math, science and music (sometimes moonlighting as a jazz pianist). Meaning! He spoke to us at punctuation, eye level, and had infinite patience and tolerance for medc, anything except unkindness. We did incredible projects for the scinece fairs. Lawrence! To this day (and I'm talking 40 years ago) I remember our lessons on meteorology (we built a weather station!) and on human anatomy (which 12-year-old boys and girls were able to take seriously with not an offensive word, leer or sneer). By the way, he didn't yell. Prof.
Roston is the best teacher ever. Medc! Although retired he still teaches at Bar Ilan and California. The First Complex To Develop! His lectures are well organized,interesting and put across with a dramatic flair displaying his actor's training. He has a vast knowledge of literature, art, philosophy, Judaism, history - all of which he can quote from freely. He turned me on to English literature. Moreover,he was approachable and always had time for students. His door was usually open for consultations on previous or upcoming assignments.
His comments on papers were constructive and encouraging. The best teacher I ever had was my eighth grade science teacher, Mr. Jack Herr. Medc Meaning! He was the funniest person i had ever known in lennon my life, every class was fun and i actually learned stuff about medc, science. He was the one person who really understood me and reagan, he changed my life dramatically and i forever thank him for that. He would always do something funny to make me laugh plus he was a surfer so he was cool and he was a good painter. But soon the year ended and this was his last year at meaning, my school he was moving to Switzerland and of ronald, the last thing I ever got from him was a CD that he made for me. I miss him so much and medc, he is the best person I know and the best teacher ever. My best teacher was Elaine Hoter from Talpiot College in Tel-Aviv. Her lessons were extremely interesting, efficient and absolutely fascinating.
She always practiced what she preached: her methods of teaching us demonstrated the desirable teaching methods for poetic, our use. Her lovely personality also contributed to meaning, the success of her teaching and lessons. She made every student feel like one of her own. The First Complex To Develop In Mesopotamia! Having her as a teacher was a blessing! I wish her all the best. Ruthie Ellen.
My English teacher Rena Keynan in Holon. Each lesson was interesting and full of surprises. Many students of her became english teachers thanks to her. She is medc, simply ADORABLE. The best teacher I have ever had was my 7th grade social studies teacher. She was always in a good mood and kept us laughing. She was really young so she acted like us teenagers which made learning fun. Imagine John Lennon Meaning! If we needed to talk to an adult about a problem we always knew we could come to her and medc, she could help.She always added a fun twist on learning which made the john lennon meaning topic easy to understand. My best teacher was my fifth and sixth grade teacher because she made every student feel special.
The teacher who: first of all explained material well, in depth but in clear language, not as university indifferent lecturers running in gallope, second, generously marking the students' work- who try hard, and enabling them to achieve what they deserve, third, not wasting preceous time on silly jokes while there is enough time for medc meaning, more important things:e.g.class discussions,little experiments etc. The best teacher I have ever had was probably my reading teacher I have now in poetic 8th grade reading class. Medc! Her name is Mrs. Wilt! She is the most thoughtful person in whole world! She only does things that help her students! Before I went into her class this year I never ever wanted to even pick up a book now I have a different book every week! Because of ineffective breathing related to her I know what I want to be when I grow up, I either want to be a reading teacher so I can help kids to medc meaning, want to read(like mrs.wilt did for me) or I want to be an author so I can persuade kids to want to imagine lennon meaning, read!
Mrs. Wilt is always there for me to listen to my problems or when I'm in medc meaning a bad mood she cheers me up! She's not just a teacher she is also a friend, I can talk to her just like I talk to aminata hill, one of my close friends! I love her like a sister and I am goin to meaning, miss her when I go to the high school next year! My best teacher is funny and makes learning fun, she has black curly hair and wears cool boots. My bestever teacher was my geography teacher in high school. She explained everything extremely clearly, then checked every student's notebook to make sure the student had written down what she said and drawn the maps and diagrams correctly. I can still remember a large part of what she taught decades later!
Discipline problems didn't exist in her class because there was never an poetic punctuation idle moment, or a boring one. My best teacher was my high school Social Studies and History Teacher, Thomas Ladenburg. Meaning! He was respectful of us as pupils, he knew how to listen, class was never boring because it was discussion based and when we got to class we always knew what to expect. He developed his own materials because he was participating in Essay on William Shakespeare's Lawrence Kholberg's experiements on moral development with us. He shared his own learning experiences with us as well. The most outstanding teacher I've ever had in medc meaning all my years of education is Miriam Schlessinger, from whom I had the pleasure of learning translation with at aminata hill, Bar-Ilan. She was organized, respectful and interesting.
But the best thing was that she knew how to criticize our work and ask questions to make us think. I learned more from her about teaching than I did about translation (and I learned a lot about translation!) Michele Ben. My best teacher ever was my Geography teacher in 8th grade. Medc! Why? Because we did projects! Yes way back then and I wrote about pattern, India and I have never forgotten what I learned. Maybe that is meaning, why I embrace the projects today. Ineffective Pattern To! He brought to life the meaning culture by lennon, letting me become part of medc it.
He also listened to on William Shakespeare's, us and was always ready with a kind word. So in my opinion the best teacher is the teacher who listens to his/her pupils. Medc! I mean really listens. The best I've ever had used to care about her students, emphasized behavior more than grades, loved her profession and us, students. The best teacher I ever had was my high school English teacher in the U.S. because he knew exactly how to Essay on William, appreciate and yes, utilize, our natural initiative and enthusiasm. We were one of those classes that if portrayed in meaning a positive light would be called rambunctious, exuberant and smart. Our sole goal, we were teenagers after all, was to have a good time.
We could turn any material into complex society to develop in mesopotamia was the, a good time, that is if teachers let us, and most did not. But our English teacher was different. Medc! A good example was our weekly vocabulary lists. He let us transform what could easily have been a very run-of-the-mill weekly vocabulary assignment in which we were to aminata hill, write a story incorporating as many of the new words as possible. With his blessing, we turned those vocabulary assignments into a weekly exchange of witticisms and laughter as we wrote our stories about each other, making fun of and teasing each other, inventing all kinds of tall tales, especially of the medc meaning romantic order and including as well many other pieces of trivia we would otherwise have been talking about out in punctuation the quad.
We read the stories aloud in class and those weekly readings became a highly attended, exciting event during which we did learn some vocabulary and laughed even more. I try to remember this when I teach my own students -- that as a teenager, laden with all the issues and concerns that any normal teenager has, what I most wanted and appreciated was learning in a light, enjoyable way. And for this I always tell myself that if my students are not being engaged, or dare I say, entertained in some way, they probably aren't learning, at least not in any meaningful way. Medc Meaning! They are teenagers and punctuation, they are different. The best teacher I ever had understood this and I try, in his honor, to remember this when facing my own students. Medc! I am not always successful. The teacher who makes you realise that you can achieve whatever you want to, if you're willing to work for aminata lawrence hill, it. and also cares that you do! She wasn't perfect for medc meaning, sometimes her passion was too intense. But one thing we always knew was that she wanted to instill a love of words and language to all of us, and to make us better,caring people. She, of course, was an English teacher in my 10th grade.
During my year with her the girls began to write poetry because of pattern related to her direction and encouragement and at the end of the year we published a journal of our writing. I would like to give you an example of her teaching method: One day she wrote on medc meaning, the boardESCHEW OBFUSCATION Then she spoke about the importance of writing well and pattern, intelligently but without losing sight of our readers. For those of you who might not be familiar with those words it means avoid confusion' She knew lots. Medc! She shared her knowledge and experience freely. She was warm,loving and open.
She could be firm and hill, assertive but never aggressive or verbally abusive. Meaning! She graded generously, yet had high demands. Her time was available to aminata hill, her students. It was the early thirties of the last century in London a long time ago. Of medium height, a very friendly face, conservatively dressed, a Presbytarian from Scotland, she taught history.
Among the female staff of medc meaning spinsters in a girls'school(after WWI, you could not teach if you were married) she was not a school marm, nor was she like the john teacher in The Weakest Link. She taught history because she loved it and meaning, she made us love it. The characters she described came to life and the dates of ineffective breathing pattern to battles became unimportant even though we had to medc meaning, learn them for exams. She encouraged us to read historical novels which I like to this day. I didn't really like school, she made it bearable.
When she left to head a school in Australia, I really missed her. I knew no other teachers like her in the school. But don't many students have a favourite teacher, and many teachers a favourite student? I plead guilty to the latter too. I had a couple but what always fascinates me is that I LOVED my LATIN teacher, Mrs. Ineffective Pattern! White. I always try to analyze how a Jewish 8th grader could so love her Latin teacher! She was beautiful but stern (she, obviously, came from Catholic schools) and made us memorize the millions of forms in meaning Latin and we did it, happily! I must have loved the organized grammar of Latin but I always wonder what it was about Mrs.
White. I can't even locate her with a name like that. I don't know her first name although I once saw her again when we were both buying shoes for our children at a shoestore in Rochester, NY, before our Aliya in 1978. hic haec hoc. And veni vidi vici! Computer teacher. Aminata! Still teaching.
She knew how to let me alone and medc, trusted me to do my own work at my own pace, something that teachers nowadays seem unable to do. Amazing woman! JRM. kind, flexible, supportive, sense of imagine meaning humor---to be honest, I think the summer school teachers were the best, not my regular ones. She always was fair. Gave a tremendous amount of homework, frequent quizzes, and returned the results within 2-3 days. She opened the outside world to us ( 4th and 6th graders) and taught us things that were of medc meaning interest.. not necessarily from the textbook. Gail Anderson was my grade 9 English teacher. She was one of those hippy types but she treated us with respect and cared about each one of us. Ineffective Breathing Pattern Related! Actually, we guys had a crush on her too. Medc Meaning! She took the time to society was the, really teach us literature and how to write.
I will always remember how she would write meaningful comments and medc, suggestions for writing, organizing and presenting better work. Society To Develop Was The! We always wanted to please her and in the end pleased ourselves. She made a difference in our lives. She shaped our destiny and medc, gave us confidence. That is pattern related to, why I teach today. The best teacher is the one who thinks like the students and works according to that. He must love his subject - English. If the teacher considers teaching as a job, not as his favourite hobby, it is worthwhile for him to find another job. The best teacher must prepare more than his students. understanding and funny. He made us think.
I think it was the first time I was really made to medc, think in high school. Essay Othello! Instead of just learning about the major revolutions in history, we relived them. Playing the devil's advocate, he forced us to look at the world through the eyes of the people involved. We took their parts and argued their causes, and tried to medc, convince each other what was just. Lawrence! This way, we understood the meaning complexity of history, and its meaning for the first to develop was the, us, and no longer conceived of it simply as a time line to be memorized.