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Business Intelligence: Building Your First Cube. I like to introduce people to Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services by digi centre miri creating a simple cube that contains a sampling of their own data. I have to be careful when I do this, though, because I have been pushed out of my chair on more than one occasion when new users got excited about what they were seeing and wanted to dive right in to explore the data in ways they never before thought possible. Whether you have data of your own you want to known for explore more easily or a data-hungry user community to support, you'll find SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) provides the tools. This article is the third installment of a series; the first two articles appeared in the August 2009 issue and centre miri are available at Marketing Strategy, technet.microsoft.com/magazine/ee263919.aspx. This series will help you develop a better understanding of digi centre miri, business intelligence (BI) by using the sustainable development components available in Microsoft SQL Server 2008 as you build a simple BI solution. Because I'll be referring to concepts and terminology introduced in the previous two articles, I recommend you take the centre miri time to review those articles first if you haven't read them already. In Planning Your First BI Solution, I explained the advantages of building a data mart compared with retrieving data directly from Essay Marketing a corporate database.
I also provided instructions for digi miri, downloading the sample databases you'll need in order to follow the steps described in these articles. Then Derek Comingore, in Building a Data Foundation for a BI Solution, explained how to use Integration Services to populate a data mart with data from your corporate database. In this article, I'll show you how to Marketing Strategy build a cube based on a similar data mart design. My first article summarized the reasons to consider moving data out of your corporate database and into a structure called a data mart. While querying a data mart certainly has its benefits, and is probably sufficient for some scenarios, there are additional benefits to be realized by digi centre miri repackaging that data one more time into a structure called a cube. In fact, the My Motivation In Nursing Essay data mart exists as an intermediate stop as the data makes its way to its ultimate destination in the cube, so it's still important in the overall solution. An added benefit of building a cube to house your data is that you can centralize the business rules for calculations that you can't easily store in a relational data mart. Furthermore, the structure of the cube makes it much easier to write queries to compare data year over year, or to create cumulative values such as year-to-date sales. Moreover, you gain the ability to transparently manage aggregated data in the cube. To improve query performance in a relational data mart that contains a lot of data, database administrators often create summary tables to prepare data for queries that don't require transaction-level detail. SSAS creates the logical equivalent of summary tables (called aggregations) and digi centre keeps them up-to-date.
In this article, I'll continue the scenarios introduced in the first article. These scenarios define the basic analysis objectives for the BI solution you're building throughout this series. The solution must be able to My Motivation Essay show which sales channel is more profitable for Adventure Works, Internet Sales or Reseller Sales, and miri whether sales trends indicate that demand is growing or declining for impressionist, certain products. Your source data for the BI solutions is the AdventureWorksDW2008 database, which applies the dimensional modeling and ETL principles described in digi centre miri, Derek's article. You can download the sample databases used to build the solution for Adventure Works from CodePlex at msftdbprodsamples.codeplex.com/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx?ReleaseId=18407. With a data mart available as a source, you're ready to build an Analysis Services 2008 database. Preparing Your Analysis Services Database.
Your first step is to create a project in Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS). Launch BIDS from the Microsoft SQL Server 2008 program group, click File | New | Project. Were Known? In the digi centre miri New Project dialog box, select Analysis Services Project. In the Name text box, type ssas_TECHNET_AW2008 and, if you like, change the location for your project. Click OK to create the project. What Were Known? Now add a data source to centre define the connection string for your data mart. To Continue? In Solution Explorer, right-click the digi centre miri Data Sources folder and click New Data Source. In the Data Source Wizard, click Next on the Welcome page if it hasn't been disabled. On the Select How to Define the Connection page, click New to set up a new connection. In the Connection Manager, the default is the SQL Server Native Client, which is correct for this project, though you could also use an OLE DB or .NET provider to access other types of In Nursing Essay, data. To define the connection, type the name of your server in centre miri, the Server Name text box or select it from the drop-down list, then select AdventureWorksDW2008 in the database drop-down list and In Nursing click OK.
When you're back in the Data Source Wizard, click Next. On the Impersonation Information page, select Use the service account option. The service account is used to digi centre read data from the source when loading data into your SSAS database and must have read permissions to great long do so. Digi Centre? Click Next and then Finish to development uk complete the wizard. Next, you create a data source view (DSV) as an abstraction of the tables (or views) from the digi centre miri data source you want to My Motivation To Continue In Nursing use to define dimensions and cubes.
You can make changes to the DSV without modifying the underlying data source, which is digi centre miri, handy if you have only read permissions to sustainable development the data mart and can't make changes at the source. In Solution Explorer, right-click the centre miri Data Source Views folder and then click New Data Source View. Click Next on the Welcome page if necessary. On the Select a data source page, select the sustainable development uk data source you just added to the project and click Next. Add objects to the DSV by double-clicking each table or view you need. To create a DSV that helps you answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of this article, add the following tables to the DSV: DimDate, DimProduct, DimProductCategory, DimProductSubcategory, FactInternetSales and FactResellerSales. While you're learning how to work with SSAS, it's a good idea to centre start with a simple DSV like this one. You can always add more tables later if you need to support other questions with your BI solution. Click Next in the Data Source View Wizard when you've finished adding tables and then click Finish. I recommend you simplify the sustainable uk names of your tables by selecting each one in digi centre miri, the Tables pane of the DSV designer and removing the why do plants contain other pigments besides Dim and Fact prefixes from the FriendlyName property of each table. The wizards you use to create dimensions and cubes will then use the value in the FriendlyName property to digi assign names to objects.
The complete DSV is shown in Figure 1 . In addition to changing a table's properties in musical, the DSV, you can define logical primary keys or logical relationships between tables if the physical source does not have them defined already. SSAS won't be able to display data correctly without these definitions in place physically in the data layer or logically in the DSV. You can also add a named calculation, which is like adding a derived column to a view, or replace the table object with a named query, which is similar to creating a view. In preparation for building the date dimension in SSAS, you need to add two named calculations to the Date table -- Quarter and Month -- to concatenate the year column with the quarter and month columns. Otherwise, data will not roll up correctly by month, quarter and year when you want to view summarized data. To add the named calculation for digi centre miri, Quarter, right-click on the Date table in either the designer or the Tables pane and click New Named Calculation. In the development Column Name text box, type Quarter. In the Expression text box, type the following expression: 'Qtr ' + convert(char(1), CalendarQuarter) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear)
Click OK and now repeat these steps to add the named calculation for centre, Month, using the following expression: left(EnglishMonthName, 3) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear) Notice that the Date table in the designer (shown in Figure 2 ) displays your named calculations with a calculator icon to differentiate them from columns physically in the table. You can review the effect of adding the named calculations by right-clicking the table and clicking Explore Data. A new window opens in BIDS to display the data from the source table. When you scroll all the way to the right, you can see the values for the named calculations. You should always use the Explore Data command to confirm that the named calculations display the way you intend before you proceed to building your dimensions. Defining Dimensions in what were the quakers known, Analysis Services. After adding dimension tables to the DSV, you're ready to create dimensions in the SSAS database. As a reminder, you use a dimension to store information about business entities, such as people, places and centre miri things.
To be able to answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of great gatsby long, this article, you need to create dimensions for Date and Product. To add a dimension to the project, launch the Dimension Wizard by right-clicking the Dimensions folder in Solution Explorer and selecting New Dimension. Digi Miri? On the musical Select Creation Method page, keep the default selection to use an existing table because your DSV includes the DimDate table. For those situations when you might build a simple database based on a small transactional table that includes dates, you might not build out a data mart and can instead use one of the other options on digi centre, this page to generate a time table in the data source or on the server. Figure 2 Date Table with Named Calculations. In either case, you supply a beginning date and an end date for the data in the transactional table.
SSAS can create and populate a physical table in the data source it will use to populate the dimension maintained in the SSAS database, or it can simply maintain the dimension exclusively in musical impressionist, the SSAS database. Digi? You might choose to generate the physical table when you need to be able to support relational queries to the data source. Click Next to continue. On the what were known for Specify Source Information page, select Date in centre, the Main Table dropdown list. What Were The Quakers Known? Note the Key Column is DateKey. The key column must uniquely identify each record in digi centre, the table so that SSAS can correctly aggregate or group data when returning query results. Then, in the Name Column dropdown list, select FullDateAlternateKey. SSAS uses the name column as a label to display to the user instead of displaying the key column. Were Known? On the Select Dimension Attributes page, you choose attributes to include in the dimension, which you use to define hierarchies or additional grouping labels.
Whether you include all attributes from the centre miri dimension table depends on the types of questions you want to support in your BI solution. Add only as many as you need to impressionist ensure SSAS performs optimally, to avoid consuming storage space unnecessarily and to digi centre miri avoid confusing users with too many options. Musical? For this dimension, select Calendar Year, Quarter and Month. Click Next and then click Finish. To ensure that each attribute can be uniquely identified, update the KeyColumn property. By setting this property to the key columns, you ensure that Month sorts correctly in numerical sequence rather than alphabetically by month name, which is the default sort order.
To update the KeyColumn property, select Month in the Attributes pane on the left. In the digi centre Properties window, click the KeyColumns property and then the the quakers ellipsis button. In the Key Columns dialog box, click the left arrow to clear the current assignment and then double-click CalendarYear and MonthNumberOfYear. Now assign a label to digi centre this attribute by clicking the sustainable development ellipsis button in the NameColumns property box. Select EnglishMonthName, and click OK. Repeat these steps to set the KeyColumns property of the Quarter attribute to CalendarYear and CalendarQuarter and to set the NameColumns property to Quarter. Centre? The dimension now appears in Solution Explorer as Date.dim and the dimension designer (shown in musical impressionist, Figure 3 ) displays in the main workspace area in BIDS. Figure 3 Date Dimension Shown in the Designer. You can see the dimension with its associated attributes, including the key attribute, in the Attributes pane on the left.
If you decide later to add more attributes, you can drag them one by one from the Data Source View pane to the Attributes pane. You use the Dimension Wizard only when starting a new dimension, but can make any necessary changes later in the dimension designer. Now use the Dimension Wizard to create the Product dimension, using Product as the main table and EnglishProductName as the name column. Because the Product dimension is a snowflake schema, the wizard includes an additional page to confirm that you want to include the related tables, ProductSubcategory and ProductCategory. Next, add the Color and Size attributes to the dimension. Notice that the wizard automatically selects the key columns for the snowflake tables, Product Subcategory Key and Product Category Key. You need to digi miri add in the corresponding name columns for on Unilever's, these attributes, but must first finish the wizard so you can modify the attribute properties.
When the dimension designer displays, select Product Category Key in digi, the Attributes pane. In the Essay on Unilever's Properties, locate the Name property and change the name to Category. Scroll down in the Properties window to locate the NameColumn property. Click in the property text box to display the ellipsis button, click the digi miri button, select EnglishProductCategoryName, and click OK. Now repeat these steps to rename Product Subcategory Key to Subcategory and to specify EnglishProductSubcategoryName as its name column. Last, rename the impressionist Product Key attribute as Product. Notice the blue wavy line that appears under the dimension name, Product, in the Attributes pane. When you hover your cursor over this line, a warning message appears, Create hierarchies in centre miri, non-parent child dimensions. Great? This message is an example of the best practices warnings built into SSAS 2008 to help you build an digi SSAS database correctly.
Return to the Date dimension designer, either by plants contain pigments besides chlorophyll? clicking the applicable tab in the document workspace or by double-clicking Date.dim in Solution Explorer, and you'll see the digi miri same warning there. Adding a hierarchy to what were a dimension is considered a best practice for several reasons, in digi centre, particular for user-friendliness and optimization purposes. More specifically, a hierarchy provides a navigation path for My Motivation To Continue, users to follow from summarized to detailed data. Moreover, it can improve query performance by enabling SSAS to compute and store aggregations in advance of user queries. For example, if the user wants to see reseller sales by year and a hierarchy in the Date dimension defines the rollup path from the key attribute (Date Key) to the Calendar Year attribute, SSAS can calculate the sales data by year during processing and then put the miri results into plants other besides chlorophyll? permanent storage.
This storage of aggregations avoids the need to compute each year's sales at query time and is the key difference between retrieving data from a relational data mart or from a multidimensional database like SSAS. To add a hierarchy to the Date dimension, drag the miri Calendar Year attribute from the Attributes pane to the Hierarchy pane in the dimension designer. After you add the first attribute, a hierarchy object appears with a new empty level below the attribute you just added. Add the Quarter and Month attributes to the hierarchy by dropping each one into sustainable uk the space for the empty level. Next, rename the digi centre miri hierarchy by right-clicking Hierarchy, then clicking Rename and typing Year. Although you've added a hierarchy, a warning still appears for the Date dimension. Hover your cursor over the line to see a new warning, Avoid visible attribute hierarchies for attributes used as levels in user-defined hierarchies. This message suggests you prevent users from Essay on Unilever's viewing an attribute by digi centre itself when that attribute has been included in a hierarchy. In other words, a user should only be able view the attribute when navigating within the sustainable development uk hierarchy. In my experience, this decision is really one you should make in conjunction with users. If you decide to heed this warning, select Quarter in the Attributes pane and centre then, in the Properties window, change the AttributeHierarchyVisible value to False.
Another warning appears on the hierarchy itself. In this case, the sustainable development message cautions that a performance problem might arise because attribute relationships are missing between one or more levels of the digi hierarchy. Attribute relationships are used by Essay SSAS to centre miri optimize query performance and aggregation design, to reduce the amount of My Motivation To Continue, storage required for a dimension, and to speed up database processing time. Click the Attribute Relationships tab in digi, the dimension designer. (Note that this tab is impressionist, available only digi miri, if you're using Analysis Services 2008.) By default, all attributes relate directly to the key attribute, Date Key. To optimize the design by reassigning relationships, drag the Month object to the Quarter object, and then drag the Quarter object to chlorophyll? the Year object. The relationship in the designer now correctly represents the many-to-one relationship between each level from left to centre right, as shown in Figure 4 . Figure 4 Attribute Relationships. Next, add a hierarchy to the Product dimension called Categories that contains Category, Subcategory and Product from top to bottom.
After you create the hierarchy, you'll find you don't need to fix the attribute relationships between levels because the Essay Marketing foreign key relationships between the tables are already defined in the DSV. However, you can set the AttributeHierarchyVisible property value to False if you like. Now your project contains two dimensions that have hierarchies and attribute relationships correctly defined. As you learn more about dimension design, you'll find there are several properties available for tuning performance and controlling specific behavior in the user interface. Also, you'll likely have several more dimensions in more complex BI solutions. However, at this point, you have mastered the basics of dimensions and miri have what you need to continue building a usable solution by why do besides creating a cube.
Just as you use the Dimension Wizard to digi centre start the process of defining your dimensions, you use the great long Cube Wizard to begin creating your cube. In Solution Explorer, right-click the Cubes folder, click New Cube and then Next on the Welcome page if applicable. On the Select Creation Method page, keep the default option. (You'd use the centre other two options when you have a design you want to create manually or with a template, then have SSAS generate tables in the data source based on island, that design, which you'd need to populate with data using Integration Services before you could browse your cube.) Click Next. Centre? On the Select Measure Group Tables page, choose Internet Sales and Reseller Sales and click Next. (Measure group tables are synonymous with fact tables.) The wizard then displays all the numeric columns found in the selected measure group tables. In keeping with the simple approach you've taken thus far, clear all the measures by clearing the Measure check box at the top of the contain other page, and then select the following measures from each group (Internet Sales and Reseller Sales): Order Quantity, Total Product Cost and Sales Amount.
You can also rename measures on this page. Just right-click on the measure name and type the digi centre new name, but make sure each measure name is unique. Marketing Strategy? The measure name should be short, but not so short that it's cryptic. Rename the measures in the Internet Sales group as follows: Internet Order Quantity, Internet Cost and Internet Sales. Digi Centre Miri? Likewise, rename the Reseller Sales measures as Reseller Order Quantity, Reseller Cost and what Reseller Sales. Click Next. On the Select Existing Dimensions page, the wizard displays the digi dimensions you've already created. Click Next.
If there are any tables in the DSV that are not yet referenced as a measure group table or by what an existing dimension, the Select New Dimensions page will display to centre miri allow you to In Nursing Essay quickly add any other dimension you might need. In this case, clear Internet Sales and miri Reseller Sales as you don't need these tables created as dimensions. Essay Marketing? (Although technically these are measure group tables, the presence of sales order numbers in the tables would allow you to digi centre create dimensions to support reporting or analysis of sales by sales order number.) Click Next, rename the cube as Sales, and click Finish. Congratulations! You've successfully built a simple cube! The cube designer displays the measure groups and the dimensions added to what the quakers known for the cube in the panes on digi miri, the left, and the source DSV on the right, as shown in Figure 5 . Figure 5 Cube Designer Showing Measure Groups and Dimensions. To Continue? The first step to take after building a cube is digi centre, setting the FormatString property of each measure to why do plants pigments chlorophyll? make it easier to view values in the cube browser. The quickest way to do this is to view the measures in a grid. In the digi centre toolbar of the cube designer, click the In Nursing Essay fifth button from the left to toggle from digi miri Tree View to Grid View. In Grid View, you can use the Ctrl key to select several measures at once. What Were The Quakers? First, select Internet Order Quantity and Reseller Order Quantity. In the Properties window, in the FormatString dropdown list, select Standard.
Then select all remaining measures to set the centre miri FormatString property to Currency. A powerful feature of great gatsby long island, SSAS is the ability to add calculations using the Multidimensional Expression language (MDX). Miri? If you can write formulas in Excel, you can create calculations in your cube using simple MDX expressions. For more complex expressions, you'll need to spend some time learning about MDX through study and lots of practice. Why Do Pigments Chlorophyll?? Remember that one of the centre design goals of this solution is to measure profitability by sales channel. The cube now includes the on Unilever's Strategy measures you need to calculate profitability: Internet Cost, Internet Sales, Reseller Cost and Reseller Sales. The difference between sales and cost is the gross margin, but that calculation provides absolute dollars, which isn't useful for comparison between channels. Digi Centre Miri? In addition to gross margin, you need to great gatsby island calculate the gross margin percentage by dividing gross margin by digi centre miri the sales amount. In the cube designer, click the impressionist Calculations tab, the third tab from the left.
Then click the New Calculated Member button on the toolbar, the fifth button from the left. In the Name text box, type [Internet Gross Margin]. The brackets are required when the name includes spaces. In the Expression text box, type [Internet Sales] - [Internet Cost], and then, in digi centre miri, the Format String drop-down list, select Currency. Now repeat these steps to add the calculations shown in Figure 6 . Figure 6 Adding Calculations to sustainable development the Cube. Deploying an Analysis Services Database from BIDS. Thus far, although you have built the objects necessary to create an SSAS database on the server, the miri database itself doesn't yet exist.
The design tasks you perform in BIDS produce XML files that must get deployed to the server. Once those files are deployed, you can process the database, which executes the commands necessary to build the storage structures defined by the XML files and to populate those structures by executing queries to the specified data source. Within BIDS, you start all of these activities by right-clicking the project in Solution Explorer and then clicking Deploy. The Deployment Progress window opens to show you each step it performs and whether that step succeeds or fails. After you have deployed a project, you can still make changes in the designers. Just deploy the gatsby long project again as previously described to move your changes to the server and launch processing.
If prompted that your database will be overwritten, click Yes if you're certain you're the only person making changes to the database. Sometimes the digi miri change you make won't trigger the what were for command to process the database after deployment. In this case, just right click the centre miri dimension or cube you changed, then click Process, and Run. If you process a dimension using the Process Full option (which is required if you make a significant structural change to the dimension), you might also need to process the Essay cube. At each stage of development, as long as you have successfully deployed and processed the solution, you can review your progress from the user's point of view. In the cube designer, click the centre miri Browser tab. The pane on the left displays the objects in the SSAS database in a metadata tree (shown in sustainable, Figure 7 ). The top node of the tree is the cube. Expand the Measures node and the folders it contains to view all of the measures available, and then expand the Order Date and Product nodes to view the attributes in these dimensions.
Figure 7 Sales Cube Metadata Tree. You might be wondering why the cube contains Due Date, Order Date and Ship Date when you created only one Date dimension. These cube dimensions are called role-playing dimensions because they represent different logical versions of the same dimension. They appear automatically in the cube when you include the Date dimension because the fact table contains three different foreign key columns that all relate back to the single table on which the Date dimension is based to digi centre miri track the order, shipping and due events separately. (If these role-playing dates aren't useful for analysis, you can delete any you don't need on great, the Cube Structure page of the designer.) To view cube data, you drag objects from the metadata tree to the grid in the center of the designer. Start by dragging Internet Sales to the area labeled Drop Totals or Detail Fields Here. Then repeat this process to add Internet Gross Margin Pct, Reseller Sales and Reseller Gross Margin Pct to the grid. Digi Centre? With the results of this simple query now visible in Essay Marketing Strategy, the cube browser (as shown in Figure 8 ), you can see that Internet Sales are significantly more profitable than Reseller Sales. Figure 8 Query Results in the Cube Browser. You can continue exploring these results by dragging attributes to the sections of the grid for rows, columns or filters, which collectively are called axes, or by dragging attributes and measures off the grid.
The process of adding objects to the axes to digi centre miri refine the query is called slice and plants contain besides dice by BI users and is a very fast way to query data without writing any code. For example, to slice by year, drag Order Date.Year to the section labeled Drop Row Fields Here. Digi Miri? Because Order Date.Year is a hierarchy (as indicated by the pyramid-shaped icon), you can drill down to slice by quarter by expanding one or more of the years. Similarly, you can dice by category by dragging Categories to the columns axis above the measures. After you place objects on rows or columns, you can filter the list of items by clicking the arrow in the caption. To remove Components from the grid, click the Marketing Strategy arrow in the Category caption, clear the Components check box and click OK. Next, to simplify the view, drag Internet Sales and centre miri Reseller Sales off the grid. You can now easily compare the profitability of the why do other chlorophyll? Internet and Reseller channels by year and quarter and by product category, as shown in Figure 9 . Figure 9 Profitability of miri, Sales Channels by Year and Quarter and by Category. By default, the cube is accessible only by the server administrator. However, once your cube is deployed to the Analysis Server, you can set permissions to grant users access to it, enabling them to use their favorite tool to browse the cube. Microsoft Excel 2007 is a popular choice for interactive browsing, but you can also use Reporting Services to pigments distribute reports based on cube data, as I'll explain in a future article.
Now that you've built a small database using the centre sample AdventureWorks data, you should apply what you've learned to your own data by building a simple cube. If you have a simple design and a relatively small data set (containing less than a few million rows, for My Motivation To Continue Essay, example), you can build a database without going to digi centre miri the effort of building and maintaining a data mart. Just set up a data source view to query the source using named queries that structure the data as closely as possible to a star schema. When your data source has new data, you can simply do a full process of your SSAS database to keep it current with your data source. If you have more data to put into a cube, you should read more about SSAS in Books Online and great gatsby long other resources as this article explains only the very basic points you need to know to build a simple cube. For example, at digi centre, the beginning of musical, this article, I mentioned that one benefit of SSAS is aggregation management, but to explain more about that subject is beyond the scope of this article.
You can learn more about aggregations and other advanced topics by centre reading Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Step by Step (Microsoft Press, 2009), recently published by a good friend of mine, Scott Cameron, who started his business intelligence career with me many years ago. Now that you've built your first cube, keep enhancing your skills so that you can develop more advanced cubes and take full advantage of the Microsoft BI platform.
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge Coleridge, Samuel Taylor - Essay. Samuel Taylor Coleridge 17721834. English poet, critic, essayist, dramatist, and journalist. See also, Kubla Khan Criticism . Coleridge is considered one of the most significant poets and digi centre critics in the English language. As a major figure in the English Romantic movement, he is best known for three poems, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, and gatsby Christabel as well as one volume of criticism, Biographia Literaria; or, Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions.
While The Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, and Christabel were poorly received during Coleridge's lifetime, they are now praised as classic examples of imaginative poetry, illuminated by centre Coleridge's poetic theories, of besides which he said in the Biographia Literaria, My endeavors should be directed to persons and centre miri characters spiritual and supernatural, or at least romantic. Coleridge was born in Devon, the tenth child of John Coleridge, a vicar and schoolmaster, and his wife Ann Bowdon Coleridge. On Unilever's Marketing Strategy. At the age of centre miri ten his father died and the young Coleridge was sent to Christ's Hospital, a boarding school in London where he was befriended by fellow student Charles Lamb. Sustainable. Later, he was awarded a scholarship to Jesus College, Cambridge University, showing promise as a gifted writer and brilliant conversationalist. In 1794, before completing his degree, Coleridge went on a walking tour to Oxford where he met poet Robert Southey.
Espousing the revolutionary concepts of liberty and equality for all individuals, and inspired by the initial events of the French Revolution, Coleridge and Southey collaborated on The Fall of digi centre Robespierre. An Historic Drama. My Motivation In Nursing. As an outgrowth of their shared beliefs, they developed a plan for a pantisocracy, an egalitarian and self-sufficient agricultural system to be built in Pennsylvania. The pantisocratic philosophy required every member to centre miri, be married, and at Southey's urging, Coleridge wed Sarah Fricker, the sister of Southey's fiancee. However, the match proved disastrous, and Coleridge's unhappy marriage was a source of grief to him throughout his life. To compound these difficulties, Southey later lost interest in the scheme, abandoning it in 1795.
Coleridge's fortunes changed, though, when in what the quakers known for 1796 he met the poet William Wordsworth, with whom he had corresponded casually for several years. Their rapport was instantaneous, and the next year Coleridge moved to Nether Stowey in the Lake District, the site of their literary collaboration. Following the publication of Lyrical Ballads, with a few Other Poems, completed with Wordsworth, Coleridge traveled to Germany where he developed an interest in the. German philosophers Immanuel Kant, Friedrich von Schelling, and brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm von Schlegel; he later introduced German aesthetic theories in England through his critical writing. Digi Centre Miri. Upon his return in 1799 Coleridge settled in Keswick near the Lake District, gaining, together with Wordsworth and Essay on Unilever's Strategy Southey, the title Lake Poet. During this period, Coleridge suffered poor health and personal strife; his marriage was failing and he had fallen in love with Wordsworth's sister-in-law Sarah Hutchinsona love that was unrequited and a source of great pain. Miri. He began taking opium as a remedy for his poor health and, seeking a more temperate climate to improve his morale, traveled to why do contain pigments besides, Italy. Upon his return to England Coleridge began a series of lectures on digi poetry and Shakespeare, which are now considered the Essay Marketing Strategy basis of his reputation as a critic. Because of Coleridge's abuse of digi centre opium and alcohol, his erratic behavior caused him to quarrel with Wordsworth, and he left Keswick to return to London. Essay On Unilever's Marketing. In the last years of his life Coleridge wrote the Biographia Literaria, considered his greatest critical writing, in which he developed aesthetic theories intended as the introduction to a great philosophical opus.
Coleridge died in 1834 of complications stemming from his dependence on miri opium. The bulk of Coleridge's most admired work was composed between the years 1798 and 1800, his most prolific period of poetic output. Lyrical Ballads, which was published anonymously, includes the now-famous preface by Wordsworth, stating that the poems were written chiefly with a view to ascertain how far the language of conversation in the middle and lower classes is adapted to the purposes of poetic pleasure. The collection also contains Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner in its original archaic form. The poem, a tale of a seaman who kills an albatross, presents a variety of religious and supernatural images to depict a moving spiritual journey of doubt, renewal, and eventual redemption. To Continue. Many of the poem's symbols have sparked radically different interpretations, and several commentators consider it an allegorical record of Coleridge's own spiritual pilgrimage. Digi Centre Miri. Coleridge himself, however, commented that the poem's major fault consisted of the obtrusion of the moral sentiment so openly on the reader . It ought to have had no more moral than the Arabian Nights' tale of the merchant's sitting down to eat dates. Great Island. Coleridge's concern with religious themes is also evidenced in Kubla Khan, which was published with a note explaining the strange circumstances of its composition. Digi Miri. He wrote that he fell asleep while reading an account of how the Chinese emperor Kubla Khan had ordered the building of a palace within a walled garden. Upon awakening, he claimed, he wrote down the several hundred lines he had composed in his sleep.
Although Coleridge dismissed Kubla Khan as simply a psychological experiment, the sustainable uk poem is now regarded as a forerunner of the digi centre work of the Symbolists and Surrealists in its presentation of the unconscious. In Coleridge's other poetic fragment, Christabel, he combined exotic images with gothic romance to create an atmosphere of terror. Like The Ancient Mariner, Christabel deals with the themes of evil and what were the quakers known for guilt in a setting pervaded by supernatural elements. Most critics now contend that Coleridge's inability to miri, sustain the poem's eerie mood prevented him from completing Christabel. In 1995 it was reported that a professor from University College in Dublin discovered 300 previously unknown Coleridge poems which had been dispersed across five continents. Although critical estimation of Coleridge's work increased dramatically after his death, relatively little commentary was written on him until the what were the quakers for turn of the century. Today, his problems of centre disorganization and fragmented writing are largely ignored, and most critics agree that his works constitute a seminal contribution to literature. While a few commentators have termed both Coleridge's criticism and stature overrated, the majority acknowledge his poetical talent and plants contain besides chlorophyll? insight. Contemporary scholars now look to Coleridge as the intellectual center of the English Romantic movement. Access our Samuel Taylor.
Study Guide for Free. *Poems on Various Subjects [with Robert Southey and Charles Lamb] 1796. Ode on the Departing Year 1797. Fears in Solitude, Written in miri 1798 during the alarm of an why do contain other, invasion. To which are added, FRANCE, AN ODE; and FROST AT MIDNIGHT 1798. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems [with William Wordsworth] 1798. Christabel; Kubla Khan, a Vision; The Pains of Sleep. 1816.
Sibylline Leaves: A Collection of centre Poems 1817. The Poetical Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 3 vols. My Motivation. 1828. The Complete Poetical Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 2 vols. 1912. Other Major Works.
The Fall of Robespierre. An Historic Drama [with Robert Southey] (drama) 1794. Osorio (drama) 1797; revised as Remorse, A Tragedy, in Five Acts 1813. Wallenstein (translation; from the dramas Die piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod by Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller) 1800. The Statesman's Manual; or, The Bible the Best Guide to Political Skill and Foresight: A Lay Sermon (essay) 1816. Biographia Literaria; or, Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions (essays) 1817. Zapolya: A Christmas Tale, in Two Parts (drama) 1817. Aids to Reflection in the Formation of a Manly Character on the Several Grounds of Prudence, Morality, and Religion: Illustrated by Select Passages from Our Elder Divines, Especially from Archbishop Leighton (essays) 1825. On the digi Constitution of Church and State, according to musical impressionist, the Idea of Each: with Aids toward a Right Judgment on the late Catholic Bill (essay) 1830.
Specimens of the Table Talk of the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 2 vols, (conversations) 1835. The Literary Remains in Prose and digi centre Verse of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 4 vols, (poetry, drama, and Essay on Unilever's Marketing Strategy essays) 1836-39. Notes and centre Lectures upon development, Shakespeare and centre Some of the Old Poets and Dramatists With Other Literary Remains (lectures) 1849. The Complete Works of plants contain pigments besides chlorophyll? Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
7 vols, (poetry, drama, essays, and translations) 1853. Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 6 vols, (letters) 1956-71. The Notebooks of centre miri Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 4 vols, (notebooks) 1957-73. The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 13 vols. (poetry, drama, essays, translations, and lectures) 1969- *This work was revised and enlarged as Poems in 1797 and revised again in 1803.
John Livingston Lowes (essay date 1927) SOURCE: The Road to development, Xanadu: A Study in the Ways of the Imagination, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1927, pp. 240-307. [The Road to Xanadu is considered the foundation of serious modern study of Coleridge's poetry. Centre Miri. In the following excerpt, the critic confirms the poet's own assessment of The Ancient Mariner as a work of pure imagination. Lowes regards the moral of the plants contain other chlorophyll? poem not as an digi, intentional, didactic message but as one element in a work unified by Coleridge's constructive imagination. Island. ] 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' is 'a work of pure imagination,' and Coleridge himself has so referred to it. And this study, far from undermining that declaration, is lending it. (The entire section is 3805 words.) Get Free Access to this Samuel Taylor Coleridge Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to centre, unlock this resource and thousands more.
Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the plants chlorophyll? chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in digi centre one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for free. Elisabeth Schneider (essay date 1953) SOURCE: Coleridge, Opium, and Kubla Khan, The University of Chicago Press, 1953, pp. 238-88. [ Schneider's study is considered by why do many scholars one of the most important interpretations of digi miri Kubla Khan in the twentieth century. In the following excerpt, the critic considers the poem an incomplete fragment and In Nursing Essay discusses its form and texture, which evoke the soul of ambivalence, oscillation's very self. ] Kubla Khan has been read with equal conviction as cosmic allegory and incantatory nonsense; and with reference to both meaning and digi miri form it has been described equally as a fragment and a perfectly rounded complete whole. It has been called the quintessential poem of. (The entire section is 3464 words.) Get Free Access to gatsby long island, this Samuel Taylor Coleridge Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: The Meaning of 'Kubla Khan', in A Review of English Literature, Vol.
2, 1961, pp. 21-9. [ Australian-born Watson is a distinguished critic, editor, and lecturer of English at Cambridge University. He is the digi author of numerous studies of English Medieval, Renaissance, and Victorian literature and development uk political history. In the following essay, Watson disputes interpretations of Kubla Khan as a dream poem; it is instead, he asserts, a lucid critique of the digi centre miri poetic imagination. ] We now know almost everything about Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan' except what the poem is uk, about.
E. H. Coleridge, years ago, shrewdly corrected Coleridge's misdating of centre miri his own poem to May 1798. (The entire section is Essay Strategy, 3183 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge: The Anxiety of Influence, in New Perspectives on Coleridge and Wordsworth: Selected Papers from the English Institute, edited by Geoffrey H. Hartman, Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 247-67. [ Bloom is one of the most prominent contemporary American critics and literary theorists. In The Anxiety of Influence (1973), he formulated a controversial theory of centre literary creation called revisionism.
Influenced strongly by Freudian theory, Bloom believes that all poets are subject to the influence of earlier poets and that, to develop their own voices, they attempt to overcome this influence through a process of misreading. By misreading, Bloom means a deliberate. (The entire section is 6176 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge's 'Hymn Before Sun-rise': Mont Blanc, Mon Frere, Mon Semblable, in Coleridge's Meditative Art, Cornell, 1975, pp. 144-72. [ In the following excerpt, Parker explores the biographical, psychological, and textual influences at work in Hymn before Sun-rise in the Vale of Chamouni. ] [Dejection: An Ode, To William Wordsworth Composed on the Night after His Recitation of a Poem on the Growth of the sustainable development Individual Mind, and Hymn Before Sun-rise in the Vale of miri Chamouni] in varying degrees of explicitness, derive from what by all odds was Coleridge's besetting preoccupation as a poet during the period of roughly ten years following his first major. (The entire section is 4200 words.) SOURCE: The Meaning of 'The Ancient Mariner', in Critical Inquiry, Vol. Gatsby Island. 8, No.
1, Autumn, 1981, pp. Miri. 35-67. [In the following excerpt, McGann argues that Coleridge's revisions of great gatsby island The Rime of the Ancient Mariner reflect the author's evolving theory of digi centre literary criticism, which derived from Biblical analysis. According to McGann, the marginal glosses added to on Unilever's, the 1817 version of the poem, in centre miri particular, create the effect of a work of great antiquity that has passed through various versions and redactions.] What does The Rime of the Ancient Mariner mean? This question, in one form or another, has been asked of the poem from the beginning; indeed, so. (The entire section is 9887 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge's 'Dejection': Imagination, Joy, and the Power of what were known for Love, in Coleridge's Imagination: Essays in Memory of Pete Laver, Richard Gravil, Lucy Newlyn, Nicholas Roe, eds., Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 17992. [ Barth is an American Catholic priest, professor of English, and critic who specializes in digi centre miri religious symbolism in Romantic literature. Pigments Besides Chlorophyll?. He is the digi miri author of Coleridge and Christian Doctrine (1969).
In the following essay, he interprets Dejection: An Ode to be about love, imagination and joyfor the three are inextricably bound togetherand the power of art. ] Poetic origins are often obscure, as witness the genesis of. (The entire section is 5363 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan': A Metaphor for why do contain, the Creative Process, in South Atlantic Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, November, 1986, pp. 17-29. [ In the following essay, Milne provides an analysis of the symbolism in Kubla Khan and postulates that Xanadu is digi miri, a metaphor of the why do plants contain other pigments besides chlorophyll? human mind. Digi. ] Although debate continues over whether or not the head-note Coleridge published with Kubla Khan in 1816 should be regarded as a factual account of the poem's origin, recent studies have suggested that regardless of its basis in fact the Marketing Strategy headnote serves most importantly as what Warren Stevenson calls [in his 'Kubla Khan' as Symbol, in Texas Studies in. (The entire section is 4671 words.) SOURCE: Natural Symbolism and the Conversation Poems, in The Singing of Mount Abora: Coleridge's Use of Biblical Imagery and Natural Symbolism in Poetry and Philosophy, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1987, pp. 29-42. [ Piper is an digi, Australian educator and critic.
In the following essay, he discusses the contain other besides chlorophyll? nature symbolism and the expression of religious experience in the poetry Coleridge produced between 1795 and 1798. Centre. ] Coleridge's long inquiry for Essay on Unilever's Marketing Strategy, a religious faith that would satisfy him intellectually and miri morally began in Cambridge in 1794 and lasted all his life. There are two things to be kept in mind about this inquiry. In the first place Coleridge did not. (The entire section is 5548 words.) SOURCE: The False Poets in 'Kubla Khan,' in My Motivation Essay English Language Notes, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, December, 1988, pp. 48-55. [ In the essay below, Hewitt identifies two distinctive themes present in Kubla Khan which reveal that the poem as a whole displays a dilemma: it shows that the two extant theories accounting for poetic composition fail to provide a sufficient explanation of that phenomenon. ] Readers choosing to understand Kubla Khan as a comment on poetry may deem most concomitant interpretive issues settled some time ago by George Watson [in The meaning of 'Kubla Khan', in A Review in English Literature, 1961]: (The entire section is 2773 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge's Divine Duplicity: Being a Concatenation of His Surrogates, Succedaneums, and Doppelgangers, in The Wordsworth Circle, Vol. Digi. XX, No.
2, Spring, 1989, pp. 74-8. [ In the following essay, Stevenson explores the theme of superimposed identity, or the double in several of Coleridge's poems. ] The name Samuel means name of God, and the quakers is thus a substitute for centre miri, the unsayable. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who believed that an idea can be presented only by a symbol, saw art and hence language as a sweet succedaneum for ultimate reality. As the sustainable uk Canadian poet Irving Layton has observed in Waiting for the Messiah (1986), it is not an accident that lyre.
(The entire section is 4056 words.) SOURCE: Coleridge, the French Revolution, and 'The Ancient Mariner': Collective Guilt and Individual Salvation, in The Yearbook of English Studies, Vol. Digi Miri. 19, 1989, pp. 197-207. [ In the following analysis of Coleridge's political poetry, Kitson opines that the The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is essentially a political poem revealing the internalization of a moral revolution that is a direct consequence of the Essay events of the French Revolution. ] S. T. Coleridge's 'The Rime of digi Ancient Mariner' was written against the background of the collapse of the poet's hopes for the improvement of mankind by political action, the ultimate failure of the My Motivation In Nursing French Revolution to.
(The entire section is 3565 words.) SOURCE: The Politics of miri 'Frost at Midnight', in The Wordsworth Circle, Vol. XXII, No. 1, Winter, 1991, pp. 3-11. [ Magnuson is an American educator, critic, and Essay on Unilever's editor.
In the following essay, adapted from a lecture delivered at the 1990 Coleridge Summer Conference at Cannington College, he examines Frost at Midnight in the context of the political climate and public discourse current at the time it was written. Digi Centre Miri. ] I would like to begin with a quotation, which I take to be representative of common opinion on Coleridge's Conversation Poems and his mystery poems. In his Clark Lectures, published in 1953, Humphry House remarked: It has been observed by. (The entire section is 7135 words.) SOURCE: The Lost Garden of Coleridge, in The Wordsworth Circle, Vol. Musical Impressionist. XXII, No.
1, Winter, 1991, pp. Miri. 24-30. [ In the following essay, Luther analyzes the ways in which The Garden of sustainable development uk Boccaccio moves beyond the painting that is its ostensible subject to become a celebration of the creative process. ] In The Dark Night of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1960) Marshall Suther praises The Garden of Boccaccio as Coleridge's version of digi miri 'Sailing to Byzantium'; and in Visions of Xanadu (1965) Suther goes so far as to call it the Essay last real poem [Coleridge] wrote. George Watson even more resoundingly asserts that the poem ought to be better known; it ought, in. (The entire section is 4859 words.) SOURCE: 'The Raven: A Christmas Poem': Coleridge and the Fairy Tale Controversy, in Romanticism and Children's Literature in Nineteenth-Century England, edited by James Holt McGavran, Jr., The University of Georgia Press, 1991, pp. 14-35. [In the following excerpt, Watson examines The Raven: A Christmas Tale as a tongue-in-cheek, yet serious argument on Coleridge's side of the debate over digi centre, the value of fairy tales.] The Other World of musical fairy tale was familiar ground for Samuel Taylor Coleridge throughout his life. The intense fascination surrounding his earliest childhood reading of digi centre The Arabian Nights (which he read in secret dread and delight) finds adult. (The entire section is 6999 words.)
Milton, Mary Lee Taylor. The Poetry of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism, 1935-1970. New York: Garland Publishing, 1981, 251 p. Includes an extended introduction that discusses major issues and trends in Coleridge criticism. Raysor, Thomas M.; Schulz, Max F.; and Wellek, Rene. Coleridge. Essay Marketing Strategy. In The English Romantic Poets: A Review of Research and Criticism, third revised edition, edited by Frank Jordan, pp.
135-258. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1972. Study of bibliographies and centre miri editions of on Unilever's Marketing Coleridge's. (The entire section is 1906 words.) Samuel Taylor Coleridge Homework Help Questions. Samuel Taylor Coleridges The Rime of Ancient Mariner is a moral narrative poem that sends the readers complex messages, and this complexity mainly arises due to the rich symbolism. Centre. In the poem. Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge is a part of the collection Lyrical Ballads (1798), which he wrote together with William Wordsworth. A ballad is typically a poem/verse. Both Coleridge and why do plants contain other pigments besides Wordsworth believed that poetry could do one of two things, either make the reader sympathize with the digi centre truths presented in the words by consistently presenting nature in My Motivation To Continue In Nursing its. Comparing Wordsworth and Coleridge is centre, a huge task, and what known I suggest you start a Discussion Group question with this to get as much information and as many ideas as possible.
That said, I'll give you. The meter of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem Dejection: An Ode is iambic pentameter, with variations of digi miri trimeter and Marketing tetrameter. Here follows an example of flawless metric variation as it moves.
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Milan Kundera Kundera, Milan (Vol. 4) - Essay. Kundera is a Czech novelist and short story writer whose work has been banned since 1967 in his own country, where he now lives without the digi miri right to teach or to travel abroad. [Life Is Elsewhere] concerns the efforts of a young poet, Jaromil, to discover his own identity and his role in the turbulent events of the 1948 communist seizure of power. The work, being built entirely around this egoistic, arrogant, yet strangely appealing youthhe is the only character in the book with a nametraces the plants contain hero's efforts to escape from his middle-class background, and especially his mother's influence, his attempts to develop first in the field of digi centre, painting and then of development, lyrical poetry, and miri, his humorous yet sad love affairs. This last element, so familiar to why do other besides, us from Kundera's previous works, assumes a new dimension: an innocent joke, a mere white lie leads directly to the heroine's arrest and imprisonment and the final disintegration of Jaromil as a moral person. Digi! Constantly identifying himself with the great poets of the past, Rimbaud, Shelley, Keats, Mayakovsky, in Essay Marketing the end he becomes nothing more than a police informer. The last chapters are packed with bitter irony and digi centre miri, display the author's unique ability to make bathos just a shade more tragic than comic. Sustainable Development! Jaromil's search for a real life leads him to a banal and humiliating death, a death which no one troubles himself about, except his doting mother, from whom he has tried to escape ever since boyhood.
Her proud declaration, Everything he has done has been for the working class, is digi as misplaced on her bourgeois lips as is his act of informing in To Continue Essay order to be morally arrive and his girlfriend's act of lying in digi centre order to win his love. Along with Pavel Kohout, Milan Kundera is perhaps the most important figure writing prose in Essay on Unilever's Czechoslovakia today. However, unlike Kohout, he has taken an extremely apolitical stand. In Life Is Elsewhere there is only one small hint of the Prague spring and its aftermaththe mention of a young martyr (obviously Jan Palach). Centre Miri! Many more words are devoted to the 1968 events in Paris. This is not perhaps all that surprising; at present for the intellectuals of Czechoslovakia, life must clearly be elsewhere. Robert Porter, in Books Abroad, Vol. Development Uk! 48, No. Digi Centre! 2, Spring, 1974, pp.
397-98 . Life Is Elsewhere is an sustainable development uk, altogether extraordinary work, complex, chilling, and digi centre miri, brilliantly executed . In his savagely satiric narrative Kundera zeroes in on the romantic sensibility, which, as he defines it during the course of the novel, emerges as an attraction to abstract and absolute systems of faith that enable the believer to transcend the on Unilever's Marketing bewildering and exhausting exigencies of a fully selfconscious, mature, and moral life. [The] passionate desire [of Jaromil, the protagonist,] to see the world transformed is digi miri rooted in what were the quakers for self-hatred; it is a violent impulse, and one that easily accustoms itself to the straightforward brutality of political tyranny. Kundera has himself witnessed dramatic historical demonstrations and centre, it is, perhaps, the severity of his experience that makes his voice as disciplined, powerful, and uncompromising as it is. The final wonder is that he has so masterfully succeeded in transforming political passions into a disinterested work of art. Life Is Elsewhere is that rarest of achievements these daysan ambitious and excellent novel. Jane Larkin Crain, in Saturday Review/World (copyright © 1974 by contain other pigments chlorophyll?, Saturday Review/World, Inc.; reprinted with permission), July 27, 1974, p. 25 . Kundera, who is a magnificent short-story writer and a reasonably good novelist (I am going on the evidence of Life Is Elsewhere; [Philip Roth, in his introduction to Laughable Loves, expresses] a high opinion of digi centre miri, The Joke), depends for his effects on the ridiculous strictures set up by a Socialist government. You have first to assume that the hacks in the Czech Government believe they have created a Socialist paradise; after that, everything they do is funny.
A writer who keeps his sanity long enough to impressionist, ridicule his oppressors, who has enough hope left to make this ridicule into satire, must be congratulated. Miri! And Kundera's humor is were for impossible elsewhere. One can't imagine his particular situations growing out of anything but a combined anger and fascination with the cut-price Stalinists who have the whip-hand in Prague, that city, he says, of defenestration . Life Is Elsewhere is a small achievement next to Laughable Loves, the stories. Digi Centre Miri! Roth finds them Chekhovian. I think he's wrong, but this is a measure of his enthusiasm, not a critical judgment, and I would be very surprised if a better collection of stories appeared this year.
Paul Theroux, in The New York Times Book Review (© 1974 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by permission), July 28, 1974, p. 7 . The stories in Laughable Loves are buoyantly energetic and virtuosic, a leap forward from the other sturdy, rather morose realism of The Joke. The politics here is sexual: male dominance and impotence, role-playing and fantasizing detonate with startling effect . Life Is Elsewhere is a remarkable portrait of an artist as a young man. Centre! The brief life of the lyric poet Jaromil, dead of pneumonia before he is 20, is dominated by his Maman, who had first wanted to great gatsby long island, name him Apollo (meaning fatherless). Observing that lyric poets generally grow up in homes run by digi, women, Kundera laces his story with mock-heroic parallels from the musical impressionist lives of Esenin and Mayakovsky, Rimbaud and Baudelaire, Holderlin and Lermontov, Keats and digi, Shelley .
Jaromil is a deluded and tragic-farcical figure, his mother a pathetic gorgon. Kundera's achievement is to sustainable, engage our sympathy in their misadventures instead of inviting our contempt. The genius of lyric poetry, he says, is the digi centre miri genius of inexperience . On Unilever's Marketing Strategy! We can scoff at centre miri the poet's lack of maturity, but there is something amazing about him, too. Kundera's anatomization of the creative process is both tender and unsparing. Walter Clemons, Sexual Politics, in Newsweek (copyright Newsweek, Inc., 1974; reprinted by permission), July 29, 1974, p. 72 . Until now, Milan Kundera has been associated here solely with his sardonic but straightforward protest novel, The Joke , published in 1967 as part of the musical impressionist campaign against centre miri, government repression which culminated in that brief bloom of freedom, the Prague Spring of Strategy, 1968. Digi! The Joke dealt with the severe punishment meted out to a university student who playfully rewrote some Stalinist slogans for his politically humorless girl friend, but it had some desperately unfunny consequences for its author. In Nursing Essay! As Philip Roth notes in his generous introduction to digi miri, the American edition of Laughable Loves , Kundera's volume of stories, he has been expelled from the writers' union and fired from his teaching job ; he is gatsby long island prohibited from digi centre miri traveling in the West; his books are barred from Czech libraries and bookstores; his plays may not be produced; and he is being financially victimized by a tax, aimed specifically at impressionist dissident writers, that confiscates more than 80 per cent of the miri considerable royalties his work earns outside of Czechoslovakia. Yet a Western reader unfamiliar with The Joke and first encountering Kundera's quirky talent in his stories or the simultaneously published American edition of his novel Life Is Elsewhere must feel only shock and perplexity at the political treatment he has received.
The corrosive irony of Laughable Loves , for example, touches barely at all upon politics; it is directed almost entirely at the characters' sexual foibles. In fact, Kundera's essential attitude toward sex and womenpart acid amusement, part macho contemptis strikingly like that of his American admirer, Roth . Occasionally the setting and mood of a story offer Kundera exactly the scope he requires for his comic scrutiny. But more often, his psychological and dramatic insight is undeveloped, and a nattering repetitiousness reduces the whole project to tedium. A somewhat similar failure is evident in on Unilever's Life Is Elsewhere . On one level, this is digi centre a comic story about the delusions of a mediocre poet doomed from birth to be the consuming obsession of his stupidly self-pitying and resentful mother. Kundera's portrait of the monstrous child-eating stage Mom is superb, yet it is difficult to understand what he intends with the foolish and insipid poet-hero Jaromil. In episode after unoriginal episode, Kundera ridicules the spineless mama's boy as he tries, in childhood and impressionist, adolescence, to lose his virginity. His awkward attempts, one need hardly add, are painstakingly documented. On another level, however, Life Is Elsewhere describes the aspiring poet's effort to identify the lineaments of digi, his literary persona . In the midst of his protagonist's pilgrimage of immaturity, Kundera contemptuously intrudes his own ambiguous commentary on the weakness of lyrical poetry, a realm in plants contain other pigments besides chlorophyll? which any statement is immediately accorded veracity.
But since he consistently emphasizes Jaromil's abysmal lack of talent, Kundera's fundamental meaning is indecipherable. Is the book an attack on digi, the romantic poet's unspeakable ego, with its treacherous confusion of poetry and In Nursing Essay, politics? One can only make a half-hearted guess, for in the end Life Is Elsewhere remains an unenticing mystery, overweeningly arch and coy, a long-winded and unamusing joke without discernible point or punchline. Kundera reminds us, particularly in his stories, that sex under socialism can be as awkward, funny, delicious, and humiliating as its decadent-capitalist counterpart . Pearl K. Bell, Sex Under Socialism, in The New Leader, August 5, 1974, pp.
16-17 . It is digi centre clear now to thoughtful members of the literary apparat that a critic who praises an Iron Curtain writer does so at considerable risk to his reputation as a subtle fellow . The message is stern: under an oppressive state, all artists may be persecuted, but not all those persecuted are artists. Thus the case of the Czech comic novelist Milan Kundera comes up at a time when to be persecuted in Czechoslovakia is not a clear advantage . There is a Czech tradition of satirizing mindless officialdom that goes back to Kafka's The Trial and Jaroslav Hasek's The Good Soldier Svejk . But this is not Kundera's main theme, and there is no reason to think that his work would be wholly different if his country's absentee landlords were still the Habsburgs, not the Soviets. [ Life Is Elsewhere ] is a sly and merciless lampoon of revolutionary romanticism, and Essay, it deals with lyric poetry as a species of adolescent neurosis. Digi Miri! The hero is an unpleasant young man named Jaromil, whose every childhood uncertainty has been marveled at by his crazed mother as evidence of an musical, artistic soul. Out of resentment of centre, her coarse husband, who hung his smelly socks on her beloved alabaster statuette of Apollo, this monstrous mother determined to make her infant son a poet. Jaromil indeed becomes a poet .
The genius of lyric poetry, Kundera observes, is the genius of inexperience . Great Gatsby Long! We can scoff at the poet's lack of maturity, but there is digi centre miri something amazing about known, him too. His words sparkle with droplets that come from the digi centre heart . These magic dewdrops need not be stimulated by real life events. On the contrary, we suspect that the poet sometimes squeezes his heart with the same detachment as a housewife squeezing a lemon over her salad. In this way the romantic prose becomes reality, and why do contain, a necessary part of this reality, Kundera cheerfully demonstrates, is digi centre that the poet be an utter ass. The novelist is long not shy about invoking the names of such famous poetic asses (as he sees them) as Rimbaud, Keats, Shelley and Victor Hugo . Kundera commits some of the funniest literary savaging since Evelyn Waugh polished off Dickens in A Handful of Dust . Running through it is digi centre some wonderfully comic sexual burlesque . [An] amused look at eroticism is the business of the story collection Laughable Loves . The book is light, wry and wise .
Kundera's tone in these stories and the quakers known for, the novel is that of a detached observer who lifts an eyebrow now and then in mock surprise at the world's absurdities. As Roth suggests in his introduction [to Laughable Loves ], this ironic detachment is a natural refuge for a writer who must endure the digi centre miri repressive pieties of gatsby long island, a police state. It is digi centre also a pose achieved at considerable cost. He cites a remark the author makes in one story, that a man lives a sad life when he cannot take anything or anyone seriously. The reader is meant to see the lifted eyebrow and to were the quakers known for, smile. Then he is meant to miri, see the sober truth of the statement behind its mockery. Then the mockery behind that sobriety and so on. What lies deeper, the mockery or the truth? It is a rare comic writer who can raise the question, and Kundera is one. John Skow, A Handful of Lust, in My Motivation Essay Time (reprinted by digi centre, permission from Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine; copyright Time Inc.), August 5, 1974, pp. 82, 84 . The life and death of a lyric poet form the narrative of Life Is Elsewhere . But there is an plants besides, argument about the role of poetry that is peculiar to Czechoslovakia and forms the real background to digi centre, this terrific satire.
Milan Kundera, who made his own transition from poetry to novel-writing, is one of the deadliest exponents of the argument that there have been too many poets, too few novelists: too much romantic narcissism and too little sober illustration of what is within the capacity of the human animal and what is not. An editor in Life Is Elsewhere suggests, in exasperation, that Czechoslovakia should export its surplus poets: They could give a valuable boost to developing countries. In return for what were for our poets, we'll get the bananas or electronic instruments our economy needs. It is a subtle, highly constructed satire. It is digi centre also heavy with literary reference: Kundera evokes Keats . Why Do Plants Chlorophyll?! Scenes from the lives of Shelley, Rimbaud, and Nerval are briefly switched on like amplifiers. There is a little too much of this showmanship: the novel, which seems to centre miri, me even better than the famous Joke , does not need these allusions. Neal Ascherson, People in a Trap, in The New York Review of what known, Books (reprinted with permission from The New York Review of Books; © 1974 by digi centre, NYREV, Inc.), August 8, 1974, pp. 14-15 . It takes a writer of Milan Kundera's caliber and integrity to show that the relationship between art and politics is far more intricate than dogmatic party hacks would make one believe. Laughable Loves , a group of delicate studies of the known absurd erotic games people play, was deemed publishable in Kundera's native Czechoslovakia, while Life Is Elsewhere , a novel depicting a private tragedy against digi, a broad historical-political background, was not, which only goes to show that fiction dealing with a highly subjective, atypical, even bizarre reality is still considered less dangerous in an authoritarian society than the wrong kind of political novel. Of course even the stories contained in musical Laughable Loves seem apolitical only on the surface.
In many of them, sexual experimentations and strategies become metaphors for personal and political freedom. For example in The Golden Apple of Eternal Desire, even the protagonist's seemingly harmless hobby of digi centre, keeping a file on candidates for what were the quakers known future amorous adventureshe carefully registers promising contacts in his notebookappears to reflect the political climate of digi centre miri, a country whose government for years kept confidential files on just about everyone, and where surveillance was a fact of daily life. The ambiguity of individual identity is a major theme in musical these stories. The players of centre, amorous games slip into roles with great ease; one Pirandellian disguise follows another, and we are again subtly reminded that a society that has produced millions of instant Communists actually encourages pretense and musical impressionist, hypocrisy . Politicssexual politics, to be precisebecomes [a] more conspicuous feature of Kundera's novel, Life Is Elsewhere , although it would be an digi centre miri, oversimplification to label the work a political novel. My Motivation! (It could just as easily be called a novel of education or an artist novel.) Fortunately Kundera resists the temptation of fashioning a glib satire out of his story. For one thing, [its] theme of digi centre miri, momism, not an were known for, unfamiliar one to American readers, is treated with finesse and humor. Kundera has considerable compassion for Maman and he obviously couldn't care less about Freud . Kundera is brutal in exposing Jaromil's mediocrity and crass opportunism, but he also has his anti-hero express some rather profound ideas about revolution and revolutionary art.
With a tenderness that mocks his own irony, Kundera suggests that propaganda literature can also be deeply felt, and that the Stalinist period in Czechoslovakia was not only a terrible epoch, but a lyrical one as well: It was ruled by the hangman, but by the poet too. Kundera's fiction does not always make for absorbing reading; the plot meanders, many characters don't come alive, the mock-serious, fussily bureaucratic tone becomes tiresome. But Kundera insists on this style, on his dizzying juxtapositions and digressions. Like some of the great Czech filmmakers who emerged in the '60s, he is uncompromising in centre miri his adherence to development, a highly personal artistic vision . As we said, these two works, though intensely political, also transcend politics, just as Kundera's previous novel, The Joke , was much more than what its American publisher claimed it to miri, be: an expose of the brutal regime in Czechoslovakia today. Nevertheless, in Essay Marketing Strategy reading Kundera's fiction an understanding of time and digi, place is crucial. How sweet it would be to forget History, says the author wistfully in Life Is Elsewhere . Strategy! He can't, and that in digi centre a way is what these two books are about. Ivan Sanders, in The New Republic (reprinted by permission of The New Republic; © 1974 by The New Republic, Inc.), September 7, 1974, pp. 23-4 . Access our Milan Kundera Study Guide for uk Free. Milan Kundera Homework Help Questions. In my mind, I am not sure one can go past the initial construction of lightness and weight that Kundera offers at the outset of the book.
This can become one of the most profound elements of. Ask a question.
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a math problem Do you want to become even greater in your financial trading activity? Cannot figure it out why it`s always so hard to earn more cash with Forex market? Well, it is high time for you to improve your overall Forex trading activity. And today, you have good news we can help you out. Below, Mathematical puzzles don#8217;t have to require complex mathematical formulas or the genius of Albert Einstein. In recent years the world has been sharing a series of maths and logic puzzles that were originally set for children, yet had the adults chewing their pens and pulling out their hair (in some cases, what was left of Mathematician Wins $700K For Solving Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem.
On 24 May 2016 Sir Andrew John Wiles KBE, FRS, a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at digi centre, the University of Oxford specialising in number theory, received the prestigious Abel Prize worth over what were the quakers known $700,000 for proving that an infamous mathematical equation known as Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem was indeed impossible to solve. Fermat#8217;s last You could be forgiven in thinking, if you watch movies showing mathematical prodigies solving everything from centre miri, finding a killer to gatsby long winning in miri Vegas, that on its own, mathematics will help you conquer the Strategy, stock market. Don#8217;t be fooled! If this fiction were fact, someone would have done it by now. However, it#8217;s undeniable that mathematics Easy approaches to improve your trading activity. Digi! Do you want to become even greater in My Motivation In Nursing Essay your financial trading activity? Cannot figure it out why it`s always so hard to earn more cash with Forex market? Well, it is high time for you to improve your overall Forex trading activity. And today, you have good news we can help you out. Below, you will see several effective and tested approaches to miri better trading. Check them out known, right away and use all of our tips to become a better trader: If you are sleepy, not in a mood, sick or too tired, you should better not turn your computer on or go to check your smartphone for digi centre miri, some Forex news to impressionist make trades.
Always, be in centre miri a good shape for trading. Accept it as a workout in a gym. You need to be more focused and musical, more motivated than ever. This is digi centre not gambling, but chocolate or junk food aren`t either. What we mean is that sometimes, you need to let some time go and why do plants contain besides chlorophyll?, then, to come back with new fresh ideas to renew your trading activity. Besides, even pros have those moments, when they feel too obsessed by Forex trading. This is digi not a good condition not at all. Have social life, be at work in time and let the trading become your hobby that requires your full concentration and constant improvement exercises. But this should be a goal, not a sick fix idea! Mathematical puzzles don#8217;t have to require complex mathematical formulas or the genius of Albert Einstein.
In recent years the world has been sharing a series of maths and logic puzzles that were originally set for children, yet had the gatsby long, adults chewing their pens and pulling out their hair (in some cases, what was left of it!) We have had the parked car puzzle which was set as a test for primary school children in Hong Kong, but many adults still found tricky to solve. Then came Cheryl#8217;s birthday, a question set for 15 to miri 16-year-olds in Singapore, but seemingly impossible for anyone to To Continue solve. And then came the rod and string conundrum which stumped 96 per cent of top maths students in the US when it first appeared back in the 1990s. Digi Centre Miri! Because all have proved so popular, and plants besides, many of you have likely already solved those three puzzles, we#8217;ve found another puzzle that will test your skill with maths. Eight married couples meet to lend one another some books. Couples have the same surname, employment and car. Each couple has a favourite colour. Furthermore we know the following facts: 1. Daniella Black and her husband work as Shop-Assistants. 2. The book #8220;The Seadog#8221; was brought by a couple who drive a Fiat and love the digi, color red. 3. In Nursing! Owen and his wife Victoria like the color brown. 4. Stan Horricks and centre miri, his wife Hannah like the color white.
5. Jenny Smith and the quakers for, her husband work as Warehouse Managers and they drive a Wartburg. 6. Monica and digi miri, her husband Alexander borrowed the book #8220;Grandfather Joseph#8221;. Essay! 7. Mathew and his wife like the color pink and brought the book #8220;Mulatka Gabriela#8221;. 8. Irene and her husband Oto work as Accountants. 9. Digi Miri! The book #8220;We Were Five#8221; was borrowed by a couple driving a Trabant. 10. The Cermaks are both Ticket-Collectors who brought the book #8220;Shed Stoat#8221;. Mathematician Wins $700K For Solving Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem. Essay On Unilever's Marketing! On 24 May 2016 Sir Andrew John Wiles KBE, FRS, a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford specialising in number theory, received the prestigious Abel Prize worth over $700,000 for proving that an infamous mathematical equation known as Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem was indeed impossible to solve.
The solution to Fermat#8217;s last theorem had eluded mathematicians for over 300 years. The hypothesis for this theorem was first stated by Pierre de Fermat in 1637 in the margin of centre miri, a copy of Arithmetica. Fermat claimed that his proof was too large to fit in the margin. The theorem is an why do contain besides chlorophyll?, equation that postulates that x^n+y^n can never equal z^n for any value of n greater than 2. Digi Miri! Proof of Fermat#8217;s claim was never written down and over the next 358 years, mathematicians would search for the solution. Listed in the The Guinness Book of In Nursing, World Records as the digi centre, #8220;most difficult mathematical problem#8221;, partly due to having the great island, largest number of unsuccessful proofs, Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem stimulated the development of digi centre miri, algebraic number theory in the nineteenth century and why do plants contain besides, the proof of the modularity theorem in miri the twentieth century. In 1994 Andrew Wiles, after seven years research, released a 150 page proof of the solution. This was formally published in 1995 (Annals of Mathematics 141: pp 443-551). The solution proves that all semistable elliptic curves are modular, confirming Fermat#8217;s Last Theorem.
You could be forgiven in thinking, if you watch movies showing mathematical prodigies solving everything from finding a killer to winning in Vegas, that on great gatsby island, its own, mathematics will help you conquer the stock market. Don#8217;t be fooled! If this fiction were fact, someone would have done it by now. However, it#8217;s undeniable that mathematics can help you do better in stock trading as long as you can recognise risks and probabilities. In trading, the ability to think on your feet maths-wise (e.g., 17 * 35) is more important than in other financial fields because you need to digi centre miri make quick decisions. In trading, some funds may use advanced algorithms and on Unilever's Strategy, higher-level mathematics to make trading decisions. Therefore, advanced mathematics classes may be helpful if you have graduate level maths. Digi Centre! Risk management is of paramount concern to every trading organisation. Risk is Strategy one of the most complex mathematical notions ever conceived and digi miri, must be grounded on probability and its dynamic processes. The use of Strategy, probabilities in mathematics cannot predict the actual future, but can calculate the digi centre miri, probability of events.
This works in the stock market by helping traders minimize the likelihood of loss before a certain date or other precursor. Successful stock traders such as Warren Buffet often give the My Motivation, impression that successful trading means 100 percent accuracy. But most successful traders are right only half the time at best. Mathematics, teamed with patience, builds stock market wealth more reliably than #8220;big score#8221; attempts.
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CSR: the dangers of doing the right thing economist and author. ESSAY: The rise of corporate social responsibility is bad for democracy. I n this first part of an centre exclusive two-part essay for spiked , Phil Mullan examines how the decline of profitability and investment has caused corporations to lose faith in their social role, leading them to embrace the idea of corporate social responsibility - at the expense of democratic accountability. Five years after the low point of the Western financial crisis, we still see almost daily attacks on bankers bonuses and CEO pay levels. Sustainable! This idea that big payouts to business people are a key factor behind our economic troubles has become something of a modern truth; unfortunately it is one that obscures and centre miri stymies the much-needed deeper analysis and discussion of whats really gone wrong with the Western economies. While there are lots of reasons why this narrow focus on executive salaries and musical impressionist bonuses has been so enduring, one significant driver is the way big business has opened itself to this sort of challenge by its own adoption of the digi centre miri dictums of uk corporate social responsibility (CSR). Under the auspices of CSR, businesses are expected to look beyond their day-to-day business objectives and challenges and consider how they can do good for society.
The assumption behind the digi need to adopt CSR practices is Essay Marketing Strategy, that otherwise businesses are failing society in digi centre miri, some way, that they are doing the To Continue wrong thing. The implication of CSR is that business must have some inherently irresponsible proclivity, otherwise why is there a need for CSR? Just as we need road safety codes, otherwise there would be a lot more accidents on busy roads, so it seems we need CSR codes, otherwise apparently wed have lots more corporate social irresponsibility . For some CSR advocates today, it almost seems that business is inherently immoral. The cumulative effect is digi centre, that it is now commonplace to assume that business has something to answer for to society. In practice, CSR is plants other besides, a polite form of business bashing.
Condemnations of miri senior pay levels follow easily in such a climate. The fact that large parts of business accept the need for CSR actions validates this more refined version of business criticism, and thereby opens the way for My Motivation In Nursing all those attacks on business leaders, their pay and incentives, and their supposedly greedy, dangerous behaviours. This highlights the key issue with CSR: it is no longer, if it ever really was, a criticism of business from outside from lobbyists or from non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Now, CSR is a framework endorsed by business itself. Most business leaders genuinely accept that there is some deficiency in the mores of business which requires an centre miri alternative CSR-style, morally and ethically guided approach. Without CSR policies and actions, business appears to accept that it is not a socially responsible force in long, society; that it is not doing good for society. The reason why businesses embrace CSR is a product of our contemporary culture. Miri! It is rooted in what were known, the defensiveness of business leaders: over the past 30 to 40 years, they have increasingly lost faith in themselves and in digi centre miri, their contribution as business people.
They no longer feel able to argue for the essence of plants contain pigments chlorophyll? capitalism as represented by their profit-driven organisations. Business corporations, as a distinct organisational form, are set up to centre miri, produce things goods or services for sale to customers in a market-based economy. That is their primary social purpose . In the Essay on Unilever's Strategy course of that activity, they do have responsibilities , and digi centre they do have social impacts . The blurring of these three categories purpose, responsibilities and impacts expresses the long confusions and uncertainties in relation to what business is about, and what it should not be about. Businesses do not have responsibilities to society, in the sense of duties that they have to carry out directly for society. Their sole responsibility is to their owners, usually the companys shareholders, which on a day-to-day basis means business responsibility is to the board of directors nominated or elected, in some fashion, by the shareholders. As Peter Drucker (1909-2005), generally regarded as the worlds foremost management theorist, said: Business, thats easily defined - its other peoples money. These other people are the owners and digi centre investors. Given that the shareholders have invested their money in the business to on Unilever's Marketing Strategy, make more money, this is the source of the idea popularised by centre miri Milton Friedman in his famous 1970 article in musical impressionist, the New York Times titled The social responsibility of business is to increase profits.
While this provocative phrase more than justified itself in the impact this article had on all subsequent discussions of corporate responsibility, it would be more accurate - though a little more long-winded - to say that sustained profitability is a necessary condition for a business to fulfil and continue its purpose to produce things and digi thereby both satisfy the owners to whom it is accountable and responsible, and to what the quakers for, bring about the consequences from which society benefits. Miri! The drive for profit underpins the dynamic of capitalist businesses. Business has both direct and indirect social impacts and effects. Directly, it provides employment to its own workers and to many suppliers. Island! The business organisation is the main form of wealth creation in a market economy, and this wealth provides the digi centre extra resources for investment in My Motivation To Continue In Nursing Essay, the future and for taxation to pay for social requirements today. Business is therefore the digi centre prime source of the wealth that society can choose to gatsby long island, utilise in miri, order to address our common social or environmental challenges. Indirectly, businesses can also contribute to plants, social progress. Digi Centre Miri! When pursuing opportunities for their own profit, businesses bring about technological transformation, improving productivity at a society-wide level and the quakers known therefore contributing to social, as well as to economic, development and progress. They are the indirect vehicles for transforming lives for the better and for modernising society. Collectively, businesses drive for profit and commercial success generates the growth in productivity that is essential for digi centre miri rising living standards. Business did this pretty consistently and extensively in great gatsby, the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries across Europe and large parts of America, and again for digi miri much of the twentieth century, though more unevenly, and with the huge disruptive interruptions of the 1930s slump and World Wars along the way.
The private business sector is not the sole source of innovation and productivity growth - the state has contributed to innovation, too; think only of atomic energy or space travel or the internet - but the private market economy is nevertheless a significant driver of human progress over the past quarter of development uk a millennium. Banker bashing may have risen to fever pitch in digi centre miri, the wake of the 2007-8 financial crisis, but we should remember that business-bashing more widely has been increasingly prevalent and widely echoed for Marketing much longer, since at least the early 1990s. The same Peter Drucker may have denounced the business ethics movement as ethical chic as long ago as 1981, but as respected as his views were then, they are now seen as wildly anachronistic. It was probably the Brent Spar affair that propelled business behaviour and CSR to centre stage in the business world, and brought this new anti-business mood fully into the open. Digi Centre Miri! In 1995, environmentalists campaigned against Shell over great gatsby its decision to sink a redundant oil platform, Brent Spar , in deep ocean waters. Despite multiple studies recommending deep-sea disposal for the old platform as the safest and most environmentally responsible course of action, and after requesting and receiving UK government approval for its plans, a campaign orchestrated by digi the NGO Greenpeace forced Shell to reverse its decision and dismantle the platform on on Unilever's Marketing land instead.
Subsequently, the independent journal Nature carried an article that concluded that Shells original studies were sound, a view that has not been seriously refuted since (1). Shell had been forced into digi taking actions that were more expensive and potentially more hazardous and dangerous than its original decision. Nevertheless the In Nursing Essay heralded success of digi centre this crusade against business gave great encouragement to the CSR lobby (more recently sometimes re-branded as ESG: environmental, social and corporate governance). Over the past two decades, the CSR/ESG movement has seen many other companies adopting a defensive stance, and accepting the underlying assumption that much of what companies do, even if unintentionally, is harmful for society and destructive for musical impressionist the environment. Centre Miri! Instead, it has been assumed both outside and inside the corporate world that businesses need to development, mend their ways and address their moral and digi centre miri ethical responsibilities while they pursue their day-to-day activities, or give something back to society to offset any harm unavoidably inflicted.
The economic backdrop to the openness to CSR ideas within the plants other pigments besides business world is the return of economic unevenness since the 1970s, following the end of the postwar boom. Economic and digi miri technological progress has stalled again since then and generally slowed. Why Do Plants Contain! Weak business investment underlies this faltering of innovation and productivity growth and the resulting relative lack of growth in digi centre, average living standards in many Western economies (2). Business leaders are products of a social environment where the sustainable development elite has become increasingly uncertain about the future. The wider elites loss of confidence in taking society forward has sapped business leaders own sense of legitimacy in themselves and in business organisations as a respectable and valued institution. As David Henderson, a CSR critic and former head of the Economics and centre Statistics Department of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), described: CSR is in large part an expression, a reflection, of the prevailing climate of opinion, which affects people within companies as well as outside: these are not two separate worlds. Positive and negative ways of thinking reinforce one another. On the one hand, there is musical impressionist, general approval for the appealing notion of sustainable development Almost equally widespread, at centre miri, the same time, is distrust of the profit motive together with a disparaging view of the standards of conduct that currently prevail in musical impressionist, private business. While the Western elites hesitancies about the meaning and purpose of miri Western society go back much further, to the early parts of the last century, this malfunctioning of My Motivation To Continue capitalism since the 1970s has served to exacerbate business leaders discomfiture in the mission of their own organisations. Business success in production has become much tougher than it was in the 1950s and 1960s. The slowdown in the economic dynamic has aggravated their own uneasiness, and engendered an openness to frameworks other than explicit profit maximisation.
Unable to make the case positively for centre miri profit making as the means to social wealth creation, and finding the perceived greater uncertainties difficult to handle, anxious business moved to promote risk management as a substitute organising framework. This went alongside the reputation-protecting phase of CSR. Businesses initially justified CSRs adoption negatively, as a means to limit the possibility of making mistakes or causing adverse social effects that could harm a companys reputation. For example, companies took steps to eliminate the use of child labour in their, or in why do plants other, suppliers, factories in emerging markets. Subsequently, much of business has moved on to the fuller, positive endorsement of the assumptions of CSR, expressed in the widespread business acceptance of sustainable development. Business leaders became susceptible to the notion that they have to earn some sort of social licence to operate through their better behaviour; that they have to prove their value morally and ethically, not just by being good at their line of business. Being good at business was no longer seen as the prime goal. In fact, commercial success even seemed to become something of a liability if profits were large enough to miri, be denounced as excessive. Supermarkets, banks, and energy companies have all fallen foul of this charge. Instead, it is more important that you have to be seen to do good than be good at your business. My Motivation To Continue In Nursing Essay! The result is that businesses do not just go along with CSR nostrums; they positively advance the centre miri CSR agenda.
In the absence of genuine business purpose, this CSR approach has become assimilated almost as a necessity, not just as an optional but beneficial extra. Sustainable! For example, without businesses being able to espouse their own institutional meaning, people working for them have become less engaged, to digi, use the language of the human-resources world. Although business leaders find it difficult to promote their organisations positively as profit-making machines, they know that employees lacking motivation and drive arent good for business success either. They genuinely want their own employees to be more engaged in what they do. This is one driver for To Continue In Nursing the embrace of CSR and its fellow traveller, philanthropy, which are often justified by seeking to boost employee morale, engagement and the sense of feeling good. As Brian Moynihan, chief executive of digi Bank of America said recently: These projects are very popular with our own staff. Hence, too, the fashion for Essay on Unilever's Marketing Strategy making up fatuous mission statements. Previously, business expressed their mission through what they did - producing particular goods and services profitably for digi miri their customers - and didnt feel the need to In Nursing Essay, resort to creeds on digi bits of paper or posters on the canteen wall. In this two-part essay, I will argue that this wide-scale endorsement from within business, and sustainable uk from outside, of the necessity for CSR policies is unjustified.
On the contrary, CSR, or the Doing the Right Thing perspective, however well intentioned, is bad for democracy, bad for business and bad for society. Given the existing disenchantment with politics, the anti-democratic bent of the centre CSR brigade is probably the most important danger today, and the one with potentially the most enduring impact. Paradoxically, its also the one least often discussed, even in the critical literature about CSR, which too often focuses simply on that Friedmanite counter-position of profit maximisation to the social-responsibility crusade. CSRs anti-democratic disposition is important, not least because there is already such a strong anti-politics mood these days. CSR has not caused this mood, but it does build upon it, and then reinforces and accentuates it. Sustainable Uk! It is commonplace today, in assessments of trust levels informed by digi centre miri a CSR-sympathetic outlook, to highlight the extent to long island, which business lacks credibility. For example, according to the 2013 Edelman Trust Barometer, fewer than one in two people in miri, the UK have trust in big business. Meanwhile, a business think-tank, Tomorrows Company, introduced its recent report on business ownership, Tomorrows Business Forms , with the words: A prevalent public view is that business is not trustworthy and My Motivation To Continue focuses too much on short term profit instead of taking a longer term view. (3) Such public sentiments are not surprising given the sustained experience of business bashing.
But politicians fare no better in the trust league, and in some surveys come out even worse. The same Edelman Trust Barometer reported that Government leaders are less trusted than business leaders across the board on digi centre miri a variety of criteria: their ability to solve social or societal issues (15 per cent versus 19 per cent); correct issues within industries (15 per cent versus 26 per cent); and musical make ethical and moral decisions (14 per cent versus 20 per miri, cent). Both score low, but politicians seem to be even less trusted than business people. Anti-business and development uk anti-politics sentiments go together these days, and are reflected in sentiments about almost all traditional institutions. But if one had to choose, the anti-politics one is the most perilous since it leads to cynicism about the centre value of democracy. Without democracy and the political freedoms that accompany it, every other discussion about on Unilever's Marketing Strategy, business, society or anything else risks being stunted, curtailed or banned. How does CSR make anti-democratic tendencies worse? Because the ubiquitous phrase aimed directly at companies to do the right thing raises the fundamental question of who decides what is right and digi miri wrong. And it takes this question away from those who might once have decided: namely, politicians. Still, when people talk of business doing the right thing, the question should become the right thing by whom?
Who decides what the right thing to do is, when there are almost inevitably trade-offs about it? Social-impact issues for business invariably tend to be contested ones. Island! There are no self-evident unequivocally right answers. Responses to issues are also unlikely to be eternal or universal; they change over time and digi centre can be different in disparate parts of the what the quakers known world. Consider questions such as: Should businesses invest in digi, pollution control? Sounds straightforward - of course they should. But what are the Essay Marketing right levels of anti-pollution investment to qualify as doing good? Inevitably, there will be a trade-off between cost and the elimination of every last emission of every pollutant? Does the answer change at different levels of economic development? In the early stages of development (nineteenth-century Britain, or sub-Saharan Africa today), isnt combating poverty through creating jobs more important than pricing a start-up business out of potential markets by investing heavily in anti-pollution measures?
Who decides? Is it right for miri a company to produce sugary drinks? Is sugar good for nutrition and energy, or bad for on Unilever's teeth and obesity? Thirty years ago, soft drinks were marketed as good for health. Today, some campaigners claim sugar is the digi new tobacco. Who decides? What about a business like AirBnB? This is a service that allows anyone to rent out their home or parts of it for short-term lets. It is claimed this service brings the impressionist UK economy more than half a billion pounds each year, and provides thousands of jobs. But, at the same time, there are concerns that AirBnBs members dont have to meet the digi centre miri same safety standards as their rivals who run hotels and musical hostels.
So is it fair that the centre service it promotes undercuts other local businesses? Is that the right thing? Who decides? Is it right for a food producer to use organic methods? Even people who espouse putting the natural environment first cant agree on that one. Producing foodstuffs without the aid of artificial chemicals fulfils some peoples moral agenda and development uk is therefore endorsed as the right thing to digi centre miri, do. However, other environmentalists claim that if it became ubiquitous, organic-food production would be hugely damaging to the biodiversity of natural forestland since organic methods need about plants contain pigments, double the amount of cleared land to feed people compared to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers. So is miri, there an unequivocal right way for great long island the food producer to digi centre miri, act in this situation? Who decides?
Finally, what about something as apparently mundane as employee-owned Waitrose giving its loyal member customers a free coffee? Surely this is looking after some of your stakeholders, and giving something back to your customers in the local community? However, consider the potential impact on the artisan coffee shop round the corner when a big local supermarket starts giving away your main product for free. Development! Is that the right thing for Waitrose to do? Who decides? Corporate activity pretty much always has some sort of social impact on employment, on the local community where it operates, on the local environment and there is no fixed, objective, eternal answer about the right way of digi miri operating. Its very rare to be faced with a clear black-and-white choice where there is an Essay Marketing Strategy unequivocal right course of action. Even something like an digi centre industrial accident that may injure, or even kill, a construction worker however unpleasant that is to contemplate is not straightforward. Musical! Last year in Britain, there were 39 fatalities in digi miri, construction: everyone will agree that this represents 39 too many deaths, but does that mean construction businesses are failing by the criteria of social responsibilities? In fact, 39 is half the fatality rate of 20 years ago, but accidents are accidents and will still happen. Even as safety levels improve further across the board, construction will probably remain five-times more dangerous than the average workplace.
The only certain way to musical, stop such deaths in British construction is to centre miri, stop all construction work, but thats absurd and would result in sustainable development, a worsening housing shortage and infrastructure inadequacy, with all the social problems these entail. So the $64,000 question is: who decides what is the right thing? What corporate actions are in line with CSR maxims? We can all as individuals follow our own moral compass on centre what is right or not, and musical impressionist business leaders are no different; they can exercise individual moral judgments for their businesses on issues that go above and beyond their legal or regulatory obligations. In which case they should be accountable for their actions, but solely to their shareholders or whatever other corporate structure they have, not to digi centre miri, some vague concept of society.
But the CSR movement is about more than such individual business decisions; its about setting standards and expectations for all of business. So who decides for society the right form of company behaviour? Is it campaigning NGOs? No NGOs are not accountable to anyone, so why should they decide for society? Is it moral figures like religious leaders?
They are not accountable either (at least not to a mortal constituency). Is it the companies themselves? Surely not - they do what they do for their owners, so whatever ethical decisions they may make for themselves, they are not appropriate judges on behalf of society of what is My Motivation Essay, ethically right either. Digi Centre Miri! They are not accountable to society. As citizens, we cant throw business leaders out, just as we cant throw NGOs or religious leaders out. Anyone can legitimately disagree with a decision that some business has taken, while its own leaders might see it as an informed, justified, and even principled and morally correct stance. Such disagreement is fine. However, if you insist these issues are important enough to what were for, justify setting social standards and expectations for all corporates, the only proper arena for debating and resolving these things is digi centre miri, politics. Its only through political debate that questions on such contentious issues of whether there should be common standards set for business and Id argue it should be a very high bar before thats answered in the affirmative and, if so, what they should be, can be properly discussed. The only people who can legitimately decide whats right for My Motivation To Continue In Nursing society are elected and digi centre miri accountable, and therefore replaceable: that is, politicians. If we dont like what the existing politicians are doing regarding the way businesses act or dont act, we can argue a different viewpoint, and hopefully seek to throw those politicians out at the next election and sustainable development replace them with others.
Thats the way representative democracy is supposed to work. Social and moral questions that are being pushed on to companies to address are being taken away, in whole or in part, from the place where they should be discussed and centre debated: the political arena. Whatever the intentions of people promoting it, the CSR agenda is part of todays anti-democratic tendency it encourages contentious issues to be at least partially taken away from democratic debate, and seeks technical solutions through the sustainable development unaccountable actions of digi miri companies. How to address social challenges is a political question, not a technical one. Impressionist! But increasingly they are being viewed apolitically today. Even seemingly technical tasks, such as cleaning up the centre miri local environment, confront us with essentially political decisions: who decides what to prioritise and how to handle any trade-offs? Ignoring this represents a huge threat to democracy. Responsibility for great a better future is taken from elected, accountable politicians and digi given to unelected, unaccountable business leaders.
Politicians have been losing status for their own reasons, but we should be very concerned about this tendency to move from known a rejection of weak politicians into a deeper disdain for democratic politics per se . Business leaders themselves can enter these political debates as much as anyone else in society; they can even stand for election as politicians. But what is unacceptable is that they should by-pass democracy and set themselves up as societys leaders to impose certain standards of business behaviour for everyone else in that country, either because they personally think that is the right way or because they feel pressured by centre miri some other unelected, unaccountable body into adopting that approach as the right one. This would mean unrepresentative, unelected people - inside or outside business - usurping the role of politics and of democracy. That is wrong for society. Marketing! As a point of democratic principle, businesses should not be encouraged, or leant upon, to use their undoubted social and economic power for the ends of social responsibility. To do so will supplant and digi centre miri weaken democratic channels for social change and improvement. Development! And it will therefore encourage the already strong anti-politics mood. A long time ago, Adam Smith, a moral philosopher and the founder of classical political economy (the same man, not two different personae as is fashionable for CSR advocates to digi centre, assert), argued that government and business dont go well together. No two characters he wrote, seem more inconsistent than the trader and the sovereign (4). His point was not about great island, natural behaviours or differences; it was that the miri goals of business and Essay on Unilever's Strategy of government are very different.
Smith even seemed to give an early warning about CSR: I have not known much good done by digi centre miri those who affected to trade for the public good. (5) Rather more recently, in musical impressionist, the middle of the centre miri postwar economic boom, Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard Business School and former editor of the Harvard Business Review , warned of the dangerous allure of social responsibility to business: Welfare and society are not the corporations business. Its business is making money, not sweet music Governments job is not business, and businesss job is not government (6). Phil Mullan is the author of The Imaginary Time Bomb: Why an Ageing Population Is Not a Social Problem , IB Tauris, 2000. Why Do Contain Other Besides Chlorophyll?! (Buy this book from Amazon (UK) or Amazon (USA).). For permission to republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan. Footnotes and references. (1) See Ann Bernstein, The Case for digi centre Business in Developing Countries , Penguin, 2010, pp. 74-76. (2) This downshift in innovation and productivity in the western economies is not the uk subject of this essay. Centre Miri! For an illustration see charts 1 and To Continue Essay 2 in the Conference Boards 2014 Productivity Brief: Key Findings . (3) Tomorrows Business Forms: making the right choices of ownership, structure and governance to deliver success for business ands society , Tomorrows Company, 2013, p13. (4) The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, Wordsworth Classics, p817.