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Frequently Asked Questions About the Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service. Students get a response to their writing while it is fresh in their minds. They find out Learning Essay immediately how their work compares to a standard and motivated what they should do to improve it. The Criterion service also provides an environment for writing and Adult Learning revision that students can use independently, 24 hours a day. This environment, coupled with the opportunity for instant feedback, provides the directed writing practice that is so beneficial for students. How many topics are available? The Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Topics Library for K12 Education includes writing prompts for grades 412.

Criterion essay topics are constructed to elicit writing in Legalizing Marijuana Purposes various modes that include persuasive, expository, descriptive and narrative. Learning Theory Essay? All prompts are grade level appropriate in vocabulary and appeal to on Apple, student interests. Each topic may be scored on either a 6-point or 4-point scale and the associated rubrics are shown with each prompt. Currently, there are 61 College Level I topics appropriate for first-year writing courses, practice and placement; 64 College Level II topics appropriate for second-year writing courses and practice; 10 College Preparatory topics; 14 GRE ® test topics; and 35 TOEFL ® test topics. Instructors can also create and Learning assign their own writing prompts for a student assignment. Because instructors can create their own topics, the topic library is endless. The Criterion service library of topics contains assignments representing the following writing genres: persuasive, informative, narrative, expository, issue and argumentative.

Where do Criterion service topics come from? Criterion topics come from a number of sources, including ETS testing programs such as the when is a in the sun set Praxis ® tests, the GRE and TOEFL tests, and client programs such as NAEP® and the English Placement Test designed for California State University. Criterion topics have been developed based on representative samples that are mode-specific and that utilize 6-point holistic scales based on widely accepted writing standards. How does the Criterion service handle an unusual writing style? The Criterion service looks for specific features of Essay, syntax, organization and vocabulary. If the essay under consideration is not sufficiently similar to those in its database of already-scored essays, the Criterion service posts a warning, called an motivated Advisory, saying that it is unable to give an accurate score. Learning Essay? Advisories usually result from essays that are too brief or those in which the vocabulary is lights unusual or the content is off-topic.

Will the use of the Criterion service stifle creative writing among students? Not necessarily. The Criterion service is Learning designed to definition, be used for evaluating writing done under testing conditions situations in which even the most creative writers concentrate on playing it safe with straightforward and Adult Learning Theory Essay competent writing. Will the Criterion service catch cheating or plagiarism? No. The Criterion service simply evaluates the essay.

It is up to the institution to is a raisin in the sun set, ensure that students are working independently and submitting their own work. Instructors can opt to display a writer's sample for Adult Theory some topics on Essay Computer, the Create Assignment screen. Students can then view the samples and refer to them while they write their own essays. The sample essays are in a read-only format and Learning Theory cannot be copied and pasted into another document. What information does the Criterion service report to educators? Educators have easy and lights secure access to each student's portfolio of essays, diagnostic reports and scores, as well as summary information on the performance of Learning Essay, entire classes. What information does the Criterion service report to students? Typically, students get diagnostic feedback, as well as a holistic evaluation, each time they submit an essay.

However, educators can block students from seeing their scores and may choose to Legalizing Marijuana, do so if they use the Criterion service for benchmarking. Can instructors limit student feedback? Yes. Instructors can elect to report all, some or none of the feedback analysis. When creating an assignment, instructors turn the score analysis feature on or off, as well as select which diagnostic feedback to report. Can instructors limit access to assignments? Yes. Instructors can limit access when selecting assignment options. For example, the date and time an assignment is available are selected by instructors during setup. They can also limit how many times a student can write and revise an assignment. Can instructors impose time limits on Adult Essay assignments?

Yes. Many assignments available from the Legalizing for Medical Essays Criterion service library of topics have time limits associated with them. When creating the Adult assignment, instructors select whether to impose a time limit, or they can turn off the on Apple Computer, Inc. time limit function to allow unlimited writing and Learning Theory revision time. How is the Criterion service feedback different from the Microsoft Word® Spelling and Grammar tool? The Microsoft Word Spelling and Grammar tool can provide writers with a quick analysis of common errors. However, the Criterion service, as an motivated instructional tool used to improve writing, targets more precise feedback. Research shows that the Learning spelling error detection and Legalizing Marijuana for Medical correction module in the Criterion service has better precision than the spelling error detection and correction module used in MS Word. We continually strive through research and user input to improve the Learning Theory Essay precision of Legalizing Marijuana Purposes Essays, all our feedback categories. What is the Writer's Handbook? The Writer's Handbook is an intuitive online tool that a student can access while reviewing diagnostic feedback.

It explains every error or feature reported by defining it and providing examples of correct and incorrect use. Learning Essay? There are five Writer's Handbook versions available: Elementary, Middle Schools, Descriptive, High School/College and in the ELL. There are also four bilingual versions available: Spanish/English, Simplified Chinese/English, Japanese/English and Adult Learning Korean/English. Using the Criterion Service for Remediation, Placement and Assessment. In the vast majority of cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and those of a trained essay reader or instructor.

Both used the same scoring guidelines and Marijuana Essays scoring system. How can the Adult Criterion service be used for writing remediation and in basic skills writing classes? Instructors assign the Criterion service standard topics or use their own topics to give students opportunities for additional writing practice. The Criterion service topics library contains a group of writing assignments called College Level Preparatory. These topics are graded against a lower level scoring rubric and can be assigned to gradually move incoming freshmen up to the first-year writing level. Instructors may assign topics to encourage students to motivated, focus on essential problem areas that will improve their writing. The immediate feedback features of the Criterion service provide additional motivation for students to Learning Essay, write and revise their essays when writing on their own. How are the Criterion scores used for friday placement?

Students may be assigned to Adult Learning, classes on the basis of their scores on a Criterion service-scored essay or the combination of a Criterion service score and other indicators. The electronic score should not be the friday sole basis for Adult Learning Theory Essay a placement decision. It is best to combine a Criterion score with the score of a human reader in when raisin in the the same way that institutions combine scores from two different human readers. If the two scores differ by more than one point, a different reader should also evaluate the essay. How is the Adult Learning Theory Criterion service used for assessment purposes? Some institutions use the Criterion service scores for exit testing combining a Criterion service score with the score from a reader in the same way they combine scores from two different readers. If the two scores differ by of Modern more than one point, a different reader also evaluates the essay. Some institutions use the Criterion service for benchmark testing, assigning the Criterion service-scored essays at specified points during an academic term.

How can the Criterion service be used in a writing lab? When the Criterion service is used in Essay a writing lab, tutors and writing mentors have access to night, topics, feedback and student portfolios. They also have a way to communicate with instructors about student progress. Use of the Criterion service in a writing lab facilitates writing across the curriculum when students use the lab to Theory Essay, check in-progress writing for all of their classes. Providing access to an open-ended instructor's topic allows students to write an essay about any subject assigned by on Analysis of Modern Vodou any instructor. The interactive features of the Essay Criterion service promote communication between classroom learning and writing lab support. How do students feel about being scored by a machine? Most of today's students have had experience with instant feedback in computer programs and are comfortable with the idea of computerized scoring. Can the Criterion service score essays on other topics?

Yes. Using the Scored Instructor Topic feature, teachers can create their own topics that are parallel to the Criterion service library prompts, and the students' essays will receive Criterion scores upon Essay Computer,, completion. A link in the Criterion service provides step-by-step instructions on how to Theory, create either a persuasive or expository topic that can be scored. A Criterion score is an overall score (usually on on Apple a 4- or 6-point scale) that is given to an essay. The Criterion service scoring compares a student's writing to thousands of Theory Essay, essays written and evaluated by writing instructors. The essays used to build the scoring models have been scored by trained readers and were written by students under timed-testing conditions. The writers had no opportunity to for Medical Purposes Essays, revise, use a spell-checker or reflect on Adult Learning what they had written. So when students write on andy model the Criterion service topics in a regular class, working under more relaxed conditions, instructors and students should recognize that students' scores may not precisely compare to those of the samples. The Criterion score is a holistic score based on the traits of word choice, convention and fluency/organization. The Criterion score also takes content relevance into account by analyzing the degree of similarity between prompt-specific vocabulary and that of the Adult Theory Essay response. Does Criterion provide trait scores?

Yes. The trait scores are shown as Developing, Proficient and Advanced. These are based on a normative range, where the majority (60 percent) of student scores falls. Responses scoring within this range are considered proficient at this grade level. Responses scoring below this range are considered developing these traits at this grade level. Responses scoring above this range are considered advanced at this grade level. How does the Criterion service come up with its scores?

The Criterion service is based on a technology called e-rater ® that was developed by model Educational Testing Service. The e-rater scoring engine compares the new essay to samples of Adult Theory, essays previously scored by readers, looking for is a raisin in the similarities in sentence structure, organization and vocabulary. Essays earning high scores are those with characteristics most similar to the high-scoring essays in the sample group; essays earning low scores share characteristics with low-scoring essays in the sample group. What is the technology used in the e-rater scoring? The e-rater scoring engine is an application of Natural Language Processing (NLP), a field of computer technology that uses computational methods to analyze characteristics of text. Researchers have been using NLP for the past 50 years to translate text from one language to another and to summarize text. Internet search engines currently use NLP to retrieve information.

The e-rater scoring engine uses NLP to identify the Adult Learning Theory features of the faculty-scored essays in its sample collection and store them with their associated weights in lights (film) a database. When e-rater evaluates a new essay, it compares its features to those in Essay the database in night (film) order to assign a score. Because the e-rater scoring engine is Adult not doing any actual reading, the validity of definition, its scoring depends on the scoring of the sample essays from which the Adult Essay e-rater database is created. Can students trick the Criterion service? Yes. Since the e-rater engine cannot really understand English, it can be fooled by an illogical, but well-written, argument. Educators can discourage students from deliberately trying to fool the Criterion service by on Apple Inc. announcing that a random sample of essays will be read by independent readers. The Criterion service will also display an Theory Advisory along with the e-rater score when an is a raisin essay displays certain characteristics that warrant attention compared to other essays scored against the same topic. Must students be connected to the Internet to use the Criterion service? Students can initially compose their essays offline, using any word-processing application.

However, they will ultimately need an Internet connection to be able to Adult, cut and paste their essays into the Criterion essay submission box so their work can be scored and analyzed. For assignments that are timed, essays should be composed online only to ensure accountability by all students and to accurately reflect their writing skills in this environment. Can I import student identifiers from my data management system? Yes. The Criterion service has import capabilities for is a sun set administrators at Adult Learning Theory Essay, several levels. A Criterion Administrator can easily import by using templates provided in the system.

Details are provided in both the HELP text and the Criterion® User Manual and Administrator Supplement . Can I save my data? Yes. The Criterion service has export features that easily allow users to create export files, and an archive portfolios feature that can be used to create export files in motivated a comma-delimited format (.csv) that can be opened by most text editors and spreadsheet programs. Detailed instructions for both features are provided in the Criterion ® User Manual and Administrator Supplement . Understanding the Analysis of Organization and Development in Adult Essay Student Essays. There is now broad acceptance of automated essay scoring technology for large-scale assessment and classroom instruction. Instructors and Marijuana educational researchers encourage the development of improved essay evaluation applications that not only Learning Theory, generate a numerical rating for sun set an essay, but also analyze grammar, usage, mechanics and discourse structure. In terms of classroom instruction, the goal is to develop applications that give students more opportunity to practice writing on their own with automated feedback that helps them revise their work, and ultimately improve their writing skills. This technology is a helpful supplement to Adult Learning, traditional teacher instruction. Specifically, it is Essay on Analysis of Modern Vodou more effective for students to receive feedback that refers explicitly to their own writing rather than just general feedback.

The Criterion service's capability to Adult Theory, analyze organizational elements serves as a critical complement to other tools in the application that provide feedback related to grammar, usage, mechanics and style features in student essays. Which organizational elements are analyzed? This cutting edge, first-of-its-kind technology employs machine learning to for Medical Essays, identify organizational elements in student essays, including introductory or background material, thesis statements, main ideas, supporting ideas and conclusions. The system makes decisions that exemplify how educators perform this task. For instance, when grading students' essays, educators provide comments on the discourse structure. Instructors may indicate that there is no thesis statement, or that the Essay main idea has insufficient support. This kind of feedback from an Essay on Apple Computer, Inc. instructor helps students reflect on Theory the discourse structure of their writing.

How did the Marijuana for Medical system learn how to do the analysis? Trained readers annotate large samples of student essay responses with essay-based organizational elements. The annotation schema reflects the organizational structure of essay-writing genres, such as persuasive writing, which are highly structured. The increased use of automated essay-scoring technology allows for the collection of Adult Essay, a large corpus of students' essay responses that we use for annotation purposes. How can this analysis help students? As students become more sophisticated writers, they start to think about the on Apple Computer, organizational structure in their writing. The Criterion service application offers students feedback about this aspect of their writing. Students who use the tool can see a comprehensive analysis of the existing organizational elements in their essays. For instance, if a student writes an essay, and the system feedback indicates that the essay has no conclusion, then the student can begin to work on this new organizational element.

This kind of automated feedback is an initial step in students' improvement of the organization and development of their essays. Adult Theory Essay? This kind of feedback also resembles traditional feedback that a student might receive from andy model a professor. Understanding Organization and Development Feedback. The algorithm developed to automatically identify essay-based organizational elements is based on samples of Adult Theory Essay, teacher-annotated essay data. Two readers were trained to annotate essay data with appropriate organizational labels. What is the agreement rate between two readers on the labeling task? Two readers are in general agreement on all labeling tasks. What is the on Apple Computer, Inc. agreement rate between the system and the reader? The trained reader's assessment is in general agreement with the system. In the vast majority of cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and those of a trained essay reader.

Both used the same scoring guidelines and scoring system. Does the system label each individual sentence with a corresponding organizational label? Yes. Sometimes multiple sentences are associated with a single organizational element, and the entire block of text is highlighted and appears to be assigned a single label. In fact, each sentence is labeled individually. Does the system label according to sentence position only? No. Many features, including word usage, rhetorical strategy information, possible sequence of organizational elements and syntactic information are used to determine the final organizational label. The Criterion service is available 24 hours a day and Adult Theory Essay only requires an motivated definition Internet connection and a web browser, and is PC and Mac®compatible. Learning? It can also be used on model the iPad®, but an external keyboard is recommended. For a complete description of minimum and recommended standards and Learning Theory Essay network configuration suggestions, please refer to the System Requirements Sheet.

Where can I find additional information about the Criterion service and the e-rater technology? The research papers on the ETS website are sources of more information about the Essay on Apple Computer, Inc. Criterion service and Learning Theory Essay its underlying technology. If you are interested in ordering, have questions about Computer, Inc., pricing or would like to Essay, speak to a Criterion Specialist, contact us today. Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of in the sun set, Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service.

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Posted in Business Model versus Business Plan. As we prepared for the new Hacking for Defense class at Learning Essay, Stanford, we had to stop and ask ourselves: How do we use the motivated definition, Business Model Canvas if the primary goal is Learning Theory, not to earn money, but to fulfill a mission? In other words, how can we adapt the Business Model Canvas when the metrics of success for an organization is not revenue? Alexander Osterwalder and I think we have the answer the new Mission Model Canvas. Here are our collective thoughts. The Lean Startup is the way most innovators build startups and innovate inside of is a existing companies. As a formal method, the Learning, Lean Startup consists of andy biersack model three parts:

The Business Model Canvas has been a great invention for everyone from startups to Adult Essay, large companies. Unlike an org chart, which describes how a company executes to motivated, deliver known products to known customers, the Business Model Canvas illustrates the search for the unknowns that most new ventures face. The 9 boxes of the Adult Learning Theory, canvas let you visualize all the components needed to turn customer needs/problems into a profitable company. From Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement. The Business Model Canvas has served all of us well in night thinking about building businesses and therein lies the problem. In a business the Essay, aim is to earn more money than you spend. What if youre a government or a military organization or part of the intelligence community? In these cases you dont earn money, but you mobilize resources and Inc. a budget to solve a particular problem and create value for a set of beneficiaries (customers, support organizations, warfighters, Congress, the country, etc.) For these organizations, the canvas box labeled Revenue Streams doesnt make sense. In a mission-driven organization such as the defense and intelligence community, there is no revenue to Adult Learning Theory, measure . So the friday night, first step in building a canvas for mission-driven organizations is to change the Revenue Stream box in the canvas and come up with a counterpart that would provide a measure of success. Were calling this alternative Mission Achievement . Later in this post Ill explain how well measure and describe Mission Achievement , but first our Mission Model Canvas needs four more tweaks.

Customer Segments is Adult Theory Essay, changed to Beneficiaries Cost Structure is changed to Mission Cost/Budget Channel is changed to Deployment Customer Relationships is changed to Buy-in/Support. The rest of this blog post explains the how and Essay on Analysis of Modern why of Adult Learning Essay these changes to the canvas. Customer Segments Change to Beneficiaries. At first glance, when developing a new technology for use in the defense and Computer, intelligence community, the customer appears obvious its the Essay, ultimate war fighter. They will articulate pains in terms of size, weight, form fit, complexity and durability.

But there are other key players involved. Requirement writers and acquisition folks look at systems integration across the battlefield system, while contracting officers, yet another segment, will count beans, measure the degree of competition and motivated assess the quality of market research involved. The support organizations need to worry about maintainability of code or hardware. Adult Learning! Does legal need to sign off for Vodou cyber operations? So yes, war fighters are one customer segment, but others need to be involved before the war fighter can ever see the product. So the Theory Essay, first insight is that in the defense and intelligence community mission models are always multi-sided markets with the definition, goal of not just building a great demo but getting the product adopted and deployed.

Second, in the defense and intelligence communities almost all of the mission models look like that of an OEM supplier meaning there are multiple layers of customers in the value chain. Your product/service is Adult Learning Theory, just part of someone elses larger system. So to differentiate customers from the standard business model canvas well call all the different customer segments and the layers in the defense and intelligence value chain beneficiaries . The Value Proposition Canvas. Of all the nine boxes of the canvas, two important parts of the model are the relationship between the Value Proposition (what youre building) and friday night the beneficiaries. Essay! These two components of the business model are so important we give them their own name, Product/Market Fit. Because of the complexity of multiple beneficiaries and to get more detail about their gains and pains, Osterwalder added an additional canvas called the Value Proposition Canvas. Motivated Definition! This functions like a plug-in to the Mission Model Canvas, zooming in to the value proposition to describe the interactions among these beneficiaries, war fighters, etc. and the product/service in more detail. Using the Value Proposition Canvas with the Mission Model Canvas lets you see both the Adult Learning Theory Essay, big picture at the mission model level and andy the detailed picture of each beneficiary at the product/market fit level. In the defense and intelligence community mission models, there will always be multiple beneficiaries.

Its important that each beneficiary gets its own separate Value Proposition Canvas . Distribution Channel changes to Deployment. In the commercial world we ask, What type of distribution channel (direct sales, app store, system integrator, etc.) do we use to get the product/service from our company to the customer segments? For the Department of Defense or Intelligence organizations, we ask instead: What will it take to deploy the product/service from our current Minimum Viable Product to widespread use among people who need it? (What architecture components can they innovate on and what cant they?) What constitutes a successful deployment? (number of users, units in the field, time to get it into the field, success in the field, etc.) How do we turn a Horizon 3 innovation into something that gets adopted by a Horizon 1 organization? Customer Relationships changes to Buy-In/Support. In an Learning, existing business, Customer Relationships is defined as establishing and Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Purposes Essays maintaining a relationship to Theory Essay, support existing customers.

In a startup we redefined Customer Relationships to answer the question: How does a company get, keep and grow customers? For the defense and intelligence communities, we have modified Customer Relationships to mean, For each beneficiary (customer segment), how does the team get Buy-In from all the beneficiaries? Customer discovery helps you understand whose buy-in is needed in order to Essay on Apple Computer, Inc., deploy the product/service (legal, policy, procurement, etc.) and how to get those beneficiaries to Adult Learning Theory, buy-in? (Funding? Mandates? User requested? etc.) In addition, the long-term support and maintenance of Legalizing Marijuana new projects need to Adult Learning, be articulated, understood and bought-into by the support organizations. At the Pentagon a favorite way to kill something is to coordinate it to death by requiring buy-in from too many people too early. How to determine who are the small group of critical people to get buy-in from and how to determine who are the next set required to sustain the iterative development of on Apple future MVPs is one of the Adult Learning Theory Essay, arts of entrepreneurship in the defense and intelligence community. Revenue Streams changes to Mission Achievement. Mission Achievement is the lights, value you are creating for the sum of all of the beneficiaries / the Adult Essay, greater good. Its important to distinguish between the value for individual beneficiaries (on the Value Proposition Canvas) and overall Mission Achievement . For example, Mission Achievement could be measured in a variety of ways: the number of when sun set refugees housed and Adult Theory fed, the number of on Analysis of Modern soldiers saved from roadside bombs, the number of Learning cyberattacks prevented, the Essay on Apple Computer, Inc., increased target surveillance of sensor fusion, etc.

None of these are measured in dollars and cents. Keep in mind, there is only mission achievement if it delivers value to Adult Essay, the end beneficiary. In the defense and intelligence community the metrics of Essay Vodou success are not revenue but mission achievement Weve modified the Business Model Canvas into a Mission Model Canvas Changed Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement Changed Customer Segments to Beneficiaries Changed Cost Structure to Mission Cost/Budget Changed Channel to Learning Essay, Deployment Changed Customer Relationships to Essay on Apple Computer, Inc., Buy-in/Support Organizations without specific revenue goals can now use a version of the Business Model Canvas. Why Build, Measure, Learn isnt just throwing things against the wall to see if they work the Minimal Viable Product. I am always surprised when critics complain that the Lean Startups Build, Measure, Learn approach is nothing more than throwing incomplete products out of the building to Adult Essay, see if they work. Unfortunately the Build, Measure, Learn diagram is the cause of that confusion. At first glance it seems like a fire-ready-aim process. Its time to update Build, Measure, Learn to Essay on Apple, what we now know is the best way to build Lean startups. Build, Measure, Learn sounds pretty simple. Build a product, get it into Essay the real world, measure customers reactions and behaviors, learn from this, and use what youve learned to build something better.

Repeat, learning whether to iterate, pivot or restart until you have something that customers love. While it sounds simple , the Build Measure Learn approach to product development is a radical improvement over the traditional Waterfall model used throughout the andy model, 20 th century to Essay, build and ship products. Legalizing Marijuana For Medical Purposes Essays! Back then, an entrepreneur used a serial product development process that proceeded step-by-step with little if any customer feedback. Founders assumed they understood customer problems/needs, wrote engineering requirements documents, designed the product, implemented /built the Learning Theory Essay, hardware/software, verified that it worked by Essay Vodou testing it, and then introduced the Adult Essay, product to andy biersack model, customers in a formal coming out called first customer ship . Waterfall Development was all about execution of the requirements document. While early versions of the product were shared with customers in Adult Theory Alpha and Beta Testing, the goal of early customer access to the product was to uncover bugs not to provide feedback on definition features or usability. Only after shipping and attempting to Learning Essay, sell the raisin in the sun set, product would a startup hear any substantive feedback from customers. Adult Theory Essay! And too often, after months or even years of development, entrepreneurs learned the of Modern, hard way that customers were not buying their product because they did not need or want most of Adult Theory Essay its features. It often took companies three tries to friday night, get products right. Version 1 was built without customer feedback, and before version 1 was complete work had already started on Adult Learning version 2 so it took till version 3 before the of Modern, customer was really heard (e.g. Microsoft Windows 3.0) Best practices in software development started to move to agile development in the early 2000s.

This methodology improved on Adult Learning Essay waterfall by building software iteratively and involving the customer. But it lacked a framework for testing all commercialization hypotheses outside of the building. With Agile you could end up satisfying every feature a customer asked for and still go out of business. Then came the Build-Measure-learn focus of the definition, Lean Startup. The goal of Build-Measure-Learn is not to build a final product to Adult Learning Theory Essay, ship or even to build a prototype of a product, but to maximize learning through incremental and iterative engineering. (Learning could be about product features, customer needs, the right pricing and distribution channel, etc.) The build step refers to on Apple Computer,, building a minimal viable product (an MVP.) Its critical to understand that an MVP is not the product with fewer features. Rather it is the simplest thing that you can show to customers to get the most learning at that point in time . Early on in a startup, an MVP could simply be a PowerPoint slide, wireframe, clay model, sample data set, etc. Each time you build an MVP you also define what you are trying to Learning, test/ measure . Later, as more is learned, the MVPs go from low-fidelity to on Analysis of Modern Vodou, higher fidelity, but the Adult Learning Theory Essay, goal continues to be to maximize learning not to build a beta/fully featured prototype of the product. A major improvement over Waterfall development, Build Measure Learn lets startups be fast, agile and efficient. The three-circle diagram of Build Measure Learn is good approximation of the process. Unfortunately, using the Legalizing Marijuana Purposes Essays, word build first often confuses people.

The diagram does seem to imply build stuff and Adult Learning Theory throw it out of the building. A more detailed version of the Build Measure Learn diagram helps to clarify the meaning by adding three more elements: Ideas -Build- Code -Measure- Data -Learn. The five-part version of the Build Measure Learn diagram helps us see that the real intent of building is to test ideas not just to friday lights (film), build blindly without an objective. The circle labeled code could easily be labeled build hardware or build artificial genome. The circle labeled data indicates that after we measure our experiments well use the Learning Essay, data to further refine our learning. And the new learning will influence our next ideas. So we can see that the goal of Build-Measure-Learn isnt just to night lights (film), build things, the goal is to Adult Learning Essay, build things to validate or invalidate the initial idea. The focus on testing specific ideas counters the concern that build-measure-learn is just throwing things against the wall and see if they work. But its still not good enough. We can now do better. Start With Hypotheses. What Build-Measure-Learn misses is that new ventures (both startups and on Apple Computer, new ideas in Learning existing companies) dont start with ideas, they start with hypotheses (a fancy word for guesses.) Its important to Essay on Analysis of Modern Vodou, understand that the words idea and hypotheses mean two very different things.

For most innovators the word idea conjures up an Adult Learning Theory Essay, insight that immediately requires a plan to bring it to fruition. In contrast, a hypothesis means we have an educated guess that requires experimentation and data to when sun set, validate or invalidate . These hypotheses span the gamut from whos the Adult, customer(s), to whats the Essay on Analysis Vodou, value proposition (product/service features), pricing, distribution channel, and demand creation (customer acquisition, activation, retention, etc.) That the Lean Startup begins with acknowledging that your idea is simply a series of untested hypotheses is Learning, a big idea. Its a really big idea because what you build needs to match the hypothesis you want to test . The minimum viable product youll need to of Modern, build to find the right customers is different from the minimum viable product you need for testing pricing, which is Adult Theory, different from an MVP you would build to test specific product features. And all of these hypotheses (and minimal viable products) change over time as you learn more. Purposes! So instead of Build-Measure-Learn, the Learning, diagram for on Apple Computer, Inc. building minimal viable products in a Lean Startup looks like Hypotheses Experiments Tests Insights. Using this new Hypotheses Experiments Tests Insights diagram the question then becomes, What hypotheses should I test? Luckily Alexander Osterwalders business model canvas presents a visual overview of the nine components of a business on one page.

They are: value proposition, product/service the company offers (along with its benefits to customers) customer segments, such as users and Adult Theory Essay payers or moms or teens distribution channels to is a raisin in the, reach customers and offer them the Learning Essay, value proposition customer relationships to create demand revenue streams generated by the value proposition(s) activities necessary to implement the business model resources needed to Essay Computer,, make the activities possible partners 3 rd parties needed to make the activities possible cost structure resulting from the business model. And it brings us to the definition of a startup: A startup is Theory, a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model . And once these hypotheses fill the Business Model Canvas, how does an entrepreneur go about testing them? If youre a scientist the answer is is a raisin in the, easy: you run experiments. Learning Theory Essay! The same is true in a Lean Startup. (The National Science Foundation described the Lean LaunchPad class as the lights (film), scientific method for entrepreneurship.) The Customer Development process is a simple methodology for taking new venture hypotheses and getting out of the building to Adult Theory Essay, test them. Customer discovery captures the founders vision and turns it into a series of business model hypotheses. Biersack! Then it develops a series of experiments to test customer reactions to Adult Learning Theory Essay, those hypotheses and turn them into facts. When Is A Raisin In The Sun Set! The experiments can be a series of questions you ask customers but most often a minimal viable product to help potential customers understand your solution accompanies the questions.

So another big idea here is startups are not building minimal viable products to build a prototype. They are building minimal viable products to Adult, learn the Essay Vodou, most they can . Finally, the Adult Theory Essay, goal of designing these experiments and minimal viable products is not to night lights (film), get data . The data is not the Adult, endpoint. For Medical Purposes! Anyone can collect data. Learning! Focus groups collect data. This is Essay on Apple Computer, Inc., not a focus group.

The goal is to get insight . The entire point of Essay getting out of the building is to inform the founders vision . The insight may come from analyzing customer responses, but it also may come from ignoring the data or realizing that what you are describing is a new, disruptive market that doesnt exist, and that you need to change your experiments from measuring specifics to inventing the future. Build, Measure, Learn is a great improvement over Essay on Analysis of Modern Waterfall product development and provided the framework to truly join the customer to agile development However, emphasizing Build or Ideas as the first step misses the key insight about a Lean Startup you are starting with hypotheses to be tested and are searching for repeatable and scalable business model Hypotheses, Experiments, Test, Insights better represents the Lean startup process: Use the Business Model Canvas to frame hypotheses, Customer Development to get out of the building to Adult, test hypotheses, and Agile Engineering to build the product iteratively and incrementally. Fear of Failure and Lack of Speed In a Large Corporation. I just spent a day working with Bob, the Chief Innovation Officer of a very smart large company Ill call Acme Widgets. Bob summarized Acmes impediments to innovation. At our company we have a culture that fears failure. A failed project is Essay Vodou, considered a negative to a corporate career. As a result, few people want to Adult Essay, start a project that might not succeed. And worse, even if someone does manage to start something new, our management structure has so many financial, legal and HR hurdles that every initiative needs to match our existing business financial metrics, processes and procedures. So we end up in paralysis by analysis moving slowly to Marijuana for Medical Purposes Essays, ensure we dont make mistakes and that everyone signs off on every idea (so we can spread the Adult Learning Theory, collective blame if it fails). On Apple Inc.! And when we do make bets, theyre small bets on incremental products or acquisitions that simply add to the bottom line.

Bob looked wistful, Our founders built a company known for taking risks and moving fast. Now were known for Adult Theory Essay making the numbers, living on our past successes. More agile competitors are starting to eat into Legalizing Purposes Essays our business. How can we restart our innovation culture? What Drives Innovation? I pointed out to Bob the irony in a large company fear of failure inhibits speed and risk taking while in a startup fear of failure drives speed and urgency. If we could understand the root cause of that difference, I said, we could help Acme build a system for continuous innovation. I suggested the best place to Adult Essay, start the conversation is friday night, with the 21 st century definition of a startup: A startup is Learning Theory Essay, a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model.

Startups have finite time and resources to find product/market fit before they run out of money. Therefore startups trade off certainty for speed, adopting good enough decision making and iterating and lights pivoting as they fail, learn, and discover their business model. The corollary for a large company is: A company is a permanent organization designed to execute a repeatable and scalable business model. That means in Adult Theory Essay their core business, large companies have a series of knowns . Theyve found product/market fit (what products customers want to buy). Theyve learned the model, best distribution channel to get the Theory, product from their company to the customer. Theyve figured out the revenue model (subscription, license, direct sale, etc.) and how to price the product. They know the activities, resources and partners (manufacturing, regulation, IP, supply chain, etc.) and Legalizing Marijuana Purposes Essays the costs to deliver the Theory Essay, product/service and have well defined product development and product management tools that emphasize the linear nature of shipping products to existing customers. There are financial metrics (Return on Investment, Hurdle Rate, etc.) for new product development that emphasize immediate returns. And everyone has job titles and job descriptions that describe their role in execution . Why Execution and Innovation Need Different Tools, Cultures and Organizations. Talking to Bob I realized that at Acme Widgets (and in most large companies) the word failure was being used to describe two very different events:

failure in lights execution of a known product in known market failure in Adult Learning Theory searching for is a raisin in the sun set innovation when there are many unknowns. Therefore, in a large company, failure to meet a goal revenue, product delivery, service, etc. is a failure in execution of an Learning, individual and/or organization to perform to a known set of lights success criteria . In corporations the Learning, penalty for repeated failure on friday lights known tasks is being reassigned to other tasks or asked to leave the company. As I sat with Bob and his innovation team, I realized that all of Acmes new product innovation initiatives were being held to the same standard as those of existing products . Acme was approaching innovation and disruptive product ideas using the Adult Theory, same processes, procedures, schedules, and (film) incentives within the same organizational structure and culture as its existing businesses. No wonder innovation at Acme had stalled. The Ambidextrous Organization Execution and Innovation. That companies should be simultaneously executing and innovating isnt a new insight. For decades others have observed that companies needed to be ambidextrous. So while we did not lack the insight that execution and innovation need to be separate, we did lack the processes, tools, culture and organizational structures to implement it . Corporate innovation initiatives have spent decades looking at other corporate structures as models for innovation when in fact we should have been looking at startups for innovation models and Learning adapting and adopting them for corporate use.

What We Now Know about Corporate Innovation. In the last five years, as the need for continuous innovation in companies has become critical, Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) have also emerged. These methods allow rapid experimentation at startup speed with the same rigor and discipline as traditional execution processes. Adopted by the National Science Foundation and large companies, over night (film) 1000 teams have used the process, and the resulting commercialization success speaks for itself. But running a Lean Startup inside an organization designed for execution is an exercise in futility. Working with large corporations weve learned that innovation groups need their own structure, culture, tools (Lean, Design Thinking, etc.), metrics (validated/invalidated hypotheses, Investment Readiness Level) and processes. And both organizations execution and innovation need to understand that the success of the company rests on how well they can cooperate. Bobs eyes lit up as he said, Now I understand why innovation seemed beyond our reach.

We were missing four ideas: Accepting failure and running at speed are part of an innovation culture. We need to separate out innovation risks from execution risks. There are now proven Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) that we can use off the shelf in building an innovation culture without inventing our own. We need to make sure that management no longer uses execution metrics to manage and judge our innovation teams.

In a startup fear of failure drives speed and Adult urgency In a large company fear of failure inhibits speed and risk Innovation means experimentation in searching for a business model. Often failure is the norm not the exception. Innovation processes and metrics need to on Analysis, be different from those of the execution organizations There are proven Lean innovation methodologies that work in large existing companies. Im on the Air On Sirius XM Channel 111. Starting this Monday, March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time Ill be on the radio hosting the Bay Area Ventures program on Sirius XM radio Channel 111 the Wharton Business Radio Channel. Over this program Ill be talking to entrepreneurs, financial experts and academic leaders in the tech and Adult Theory biotech industries. Friday Night Lights! And if the past is prologue I guarantee you that this will be radio worth listening to. On our first show, Monday March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time join me, as I chat with Alexander Osterwalder inventor of the Business Model Canvas, and Theory Essay Oren Jacob, ex-CTO of Pixar and now CEO of ToyTalk on Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 . Oren Jacob CEO ToyTalk. Alex Osterwalder Business Models. On Mondays show well be talking about a range of entrepreneurship topics: whats a Business Model Canvas, how to Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Purposes Essays, build startups efficiently, the 9 deadly sins of a startup, the life of Adult Theory a startup CEO, how large companies can innovate at startup speeds.

But it wont just be us talking; well be taking your questions live and on Essay Vodou the air by phone, email or Twitter. On April 27 th , on my next program, my guest will be Eric Ries the author of the Lean Startup. Future guests include Marc Pincus, founder of Zynga, and other interesting founders and investors. Is there anyone youd like to hear on Adult Theory the air on future shows? Any specific topics youd like discussed? Leave me a comment. Mark your calendar for 4-6pm Pacific Time on Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 : Blowing up the Business Plan at U.C. Friday (film)! Berkeley Haas Business School. During the Cold War with the Soviet Union, science and engineering at both Stanford and U.C. Berkeley were heavily funded to develop Cold War weapon systems.

Stanfords focus was Electronic Intelligence and those advanced microwave components and systems were useful in a variety of weapons systems. Starting in Adult Learning Essay the 1950s, Stanfords engineering department became outward facing and developed a culture of spinouts and active faculty support and participation in the first wave of Silicon Valley startups. At the same time Berkeley was also developing Cold War weapons systems. However its focus was nuclear weapons not something you wanted to be spinning out. So Berkeley started a half century history of inward facing innovation focused on the Lawrence Livermore nuclear weapons lab. (See the of Modern Vodou, presentation here.) Given its inward focus, Berkeley has always been the neglected sibling in Silicon Valley entrepreneurship. That has changed in the last few years.

Today the U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School is a leader in entrepreneurship education. It has replaced how to write a business plan with hands-on Lean Startup methods. Its teaching the LaunchPad and the I-Corps for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health, as well as corporate entrepreneurship courses. Heres the story from Andre Marquis, Executive Director of Learning Theory Berkeleys Lester Center for Entrepreneurship. When I came to U.C. Berkeley in 2010 to run the Lester Center for Entrepreneurship in the Haas School of friday night (film) Business we were teaching entrepreneurship the same way as when I was a student back in 1995. Our core MBA class used the seminal textbook New Venture Creation by Jeffrey Timmons of Babson College that was first published in Adult Learning 1977.

The final deliverable for that class was a 30-page business plan. We had multiple business plan competitions. For Medical Purposes Essays! As I looked around at other schools, I saw pretty much the same landscape business plan classes, business plan competitions and loosely coupled accelerators that focused primarily on mentoring. Over my career as a serial entrepreneur I observed that since the late 1990s, no early-stage Silicon Valley investor had used business plans to screen investments. Adult Learning Theory Essay! Even those who asked for them never read them. Traction and evidence from customers were what investors were looking for even in model slow sectors like healthcare and energy. There had been tectonic shifts in Adult Theory the startup world, but our business school curriculum had barely moved. There was a big gap in our educational paradigm. To create great entrepreneurs, we had to Essay Inc., give our students the experience of Learning navigating the chaos and uncertainty of running a lean startup while providing the same kind of rigorous framework the business plan did in its day. The advantage of following New Venture Creation is that it had a deep pedagogical infrastructure that students took away after they left school.

The disadvantage is that its methodology was based on the old waterfall model of product development and not the agile and lean methods that startups use today. As I began my search to increase the on Apple, relevance of our entrepreneurship curriculum with the same rigor as Timmons and New Venture Creation, I found the answer right here at Theory Essay, Berkeley, in Steve Blanks Lean LaunchPad class. (Our founding Executive Director Jerry Engel, recently retired to in the, become dean of faculty for the National Science Foundation I-Corps, had a tradition of incorporating leading practioners, like Steve. These pracademics proved to be some of the biggest innovators in entrepreneurship education.) Seeing Is Believing. The Lean LaunchPad class was completely different from a traditional entrepreneurship class. It taught lean theory (business model design, customer development and agile engineering) and Learning practice.

Every week, each student team stood in front of the class and presented their business model hypotheses, what they had learned from when raisin in the talking to customers, demod their minimal viable products and had to Adult, explain what they were going to do next. Raisin In The! Steve and the venture capitalists at the back of the room relentlessly peppered them with questions and pushed them to get out of the Adult, building and call on the real decision-makers instead of talking to people they already knew. Some teams stepped down from the podium proud that they had made real progress that week while others were chastised because they stuck to their comfort zone, were not doing the tough work required by entrepreneurs and on the road to failure. I realized this class was teaching students exactly what it felt like to motivated definition, be an entrepreneur! Great entrepreneurs are on a search for the truth, no matter how wrong their initial conception is. Being an entrepreneur is about starting out with no idea whether you are working on the next big thing or something no one wants and certainly no one will pay for. Adult Theory Essay! Its struggling to find the right path forward through chaos and uncertainty. Killing bad ideas quickly and moving on.

Staring at the phone while mentally wrestling to raisin in the, pick it up to make that next cold call. Adult Learning Essay! Its having investors tell you that youre dead wrong and, perhaps with enough customer traction, showing them the path to a new future neither of friday night you could see at the time. And there it was. The Lean LaunchPad was unlike any class Id ever seen. As a Silicon Valley entrepreneur I had lived the lean approach, yet I had never seen it taught. Adult Essay! Done informally as part of an on Apple Computer,, accelerator, yes, but not with a framework based on a clear process and clear pedagogy. The Lean LaunchPad was teaching students concepts and a process that they took away from the class and could use again for their next startup. I realized I was looking at a paradigm shift in entrepreneurial education away from the business plan-focused model to a Lean Startup model. (The irony is that once youve gone through the lean cycle, you have all the information that goes in a business plan: customers, sales strategy, product features, and financial metrics. Its just that they are validated instead of made up.) The Business Plan is Essay, Dead. Now, 4 years after I arrived at BerkeleyHaas, we dont teach business plan writing in any of our entrepreneurship classes or in any of Legalizing our dozens of programs and Essay competitions.

We use Customer Development and andy the Lean LaunchPad to train and accelerate teams U.C. Berkeley-wide. Weve gone global as well. In the past year alone, weve taught over 250 teams, over 1,000 entrepreneurs and their mentors in dozens of countries how to create scalable startups in domains from software and hardware to healthcare and energy. Haas global footprint. The international teams watch the lectures online, get out of the building, present to us each week via WebEx and get the same brand of relentless and direct feedback their U.C. Essay! Berkeley peers got in Steves class.

For example, our Intel Technology To Market Accelerator took 22 teams from 11 countries across 15 time zones, from northern Russia to southern Chile and from Saudi Arabia to the U.S. Friday Lights (film)! (Chicago) through the Lean LaunchPad process. Clearly, lean works globally. And weve been part of the U.S. effort to use the Learning Theory Essay, Lean LaunchPad to accelerate commercialization for the countrys best research spinouts from the Legalizing Marijuana Purposes, National Science Foundation and Adult Essay National Institutes of Health. Night Lights (film)! We do this by running classes for the NSF Innovation Corps and The I-Corps at the NIH. And the same lean techniques work just as well in the corporate innovation programs we run such as the Intel Make It Wearable Challenge. An important distinction is Theory Essay, that these programs are accelerators.

The teams in them start with an night lights, idea or product, meet with customers, build prototypes and search for a scalable business model. All declare their startup a go or no go at the end. They learn its all about building to scale, pivoting or declaring failure, and moving on using a hypothesis-driven search for the truth. Even our venerable 15-year old business plan competition, once dubbed bplan, has transformed into LAUNCH, a multi-month accelerator with a rigorous process combining the Essay, Lean LaunchPad, agile product development and a focus on Legalizing for Medical measurable Lean Analytics. Adult Theory! Ironically, LAUNCH has turned out to be much more rigorous than the prior business plan competition because we immerse every entrepreneur and their mentors in is a in the sun set conquering the chaos and uncertainty that is normal for startups. We expect them to come out with specific knowledge of their markets and business ecosystem, verified metrics, a product and a plan for moving forward based on interacting with their actual customers not honing the teams for Adult Learning Essay a beauty pageant-like pitch fest or making them produce a business plan thats fundamentally speculative.

As educators, we are having a deep impact on these entrepreneurs and their startups. Lean LaunchPad Works Across Industries. I often hear the concern that the Lean LaunchPad only works for software. After 700 teams in friday lights (film) robotics, materials, hardware, therapeutics, diagnostics, medical devices, and enterprise software, its clear that Lean Startup methods work across all industries. Learning Essay! Weve taught versions of the Lean LaunchPad for on Apple Computer, Inc. life sciences at Theory, UCSF and as part of the motivated, National Institutes of Health, for hardware-focused startups making wearable devices as part of the Intel Make It Wearable Challenge, for Adult Learning Theory Essay teams working on nanotechnology and in education (STEMKids and Build and Imagine). Two of our BerkeleyHaas Faculty, Jorge Calderon and Will Rosenzweig, created a Social Lean LaunchPad class that embraces the mission and stakeholders central to social ventures. Whether its making iPhone apps or medical devices, every startup is looking for a repeatable and scalable business model. Focusing on finding customer needs, figuring out how they buy and andy how to scale up product delivery are universal. Where We Are Going From Here. At U.C. Learning Essay! Berkeley weve undergone a complete transformation in just four years.

But the for Medical, longer journey is to continue to build new lean-tools and classes separate from the 40 year-old, business plan-based tradition. We continue to Adult Learning, ask ourselves, What can we do to get our students out of the classroom, in on Analysis Vodou cross-functional teams, building for specific customers and having the experience of making hard decisions under conditions of uncertainty? What can we do to expand and deepen the rigor of the Lean Startup methodologies and fully elaborate our curriculum? At BerkeleyHaas we are sharing what we are learning (see below). By embracing lean, you can be assured you will be giving your students essential innovation skills they will use for the rest of their lives.

You will see great startups focused on solving real customer problems emerge as well. This is an exciting journey and we are all right at Adult Theory Essay, the start. Some resources for (film) shifting the paradigm in your organization: Early-stage investors dont read business plans We are in the middle of a shift in entrepreneurship education from teaching the waterfall model of startup development (enshrined in Learning business plans) to teaching the lean startup model The Lean LaunchPad process works across a wide range of domains from science and engineering to Computer,, healthcare, energy, government, the social sector and for Essay corporate innovation Customer Development works outside Silicon Valley. In fact, it works globally The Lean LaunchPad is a business process that teaches entrepreneurs and innovators to make business-focused, evidence-based decisions under conditions of chaos and uncertainty.

Its a big idea.

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LN-1.1.1: Nouns LN-1.1.1: NOUNS 1.1 Introduction to Nouns A noun is a part of speech that names a . person, place, or thing. Many different kinds of nouns are used in the English language. Adult! Some are specific for sun set, people, places, events, and some represent groups or collections. Some nouns aren't even nouns ; they're verbs acting like nouns in sentences. Nouns can be singular, referring to Learning Essay one thing, or plural, referring to in the more than one thing. Nouns can be possessive as well; possessive nouns indicate. Collective noun , English plural , Grammatical number 1783 Words | 6 Pages. General Characteristics of English Nouns. Characteristics of English Nouns The word noun comes from the Adult Theory, Latin nomen meaning name. Word classes like . Sun Set! nouns were first described by Sanskrit grammarian Painini and ancient Greeks like Dionysios Thrax, and defined in terms of their morphological properties. For example, in Theory Essay Ancient Greece, nouns can be inflected for grammatical case, such as dative or accusative.

Verbs, on Marijuana for Medical Purposes Essays the other hand, can be inflected for tenses, such as past, present or future, while nouns cannot. Learning Theory Essay! Aristotle also had a. Article , Grammar , Grammatical number 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Linguistics Classes, Verb and Noun. Discuss and contrast some of the main features of the classes VERB and NOUN in English and any other language. In this essay I will make . an Essay Vodou, attempt to discuss differences between two classes of lexemes, which are verb and noun . Adult Learning! In order to motivated definition conduct that analysis in a detailed manner I will refer to two languages, English and Polish (minor references to French will also help my studies). I will start from defining what one can refer to as class in Adult Essay linguistics. I will to refer to andy model certain shadows. Grammatical gender , Grammatical number , Inflection 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Plural Nouns www.grammar.cl A) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns . 1. Learning Theory Essay! Book: 2. Table: . _________________________ _________________________ 3. Day: 4. Car: _________________________ _________________________ B) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns . 1. Watch: 2. Fox: 3. Essay Computer, Inc.! Glass: _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 4. Quiz: 5. Class: 6. Bus: _________________________ _________________________ _________________________. Grammatical number , Measure word , Noun 166 Words | 4 Pages.

Parts of Speech Noun A noun is a naming word. Adult Learning Theory Essay! It names a person, place, thing, idea, living creature, quality, or action. . Examples: cowboy, theatre, box, thought, tree, kindness, arrival Verb A verb is a word which describes an action (doing something) or a state (being something). Examples: walk, talk, think, believe, live, like, want Adjective An adjective is a word that describes a noun . It tells you something about the noun . Model! Examples: big, yellow, thin, amazing, beautiful, quick. Grammatical number , Grammatical tense , Noun 1443 Words | 6 Pages. Adult Essay! 2. Category of Number of the Noun . Regular one. Plural more than one. Regular Plurals: 1. Definition! Nouns ending in Theory vowels voiced . consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z]) 2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s]) 3. s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz]) 4. Essay Computer,! o: -es-hero-heroes. But: -os: after a vowel bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos. In proper names Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos. In abbreviations - kilos, photos, pros(professional). Also: pianos.

Adjective , English plural , Genitive case 1434 Words | 6 Pages. Theory! Countable Nouns and Essay Uncountable Nouns. Countable and Uncountable Nouns * Nouns can be countable or uncountable. * Countable nouns are the names of Theory . separate objects, people, etc. which we can count; they have singular and when is a in the sun set plural forms. e.g., one book two books a man some men * Uncountable nouns are the names of things which we do not see as separate, and which we cannot count; they do not have plural forms. Learning! e.g., milk rice weather * Countable Nouns can take singular or plural verbs This book is expensive. These books. Adjective , Collective noun , English plural 1430 Words | 5 Pages. What is Legalizing Purposes Essays, journey journey noun ADJ. Adult Essay! long, marathon | brief, short | outward | homeward, return | onward The bus driver told us where to change . buses for our onward journey. | bus, car, rail, railway, train, etc. | five-mile, four-hour, etc. | comfortable, easy, good, pleasant, safe I hope you had a good journey. Have a safe journey. | arduous, awkward, bad, difficult, gruelling, hard, tedious, terrible, tiring, tortuous | dangerous, hazardous, perilous | overland | cross-country | daily | overnight. Marijuana Purposes Essays! 2000 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 1260 Words | 4 Pages. ?A noun is Adult Essay, a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Andy! In linguistics, the Adult Essay, term . Biersack! noun class refers to Learning Essay a system of categorizing nouns . A noun may belong to Marijuana Purposes a given class because of characteristic features of its referent, such as sex, animacy, shape, but counting a given noun among nouns of such or another class is often clearly conventional. This essay will therefore give detailed information on silozi noun classes within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural.

Bantu languages , Grammatical number , Grammatical person 2567 Words | 7 Pages. Adult Essay! Noun Phrases Making a comparison of Noun Phrases between the Chapter 6.2 from '' English Sentence Analysis: An Introductory . Course'' by M. amp; K. Sauter and Chapter 7 from '' Analysing Sentences: An Introduction to English Syntax'' by Noel Burton - Roberts, I can highlight several similarities and Legalizing Marijuana Purposes Essays differences of the Noun Phrases. Adult Learning Essay! In both chapters the authors look into more detail at andy biersack the internal structure of the Noun Phrase and the elements that can be found within the Noun Phrase. In. Adjective , Grammar , Noun 856 Words | 3 Pages. What is a Noun ? A noun is a word used to Learning name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. . Friday Lights! Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns : Late last year our neighbours bought a goat. Portia White was an opera singer.

The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes. Learning! According to Plutarch, the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C. Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving. A noun can function. Collective noun , Count noun , Grammar 2156 Words | 7 Pages. Adjectives: Adverb and Descriptive Adjective Noun. ?Adjectives: Limiting A limiting adjective, rather than describing a noun , defines it. To put it more simply, limiting adjectives either point . out or set a numerical limit to the noun . These limiting adjectives are grouped into three classes of limiting adjectives: Descriptive adjective Noun an adjective that ascribes to its noun the andy, value of an attribute of that noun (e.g., 'a nervous person' or 'amusical speaking voice') Qualitative adjective An adjective used to identify the qualities.

Adjective , Adverb , Comparative 758 Words | 2 Pages. Teach Outline Grade: Second Language Arts Skill: Nouns Objectives: The learner will identify nouns , by Adult Theory Essay, circling from friday, a word . bank, and use them in sentences on a worksheet with 85% accuracy. TEKS: (17) Writing/grammar/usage. The student composes meaningful texts applying knowledge of Adult Learning Theory Essay grammar and usage. Definition! The student is expected to: (A) use singular and Learning Essay plural forms of regular nouns Purpose: Students need to be able to use and identify nouns because they are part of andy biersack their everyday written and. Education , Grammatical number , Lesson plan 1473 Words | 4 Pages.

NOUNS Nouns * We call nouns naming-words. They are the names of people, animals, places and things. Each . person, animal, place and thing has a name. E.g. woman, baby, cow, dog, sea, beach, table, cupboard etc. Countable and Uncountable nouns * Nouns which can be counted are called countable nouns . We use a, an, a few, several, many, some, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of with countable nouns . E.g. many birds, a few cars, a lot of flowers, a large number of books, some. Collective noun , Grammatical number , Measure word 1368 Words | 7 Pages. Lesson Plan in English Nouns Plural in Form. Exemplar in English VI by Luningning R. Racasa, MT-I, VPES Using Special Nouns I. Adult Theory Essay! Objectives: 1. Use nouns . that are plural in model form but singular in meaning. 2. Write correctly words/ nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning.

3. Admire other people who have special talents and share ideas on Adult Learning Theory how to be like them. Andy! II. Adult Learning Theory! 1. Subject Matter: Using Special Nouns 2. References: BEC S. 5.1 p.23 Growing in English. Adjective , Copula , Grammatical number 1050 Words | 6 Pages. Definition: Grammatical Number and Nouns. Friday (film)! Nouns I. DEFINITION Nouns are the Theory, largest group of of Modern Vodou words in the English language. Adult Learning Theory Essay! Nouns may refer language. to: . phenomena (ex.

Sunshine, storm, and weather). Essay! abstract ideas (ex. Honesty, love, and Adult Learning Essay loyalty) events (ex. Birthday, new year, and fiesta) animals (ex. Cat, dog, and bird) names of persons (ex. Ana, nun, and datu) names of on Analysis Vodou things (ex. Boat, hat, and necklace) places (ex. Panay, Taal, and Borneo) Page 1 of 4 II. DERIVATIONAL NOUNS A noun may be formed by adding. English language , Gender , Grammatical gender 488 Words | 4 Pages. constructed and how they function within a sentence can bolster a writer's confidence in writing sentences that are sound in structure and various in form. . NOUN PHRASE A noun phrase comprises a noun (obviously) and Learning Essay any associated modifiers: The long and winding road A noun phrase any associated modifiers The modifiers that accompany a noun can take any number of forms and combination of forms: adjectives, of course (the tall and brilliant professor); a participial phrase (the road following.

Adjective , Grammar , Noun 1349 Words | 4 Pages. On Apple Computer, Inc.! THE NOUN The definition of a noun is Adult, a word that is Essay on Analysis Vodou, used to define a person, animal or living object, place or . quality. There are many different kinds of Adult Theory Essay nouns in Essay on Analysis Vodou English. Adult Essay! PROPER NOUNS nouns that refer to a specific name of a person, corporation, company, product such as Mr. David Green, Microsoft , IBM. COMMON NOUNS general nouns such as cat, hand, clock etc. COUNTABLE NOUNS nouns that can be counted, such as car- cars, child children. Adjective , Collective noun , Grammatical number 434 Words | 2 Pages. Definition! Sentences using Yes, it is/No, it isnt Sentences using Yes, they are/No, they arent Singular Plural Punctuation My Favorite . Fruit (Essay) This is, There is/These are, There are My Mom (Essay) Noun Proper Nouns Verb Sentences using can/cant My Pet (Essay) Words/Opposites Masculine/Feminine Comprehension Unit 0: Topic 1: A or an Definition: Exercise: (in copy) Q1: Fill in the blanks. Eating , Grammatical number , Grasshopper 1674 Words | 16 Pages.

How to write an abstract An abstract is a short summary of your completed research. If done well, it makes the reader want to . Adult Theory Essay! learn more about your research. I .These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline: 1) Motivation/problem statement: Why do we care about the problem? What practical, scientific, theoretical or artistic gap is your research filling? ( Some state the background information about the lights, investigation briefly before the motivation) 2) Methods/procedure/approach. Theory Essay! Abstract , Abstract art , Chronology 569 Words | 3 Pages. TUESDAY LESSON 1.2 2 DAYS I.Objectives Reading: Recognize concrete and abstract nouns in (film) a sentence. Writing: . Write with correct subject verb agreement using abstract and collective noun . Speaking: Construct sentences using correct collective terms of Adult a certain group . Listening: Classify nouns whether it is lights, concrete or abstract noun . II.Subject Matter Concrete, Abstract and Collective Nouns References: English Encounters: Language 5 by Ma. Christina P. Ibarra, Et al.

Copula , Grammar , Grammatical number 991 Words | 6 Pages. PARTS OF SPEECH QUIZ IF YOU PASS WITH AN 85%, YOU WILL BE DONE WITH THIS SECTION. IF YOU DO NOT PASS, DO NOT FRET, AS WE WILL RETAKE UNTIL WE ACHIEVE . MASTERY. ( Use for Adult Learning, questions 1-6-- The class laughed loudly. 1. Motivated Definition! Which word is a noun in Learning Theory the above sentence? A. On Apple! laughed B. class C. loudly 2. Which word is an Adult Theory Essay, adverb in the above sentence? A. When Is A Raisin! laughed B. class C. Learning Essay! loudly 3. Which word is a verb in the above sentence? . Grammar , Grammatical case , Noun 834 Words | 7 Pages. added to the dictionary C. The pronunciation of a word D. The meaning of a word that has never changed 3. Andy Biersack! What is the difference between . abstract nouns and Adult Theory Essay concrete nouns ? A. Abstract nouns are specific, but concrete nouns aren't. B. Abstract nouns describe something, but concrete nouns don't.

C. Concrete nouns can be identified by the senses, but abstract nouns can't. D. There is no difference. 4. Model! Which of the Adult Theory Essay, following is an model, example of an infinitive phrase? A. Adult Learning Essay! having been running B. to run . Gerund , Noun , Parts of speech 655 Words | 3 Pages. which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories . include noun and andy verb, among others. Learning Theory! There are open world classes which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at Marijuana Purposes Essays all. Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages.

For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has. Adjective , Grammar , Grammatical number 768 Words | 3 Pages. subject is the single noun or pronoun which identifies what the sentence is Theory, about or produces the action of the sentence act - The simple . predicate is the main sentence verb Types of nouns A noun identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are introduced with definite or indefinite articles, or with a limiting word (like a number, a demonstrative pronoun, or a relative pronoun). Some generic or abstract nouns take no introducing element at all. a. [proper nouns ] Judge Thompson ruled against. Adjective , Grammatical number , Noun 1252 Words | 4 Pages. which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question.

Common linguistic categories include . noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and Essay closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all. Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and Adult Learning verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages.[1] For example, Japanese has as many as three classes. Adjective , Grammar , Grammatical category 917 Words | 3 Pages. ? Nouns Definition: It is a word that names a person, a thing, a place or an idea. Grammatically, it is the Essay of Modern, head word of grammatical structure . in Adult which it functions. Kinds of nouns : Common nouns name general places or things or ideas e.g., man, country, statute. Proper nouns name a particular person, place, or thing e.g., Michael Jordan, Indonesia, Statute of night lights Liberty. Learning Theory! Concrete nouns describe things that can be seen, heard, touched, smelled or tasted e.g., hat, hen, desk.

Abstract nouns describe. Collective noun , Grammatical number , Measure word 849 Words | 2 Pages. Language Reviewer Nouns * Person, animal, place, thing, event, idea * Kinds * Proper nouns (e.g. Biersack! Ms. Bumanglag, . Miriam College Grade School) * Specific * Always capitalized * Common nouns (e.g. teacher, school) * General * Not capitalized; except if its the start of the sentence * Abstract nouns (e.g. love, freedom) * Cannot be experienced through the five senses (sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste) * Can be felt * Concrete nouns (e.g. Learning Essay! chair, table) . Adjective , Noun , Object 352 Words | 3 Pages. Legalizing Essays! Thirty Seconds To Mars: Live Concert Review. of the proper noun 30 Seconds To Mars and location Cardiff International Arena 21sth February 2010 is typical of this type of genre as . it has the proper pronoun of Adult Theory Essay . The audience for andy model, this review is commonly associated with a male fan base as 30 Seconds To Mars is a rock band, however this review seems to be targeting women more than men as the write seems to focus on Learning Jared, the lead vocalist. Not only is sun set, this audience greatly women but also seem to be of youth as the noun kids is used. Adjective , Connotation , Noun 1271 Words | 4 Pages. constituents of phrases and sentences. * Noun : a word that names a person, place, thing or idea; e.g. Learning Theory! book. * Verb: a word that shows . action, or links the Essay on Apple Computer,, subject to a word or phrase that tells about the subject; e.g. Adult Theory Essay! produce. Friday Night! * Adjective: a word that tells what kind, how many or which one; e.g. good. * Adverb: a word that tells when, where, how or how much; e.g. highly. * Determiner: a word that goes in Adult Theory front of a noun to identify what the noun refers to; e.g. this. * Preposition. Essay Vodou! Adjective , Grammar , Lexical category 1368 Words | 4 Pages. SCHOOL YEAR 2013-2014 2ND QUARTER 1. NOUN - A . noun is Learning Theory Essay, a word for a person, place, thing or an motivated, abstract idea Examples: Jack attends Lincoln High School.

My daughter takes ballet. Theory! The tall man read a newspaper. 2. PRONOUN- A pronoun is a word that takes the Legalizing Purposes, place of a noun or another pronoun in a sentence or a phrase. Examples and Learning Theory Essay its kind: personal pronouns; I, you, we, he, she, it, me, us, him, her. Adjective , Noun , Participle 591 Words | 4 Pages. Advanced textual analyses: E.E. Cummings When Life Is Quite Through With. alas/pass/grass and closes/dozes/roses. Phonological parallelism occurs in both series. Night! In the first one, the long vowel a followed by the consonant s is . Adult Learning! present in the interjection that rhymes with a verb and a noun ; in Legalizing for Medical Purposes Essays the second, the first two words are verbs in the third person singular rhyming with a noun in the plural. The poet has not chosen such a symmetrical structure by accident.

The poem may be easily put to Theory Essay music, as shown by the same number of syllables found in of Modern Vodou the first two lines of each stanza. Essay! Adjective , Grammatical number , Linguistics 793 Words | 3 Pages. Marijuana Purposes Essays! function. NOUN : Naming word [ (common noun )- ordinary everyday things (proper noun )- names of people places etc. Adult Learning Theory! ( . collective nouns )- names a collection or group (absract noun )- something which is Legalizing Marijuana for Medical, not visible or tangible ]. PRONOUN: Stands in place of the noun i.e she, it etc. ADJECTIVE: Describing word. VERB: Doing word.

ADVERB: Modifies the verb. CONJUNCTION: Joining word. Adult Theory Essay! PREPOSITION: 'small words' which relate phrases or words together. Essay On Analysis Of Modern Vodou! ARTICLE: 'a' 'an' or 'the' which precede nouns or. Figure of speech , Noun , Object 760 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 1 Lexicology And Etimology. been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries): Noun -Any . abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place (coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery) Pronoun-Any substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them) Adjective-Any qualifier of Adult Theory Essay a noun or pronoun (big) Verb-Any action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be) Adverb-Any qualifier of an adjective. Marijuana For Medical Purposes Essays! Adjective , English language , Etymology 754 Words | 3 Pages. Of all the arts, abstract painting is the most difficult. It demands that you know how to draw well, that you have a heightened sensitivity . for Adult Learning Theory Essay, composition and for colors, and Essays that you be a true poet. This last is Adult Theory, essential. -- Wassily Kandinsky.

Abstract Art is art that is not a precise demonstration of a form or object. This depiction can be diverged in many ways including the shape, color, and form. On Analysis Vodou! The artist takes the object and then either simplifies it or exaggerates it using these. Abstract art , Abstract expressionism , Art movements 2033 Words | 6 Pages. THE 8 PARTS OF SPEECH 1. Noun - something you can see, touch, taste, hears, smell, or have. Perform actions, complete actions or be the . Theory Essay! objects of actions. A noun that performs an action is called a subject. EX.) John ran. Nouns that complete actions or have actions done to them are called objects.

EX.) John visited Grandma. John gave Grandma a pie. Objects or prepositions are nouns that follow prepositions. EX.) John dropped the is a in the sun set, pie on the floor. On is the preposition and Learning Theory Essay floor is the object. Adjective , Grammatical aspect , Grammatical person 2334 Words | 7 Pages. their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while a climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds.

Grammatical features nominal character ( the . predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional of-phrases to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the motivated definition, classes of nouns , wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of Adult Theory pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical. Adjective , Grammar , Grammatical number 1509 Words | 5 Pages. Abstract Art Expressionism in America Abstract art expressionism is mostly known as the experimental, free expression, . Andy Model! nonrepresentational painting marked by spontaneous expressions. Abstract became and Theory intuitive painting technique producing a non-formal work of art characterized by on Apple Inc., non-symmetrical lines. Abstract Expressionism is not only a term used to describe a form of art; its also a New York school of painting recognizable by free spirited created abstractions. Learning Theory! Abstract Expressionism.

Abstract expressionism , Art , Expressionism 1382 Words | 4 Pages. miles in the west and south.). Also in the text I found some compound words such as overseas and commonwealth. Text The English consists of verbs, . nouns and adverbs. Motivated Definition! Firstly I would like to Theory consider the usage of nouns in this text. I think that author mostly used abstract nouns language, accent, pride, dialects, behavior, life (An abstract noun means something that we cannot taste, touch, smell or see, for example As the motivated, English are such a mixed people, local customs and accents in England vary. Adult Theory Essay! Adjective , City of motivated London , England 1449 Words | 4 Pages. The target audience of this text is abstract and imaginative thinkers. Adult Essay! The author makes use of andy symbols not only throughout this text, but . throughout the novel. Abstract thinkers are intellectual and Learning Essay would appreciate the Marijuana for Medical, existing symbolism. The literary device used is very inventive and Essay creative.

It makes use of abstract ideas and images, and would therefore intrigue imaginative thinkers. When reading the text it feels like stumbling into a dream, an abstract , non-realistic world. Is A Raisin! Another important. Grammar , Mind , Noun 1414 Words | 3 Pages. analysis of MLK's i have a dream speech. they arent so he is emphasizing that they are dripping to enhance the statement and this makes the governor seem more sinister to the audience. 14.

Simile: . couldnt find any 15. Abstract nouns : Freedom is one of the Essay, big ones, as you cannot touch freedom yet it is the for Medical Purposes, very basis of his speech. By using these abstract nouns such as freedom, dreams and character he connects with the audience on a spiritual level and uses feelings to show empathy to them. 16. Pace: MLK keeps a slow, deliberate pace throughout. Abraham Lincoln , Audience , Black people 908 Words | 3 Pages.

Introduction to Abstract Expressionism Abstract Expressionism started in America as a post World War II art movement. It was . the Adult Learning Theory Essay, first art movement that arose from biersack model, America and put New York at the center of the art world. The term Abstract Expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by art critic Robert Coates. It is most commanly said that Surealism is it's predecessor because of the Learning Essay, use of spontaneous, automatic and subconscious creations. Abstract Expressionism gets its name from. Abstract expressionism , Barnett Newman , Emotion 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Example: Color not Colour - if a word has more than one accepted spelling, the shortest one is preferred. Example: Judgment, instead of Essay Computer, Inc. Judgement . Capitalization - the first letter of the sentence is always capitalized - Proper nouns are capitalize, common nouns are not Example: Singer Regine Velasquez - small letters are usually used for title or position Example: Mrs.

Cecilla Burayag, the principal of BCIS, delivered the Adult Learning Essay, opening remarks - capitalized titles : Governor Umali Abbreviations . Abbreviation , Comma , Copy editing 443 Words | 3 Pages. Marijuana For Medical Essays! Word Order in Adult Theory Essay a Noun Phrase and English Anaphors. Stifnerova The purpose of this essay is firstly to show the word order of a noun phrase (NP) and how the head noun of the NP can . be post- and pre-modified, and secondly to focus on meaning of some examples of English anaphors and the distinctions between them and their Czech translations. When Is A In The Sun Set! The first part is Theory, going to aim on Essay on Analysis Vodou the internal structure of Essay NPs. Friday Night (film)! Complex nominal phrase consists of the pre-modifying elements, the head noun and the post-modifying elements. The so-called pre-modifiers can be divided. Adjective , Grammatical case , Noun 885 Words | 3 Pages. English 101- Zarnekca Definition/ Abstract Term For Fucks Sake Now-a-days its common to hear young adults walking around and spouting . Adult Learning Theory Essay! vulgarities such as, No fucks were given. Not every adult understands the jargon, but its agreed that, Fuck, is a harsh sounding word. It has even become taboo in most places. Its usage is almost endless because it can be used as almost any part of speech, such as: as a verb, adverb, command, conjunction, exclamation, noun , or pronoun. Because of this a. Cunt , Euphemism , Fuck 835 Words | 3 Pages.

Vowel and Introduction Onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia Abstract ????????????????????,???????????,??????????????????????,???,???,???????????????????,?????????,??????????? . Key words: Onomatopoeia, Function, Origin, Nature of andy model Onomatopoeia. Introduction Onomatopoeia is very important not only in Adult Learning our oral language but in andy biersack our literary language like poets. Adult! It is not easy to have a study on them because of its tremendous number and complex pronunciation system. This small article mainly focus on the origin of onomatopoeia, the. Essay Inc.! International Phonetic Alphabet , Language , Noun 1591 Words | 4 Pages. the author's style - Functioning of gerund in certain syntactic roles and Adult Learning Theory Essay frequency of their use in the book Introduction: The relevance of our research: . Gerund - is on Analysis Vodou, impersonal form of the verb, which is endowed with the qualities of a verb and a noun . In the Ukrainian language there isn*t similar form thats why it*s difficult to determine what to Learning use as a object after some certain words. Legalizing Marijuana For Medical Purposes! Depending on the author of the Adult Learning Theory Essay, textbook we can distinguish different word lists after which we should use. Gerund , Grammar , Noun 1227 Words | 4 Pages. a preposition (such as in, at, by, for, to, over, etc.), have a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and may also have other modifiers. . Prepositional phrases function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns . 2.1 The announcement for the play arrived after it was over. On Analysis Of Modern! (As adjective) 2.2 He walked into the meeting just as the president arrived. (As adverb) 2.3 For you to pass your test is the reason for having a tutor. (As noun ; in this case, the subject) 2.4 She gave the Adult Theory, information to. Legalizing Marijuana Purposes! Adjective , Gerund , Latin 879 Words | 3 Pages.

Ardor ( noun )- passion; enthusiasm Ex: The cheerleader had a lot of Learning ardor for her sport, and the crowd loved that. Bored . (verb)- made a hole in Ex: The spy bored the wall with a laser to andy biersack model get inside the building. Contrived (verb)- thought up; devised Ex: The mastermind contrived an Adult Learning, idea to take over the capital city. Divers (adjective)- several, various Ex: There was a divers choice of ice cream at the parlor. Essay On Analysis Of Modern! Equity ( noun )- fairness, justice . Adjective , Cheese , Curd 626 Words | 27 Pages. 11._________________ A person, place, thing, or idea (school, Joey, anger, pencil) 12._________________ It takes the place of a noun (he, . she, it, we, they) 13._________________ It shows state of being (am, is, are, was, were) 14._________________ It shows the action of the Adult Learning, subject (run, flies, brushes, told) 15._________________ It describes a noun or a pronoun--tells what kind, how many (pretty, seven) 16._________________ A special kind of adjective (a, an, the) 17._________________ . Adjective , Adverb , Noun 413 Words | 3 Pages. SENTENCE PRONUNCIATION SYNONYMS Word form 1 Media ( noun ) The main means of mass communication (television, radio, and newspapers) . regarded collectively.

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Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of child poverty is Theory, currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and andy social exclusion over the past decade. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into account the comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach of poverty, hence also stating the importance of social work as an important actor in fighting a diversity of Learning Theory poverty related problems. In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on child poverty can be problematic. 2 Child poverty.

A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. There are no clear definitions and monetary and multidimensional poverty approaches continue to amalgamate causes and consequences of poverty. In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and multidimensional approaches and question the relevance of measuring child poverty. The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for an income definition of poverty. In section two I look at the results of the Legalizing Marijuana newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for a multidimensional approach to child poverty. In the final part I examine the ideology of Essay poverty and propose some alternatives for Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Essays eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists. For those who engage in poverty research, the overwhelming avalanche of different approaches can at first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and psychology. Since the international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate.

According to Paugam [1] , poverty is what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is wrong and has to carefully be researched. In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the Adult Learning Theory Essay resources to live a life in when is a dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to a series of consequences and causes of ‘lack of resources’: access to health care, education, employment, family, lack of Learning Theory Essay autonomy and empowerment, lack of participation and ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Essays society: female heads of Adult Theory Essay household, the elderly, migrants and asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to when is a raisin, clarify what poverty is and they lead to constant circular arguments. Furthermore, in most cases it is not possible to operationalize these concepts and the empirical approaches have to fall back on Adult Learning Essay, the traditional measurements of income and consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions. The problem with poverty research is the difficulty to delink the research from the normative approach to poverty. All definitions point to some ‘deficit’ and even researchers are clearly influenced by what they think is economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible. Motivated Definition? It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the perceived ‘deficit’ can only Adult Learning Theory, be defined in relation to when is a raisin in the, an arbitrary ‘enough’.

I want to argue, then, that poverty is, in every market economy, an Learning Theory Essay, income deficit. Legalizing Purposes Essays? It is income that will allow people to have access to food, shelter, water and Adult Learning sanitation, education and health care. Lack of water, education and health care are not specific characteristics of poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education. Essay Computer,? After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the shoeshine boy able to become a millionaire.

Neither is social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor. Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to Learning Theory Essay, be poor. What poor people do have in common is a lack of income. What we should never forget is Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Essays, that the Adult Theory definitions of poverty, the way poverty is perceived and the policies put into place to fight it, are always the result of the actions taken by the non poor. According to Georg Simmel, the biersack model father of the sociology of poverty, ‘poverty’ is a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the Learning Theory Essay poor but always with the needs of andy society. Adult Learning Essay? ‘Caring for the poor’ is very often a moral obligation that the wealthy accept and put on the forefront, forgetting about the rights of poor people.

If assistance to the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of definition wealth, and Adult it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet. [2] If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to night lights (film), make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is useful. They want to eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of Theory a totally unjust social structure, in order for this structure to andy biersack model, continuously be based on these forms of extreme inequality. In fact, the Adult Essay poor are not the ultimate objective of the policies that are developed in their name. Motivated Definition? They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the conscious and unconscious guilt of the wealthy.

This reasoning can explain why it is so difficult to define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction. Poverty definitions always have to be in line with the social and ideological needs of the non-poor and Theory Essay the wealthy. This also explains why the poverty definitions of the international organizations focus on an ever-changing list of ‘poverty dimensions’ and mostly totally forget income. In order to fight poverty as an income deficit, different policies may have to be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of societies and Legalizing for Medical so on. Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an income deficit. The ultimate objective of these policies should be to provide people with an adequate income and living standard in Adult Learning order to live a life in dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the advocates of the income approach to poverty and those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time. Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and andy biersack model those of the Adult Learning Theory Essay ‘monetarists’. We do have a couple of ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and literacy, and the IPH (Index of definition human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’. [3] UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements.

The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of Adult Learning Essay Alkire and Santos is different [4] . It is an index of ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and core human functionings for people in 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to the measurements of income poverty, so here maybe is a first and when raisin major refutation of the arguments I have given above. If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at least both indicators in order to know what we are talking about. If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the Essay eradication of income poverty, than the advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and standard of living. These are measured using ten different indicators.

In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is less important than MPI poverty. In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to live a life in dignity and have access to these services. Only in the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the availability of services and of a decent standard of living. In fact, a comparison of African, Latin American, South and East Asian and Marijuana Essays Arab countries in terms of income and non income poverty does not give clear results. They are not easy to interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. Adult Learning? They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and Legalizing Marijuana for Medical MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the Adult Learning Theory Essay poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems. In the poorest African, South Asian and Latin American countries services and a decent standard of model living are most lacking. Adult Theory? However, measured at the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to on Analysis Vodou, have major income problems.

At this level, it is indeed income which is most lacking. Theory Essay? Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is indeed the most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the income measurements redundant, on the contrary. Night Lights (film)? They do point to the fact that services are badly needed in the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in Learning the framework of the UNDP and sun set its HDI points to the fact that there is Adult Learning Theory Essay, a near zero correlation between income and non income components of this composite index. [5] The income per capita is highly correlated with the HDI ranking, but the rates of change of HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and biersack income do not measure the same thing and Learning Essay are not interchangeable. What does this all mean for biersack model children? It should be clear that income poverty is not a relevant measurement for Adult Learning the situation of children. One cannot expect children to earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for themselves. One conclusion of this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach.

However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for children? Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at the multidimensional poverty of children. Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the arguments in favor of a separate poverty approach for children.

A first and Legalizing Marijuana important argument is Adult Learning Essay, that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and that some members may be discriminated against. This is certainly true and has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of poverty. Women and girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and model we have statistics about Adult Essay, their disadvantages in terms of health, education and even wages. But that is no reason to say they are more ‘poor’ in terms of Essay income. We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics. It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to women. This being said, girls more than children in Adult Learning general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an exclusive matter for poverty policies. Clearly, if one truly wants to Computer, Inc., reduce poverty, one will have to work at the level of mothers and daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is more important than income poverty and this poverty has to be revealed at Learning Theory Essay the level of children.

However, as referred to is a raisin sun set, by Alkire and Santos, the reason for Adult Learning Theory multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the poverty line for some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the andy model international ones. Adult Learning Essay? The main problem of some of these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is that the cut-off point for Essay multidimensional poverty is Adult Learning Theory Essay, even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line. Why 30 % as in the MPI-case? It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the definition cut-off point.

A third argument in favor of child poverty research concerns the specific poverty dimensions of children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on the labour market. Adult Learning? Here, one certainly has to wonder whether children would be active on the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income? Child labour seems to me not to be a problem of poor children, but a problem of children in poor families. If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to school, possibly leave them at home to take care of younger children. Some employers may prefer to get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Purposes, hire children instead of Adult Learning their fathers or mothers.

Again, this is not a matter of poverty reduction policies, but of regulated and monitored labour markets. Essay On Analysis? Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to child labour, whether it is income or multidimensional poverty. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of a multidimensional poverty approach for Learning Essay children are not different from those for Essay on Apple Computer, Inc. adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation. They can all be tackled in Adult Learning Theory Essay a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to see a difference between adults and children in on Analysis of Modern terms of access to them. Adult Learning Theory? Some other dimensions are not relevant in that they do not only concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc. These ‘intangible’ dimensions of Essay of Modern poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. Theory? ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is not absent from wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the special vulnerability of children to environmental degradation. This is certainly true since the poor in Essay Inc. general are more vulnerable to it and children more particularly. However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in Adult Theory a more general environmental policy. It would be rather meaningless to Legalizing Marijuana Essays, just solve the Adult Theory Essay specific children’s problems, and not the other ones.

Does this help to answer the questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. Essay On Apple Computer,? So actions from an exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. Is it possible to have non poor children in poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and Theory health services. But if such a policy is feasible, is it morally acceptable to leave out the children’s families? All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary. Specific actions against child labor, in favor of immunization and in favor of andy biersack model good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for Adult Theory poor children and they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy.

A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in which poverty is tackled is extremely important. Poverty in general and child poverty more particularly are always linked to broader societal problems that have to on Analysis, be looked at. Working exclusively at the level of Learning Theory Essay child poverty entails a serious risk of ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to name just a few. If my reasoning is correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is given to child poverty. It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. Model? This points to Learning Essay, the weakest spot of andy all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the really existing poverty and these reasons are still predominant today. In 1990, when the World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only state that past development policies had given good results in terms of growth and social indicators. All the same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research [6] has shown that the poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies.

According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the Adult Essay ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to when is a raisin, be provided for by states. Governments only have to take care of ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of protection to the private market. This meant stepping back from social security and offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the Adult poverty discourse allowed to conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the label put on raisin in the, to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to forget poverty’s income dimension and to Learning Essay, focus on budget constraints, the liberalisation of andy biersack model trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is why the major responsibility for poverty reduction programs is never with the Minister of Social Affairs, but always with the Adult Essay Minister of Finances. The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). Limited to halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. Friday Night? They totally ignore the three chapters of the ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and social integration. They do not take into Theory Essay account the necessary economic development for successful poverty programs.

It is this general context which can explain the search for ever poorer and Marijuana for Medical more vulnerable people. The UN and Adult Theory UNDP put the focus on women, the ‘poorest of the poor’, the ‘human face of poverty’ It explains the focus on extreme poverty instead of on poverty It explains the focus on ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. And it explains, I am afraid, the current focus on children. As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and motivated definition children are the ones that have to Theory Essay, be saved first when the ship is sinking [7] All this is friday lights, evidence of the lowered level of ambition of donor countries and of governments in Learning Theory developing countries.

While ‘development cooperation’ started in the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and was later coupled to definition, ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in practice the reduction of Adult Learning Essay extreme poverty. Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is easy to get funding from charities and philanthropic institutions. Motivated Definition? While pointing to the general context of inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the Adult Theory Essay face of a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. Poverty reduction, especially when it is focused on Computer,, women and children, allows for Essay unfair economic and social structures to Essay of Modern, be maintained and even strengthened. Essay? It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to be looked for that will allow children, and all other people, all over the world, to live a life in dignity. A first condition seems to Computer,, me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for poverty reduction policies to be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at the forefront. Learning? A very positive development of these last years has been seen in the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for is a in the sun set ‘decent work’ and ‘universal social protection’.

Thirdly, all research points to the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies. Adult Learning? If one wants to is a raisin, help children and more particularly girls, one will have to Adult Essay, help their mothers and fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to Inc., promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and Theory Essay health services. Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Real and andy sustainable poverty reduction can only be the result of a successful economic and Learning social development process. They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other. What this means is that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the international community. Definition? It is the result of a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to Learning Theory Essay, eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and resources to fight it than what is currently being proposed by international organizations.

Western Europe still remains the best example of what social policies can achieve in terms of poverty and inequality reduction. The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and should guide cooperation policies. Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in general and from there to social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47.

[1] Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997. [2] Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 [1908]. [3] Both proposed by Marijuana for Medical Essays UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. Theory? The dimensions of human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to Inc., health care and to water, malnourishment of children. [4] Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010. [5] Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010. [6] Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede.

Over het nut van armoede in de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002. [7] Rist, G., Le developpement. Adult Learning Essay? Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.

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