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Essays/Black Rain: Reader Response term paper 2956. Black Rain: Reader Response. by Masuji Ibuse. The main character in the novel is in some ways like myself. Mr. Shizuma is Creativity: Definition, a. person that is intrigued by many things and likes to see what reaction people. have from inventory any action.

Throughout the novel he feels the need to go to different. parts of the city and surrounding communities in order to see the effects of the. unknown bomb. Mr. Shizuma was not only interested in what happened to the people. of the community but he was also interested in finding out what the Definition, weapon used. was called and made out of. There were different names given to the bomb. throughout the book and he sums up the names in one paragraph, The name of Culture, the. bomb had already undergone a number of changes, from the initial new weapon through new-type bomb, secret weapon, special new-type bomb, to special. high-capacity bomb. That day, I learned for the first time to call it an atomic bomb. (Black Rain 282) The importance of the name of the bomb may seem ineffectual, but he seems to. & Importance Essay. dwell on finding out Right, what caused this type of destruction. & Importance. Something else that. Mr. Shizuma wants to do is remember every little detail about what happens to. everything from what angle the house was on after the bomb to what his wife. Interpellation Define. cooked for dinner with the food rationing. He even likes to write how people. cured themselves of radiation sickness and what the burns and other injuries. look and act like. Definition & Importance. These things are like myself in the fact that he does not. like to forget what things are like, wants to see first hand what the effects.

are, and marginless inventory car, is very interested in finding information about new things that he has. never seen before. He also likes to help people greatly such as his constant. wanderings looking for coal for his community. If you were depended on Creativity: would. Define. you help your community? I think so. The theme that is Essay, very meaningful to me is that war hurts two different parts of. a country. In January 1776, Common Was Written. The first is the military, which was not really talked about, and. then there is the civilians.

The civilians must ration food so that the. military can eat, and then they must also suffer because the bomb that was. dropped was not meant for Creativity: & Importance Essay, any military base but to gladiator wars destroy and kill a city. The. theme is clear in meaning that it hurts the civilians much more than it hurts. the Definition & Importance, military and that war is very, very cruel. The people that were rationing. had very little to eat and interpellation define, that amount became smaller as the war continued. People were forced to grow carp in small, and search for mussels in ponds in. order to get any type of meat. By the end of the war there were no mussels left. in any of the many streams and there were also no fish in any of the ponds. The. only thing that survived were the eels who were seen swimming up the river a day. before the surrender was given. This was a sign of rebirth.

It only took a year. after the Hiroshima bombing for the surrender and during that time the. government did not help any of the people that really were hurt by the war, the. civilians. It was strange that the Definition & Importance, people felt any remorse at all for losing the. war when the government that they were supposed to believe in left them. homeless and published sense was written by, without any food. Innocent, unarmed people killed and mangled by a. weapon that could kill the entire planet. For what purpose was the bomb. dropped? Mr. Shizuma made many remarks about how if the opposition would have. only waited a while longer they would not have had to drop the bomb because the. country was internally falling apart. This seems to me that the dropping of the. bomb was nothing but a science experiment to the opposition'. That is the. hidden theme to this novel. The only type of person that could possibly read this book is a person that is. very open minded to other ideas.

To most people from the United States the bomb. was necessary in order to stop the war. Definition & Importance. In the eyes of the published common by, Japanese the bomb. was not needed to stop the war. Which side is true? The answer is Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay, both sides. To. have an open mind and to be able to accept new ideas is crucial when you look at. people from a different type of on A Women's Right in Britian, background and way of thinking. To read this. novel you must also have a pretty solid stomach because there are many detailed. entries about wounds and the way that the Definition, skin starts to melt right off the.

living body. The whole story is told from the eyes and john mendel, thoughts of the main. Definition Essay. character Mr. Shizuma is john mendel, different than any first hand account that I have ever. read and a reader must be willing to get into that character in order to get. the message, feelings, and pictures that Mr. Shizuma is trying to put forth. The. novel is written extremely clear but one of the problems is that it gets slow. every once in a while if Mr.

Shizuma gets something into his mind so he decides. to get it done. The pond that his friend is growing carp in is traveled to what. Creativity: Definition Essay. seems to be about a thousand times. What is good about the many travels to. these same places is that each time the scene changes slightly with someone. becoming sick or the carp growing. On A Right To Vote In Britian. What a person needs to read this book is. careful thought because of the slight changes and also a map seems to grow. inside your head of the different places that he goes to.

These places are. described in so much detail that it does not take very much imagination to see. what is going on and what he is Essay, seeing. The title has a lot to do with the book because the title is how the whole thing. started, with Mr. John Mendel. Shizuma's daughter coming home with black spots on her skin. where the black rain had hit her. It could not be washed off and it burnt. through clothing. The ending to the novel was satisfactory because the end of. the war was a good place to end the novel. & Importance Essay. The only problem that I can see with. this type of ending is that the reader wants to know what has happened to the. community after a few years but what the writer is trying to say is very clear. and enforced with people crying because they lost the war.

The crying was not. only because the war was lost but also for the people that died, or are dyeing, in the community. Also the crying was also from fear of what was going to. happen to them now that another country had control of them. Define. The men mostly. feared that they were going to be castrated but they knew that the country would. never be the same but they would be able to eat. The eels that were viewed in. the river were still in the larvae stage and they were swimming upriver. This. gives the man in Creativity:, the story hope that things will be all right and gladiator wars, that they. have the power to build a new community and help his family deal with the. sickness that his daughter has. The overall meaning of the novel is that war. makes things hard for the people that have to stay at home and Definition, support their. soldiers. The heart of any country is with the general population and when that. general population was hit with something unknown it did not only shock the rest. of the country but it made the country wonder if they were strong enough. People will pull through for themselves and family before they think about what. is going to happen to marginless the way that they live. This novel shows the power and. curiosity of the human spirit.

It does accomplish what it set out to do, show. the effect on the losing side of war. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Creativity: & Importance Essay. Every paper is written from scratch based on gladiator wars your instructions and Definition & Importance, there is no plagiarism of gladiator wars, any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

The service is Creativity: & Importance Essay, totally confidential and john mendel, all client information is kept private. Creativity: Definition Essay. We guarantee that the paper will adequately meet your guidelines and be done by African Culture the deadline, otherwise we will give you your money back, if we fail (terms of service apply).

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Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay

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No Silver Bullet: Essence and & Importance Accidents of Software Engineering. Of all the monsters that fill the nightmares of our folklore, none terrify more than werewolves, because they transform unexpectedly from the familiar into horrors. For these, one seeks bullets of West Essay silver that can magically lay them to Creativity: & Importance Essay rest. The familiar software project, at least as seen by the nontechnical manager, has something of this character; it is usually innocent and straightforward, but is West African Essay capable of becoming a monster of missed schedules, blown budgets, and flawed products. So we hear desperate cries for a silver bullet--something to make software costs drop as rapidly as computer hardware costs do. But, as we look to Creativity: & Importance the horizon of define a decade hence, we see no silver bullet. There is no single development, in either technology or in management technique, that by itself promises even one order-of-magnitude improvement in productivity, in reliability, in simplicity. In this article, I shall try to show why, by examining both the nature of the software problem and the properties of the bullets proposed. Skepticism is Creativity: Definition not pessimism, however.

Although we see no startling breakthroughs--and indeed, I believe such to be inconsistent with the gladiator wars nature of software--many encouraging innovations are under way. A disciplined, consistent effort to develop, propagate, and exploit these innovations should indeed yield an order-of-magnitude improvement. There is no royal road, but there is a road. The first step toward the management of disease was replacement of demon theories and humours theories by the germ theory. That very step, the beginning of Creativity: Essay hope, in itself dashed all hopes of magical solutions. It told workers that progress would be made stepwise, at great effort, and that a persistent, unremitting care would have to be paid to a discipline of cleanliness. Gladiator Wars! So it is with software engineering today. Does It Have to Be Hard?--Essential Difficulties. First, one must observe that the Creativity: Definition & Importance anomaly is not that software progress is so slow, but that computer hardware progress is so fast.

No other technology since civilization began has seen six orders of magnitude in performance price gain in 30 years. In no other technology can one choose to take the gain in either improved performance or in reduced costs. These gains flow from the transformation of computer manufacture from an assembly industry into Essay Women's Right in Britian, a process industry. Second, to see what rate of progress one can expect in software technology, let us examine the difficulties of that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them into essence , the difficulties inherent in the nature of software, and Essay accidents , those difficulties that today attend its production but are not inherent. The essence of a software entity is a construct of interlocking concepts: data sets, relationships among data items, algorithms, and invocations of functions. This essence is abstract in that such a conceptual construct is the same under many different representations. It is john mendel nonetheless highly precise and richly detailed.

I believe the hard part of & Importance Essay building software to be the specification, design, and testing of marginless inventory this conceptual construct, not the labor of representing it and testing the fidelity of the representation . We still make syntax errors, to Definition & Importance be sure; but they are fuzz compared with the West African Essay conceptual errors in most systems. If this is Definition Essay true, building software will always be hard. There is inherently no silver bullet. Let us consider the inherent properties of interpellation define this irreducible essence of modern software systems: complexity, conformity, changeability, and invisibility. Complexity. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct because no two parts are alike (at least above the statement level). If they are, we make the two similar parts into a subroutine--open or closed. In this respect, software systems differ profoundly from computers, buildings, or automobiles, where repeated elements abound. Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build: They have very large numbers of states.

This makes conceiving, describing, and testing them hard. Software systems have orders-of-magnitude more states than computers do. Likewise, a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger sizes, it is necessarily an Creativity: Definition, increase in the number of different elements. In most cases, the elements interact with each other in some nonlinear fashion, and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly. The complexity of software is an essential property, not an accidental one. African Essay! Hence, descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence. For three centuries, mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena, deriving properties from the models, and verifying those properties by experiment.

This paradigm worked because the Definition Essay complexities ignored in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena. John Mendel! It does not work when the complexities are the essence. Many of the Creativity: & Importance classic problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size. From the complexity comes the difficulty of communication among team members, which leads to product flaws, cost overruns, schedule delays. From the complexity comes the difficulty of enumerating, much less understanding, all the possible states of the program, and from that comes the unreliability. From complexity of function comes the difficulty of john mendel invoking function, which makes programs hard to use.

From complexity of structure comes the Creativity: & Importance Essay difficulty of extending programs to new functions without creating side effects. From complexity of structure come the unvisualized states that constitute security trapdoors. Not only technical problems, but management problems as well come from the complexity. It makes overview hard, thus impeding conceptual integrity. It makes it hard to define find and control all the loose ends. Creativity:! It creates the tremendous learning and understanding burden that makes personnel turnover a disaster.

Conformity. Essay In Britian! Software people are not alone in Creativity: & Importance, facing complexity. Physics deals with terribly complex objects even at the fundamental particle level. Essay On A Women's Right In Britian! The physicist labors on, however, in Definition & Importance Essay, a firm faith that there are unifying principles to gladiator wars be found, whether in quarks or in unifiedfield theories. Einstein argued that there must be simplified explanations of nature, because God is not capricious or arbitrary. No such faith comforts the software engineer. Much of the Creativity: Definition Essay complexity that he must master is arbitrary complexity, forced without rhyme or reason by the many human institutions and systems to which his interfaces must conform. These differ from interface to interface, and from time to West Culture time, not because of necessity but only because they were designed by Creativity: Essay different people, rather than by God. In many cases, the software must conform because it is the most recent arrival on the scene.

In others, it must conform because it is gladiator wars perceived as the most conformable. But in all cases, much complexity comes from conformation to other interfaces; this complexity cannot be simplified out by Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay any redesign of the software alone. Changeability. The software entity is constantly subject to pressures for inventory car, change. Of course, so are buildings, cars, computers. But manufactured things are infrequently changed after manufacture; they are superseded by later models, or essential changes are incorporated into later-serial-number copies of the same basic design. Call-backs of automobiles are really quite infrequent; field changes of computers somewhat less so.

Both are much less frequent than modifications to fielded software. In part, this is so because the Creativity: Essay software of a system embodies its function, and the function is the part that most feels the pressures of change. In part it is gladiator wars because software can be changed more easily--it is & Importance pure thought-stuff, infinitely malleable. Buildings do in fact get changed, but the high costs of Essay change, understood by all, serve to dampen the whims of the changers. All successful software gets changed. Two processes are at work.

First, as a software product is found to be useful, people try it in Essay, new cases at john mendel the edge of or beyond the original domain. The pressures for extended function come chiefly from Essay, users who like the basic function and invent new uses for it. Second, successful software survives beyond the normal life of the machine vehicle for which it is first written. If not new computers, then at least new disks, new displays, new printers come along; and the software must be conformed to Essay Women's Right to Vote its new vehicles of opportunity. In short, the software product is embedded in Definition & Importance, a cultural matrix of applications, users, laws, and machine vehicles. These all change continually, and their changes inexorably force change upon the software product. Invisibility. Software is invisible and unvisualizable. Geometric abstractions are powerful tools.

The floor plan of a building helps both architect and client evaluate spaces, traffic flows, views. Contradictions and omissions become obvious. Scale drawings of mechanical parts and stick-figure models of molecules, although abstractions, serve the same purpose. A geometric reality is captured in a geometric abstraction. The reality of software is not inherently embedded in space. Right To Vote! Hence, it has no ready geometric representation in the way that land has maps, silicon chips have diagrams, computers have connectivity schematics. As soon as we attempt to diagram software structure, we find it to constitute not one, but several, general directed graphs superimposed one upon Definition & Importance Essay another. The several graphs may represent the flow of interpellation define control, the flow of data, patterns of dependency, time sequence, name-space relationships.

These graphs are usually not even planar, much less hierarchical. Indeed, one of the ways of & Importance Essay establishing conceptual control over Essay Women's to Vote in Britian such structure is to enforce link cutting until one or more of the graphs becomes hierarchical. [1] In spite of progress in restricting and simplifying the structures of software, they remain inherently unvisualizable, and thus do not permit the Creativity: & Importance Essay mind to use some of its most powerful conceptual tools. This lack not only impedes the process of john mendel design within one mind, it severely hinders communication among minds. Past Breakthroughs Solved Accidental Difficulties. High-level languages. Surely the most powerful stroke for software productivity, reliability, and simplicity has been the progressive use of high-level languages for programming. Most observers credit that development with at least a factor of five in productivity, and with concomitant gains in reliability, simplicity, and comprehensibility. What does a high-level language accomplish? It frees a program from much of Creativity: Definition its accidental complexity.

An abstract program consists of conceptual constructs: operations, data types, sequences, and communication. The concrete machine program is concerned with bits, registers, conditions, branches, channels, disks, and such. To the extent that the john mendel high-level language embodies the constructs one wants in the abstract program and avoids all lower ones, it eliminates a whole level of Definition complexity that was never inherent in the program at car all. The most a high-level language can do is to furnish all the constructs that the programmer imagines in the abstract program. To be sure, the level of our thinking about data structures, data types, and Creativity: Definition operations is steadily rising, but at an ever decreasing rate. And language development approaches closer and closer to john mendel the sophistication of users.

Moreover, at some point the elaboration of a high-level language creates a tool-mastery burden that increases, not reduces, the intellectual task of the user who rarely uses the esoteric constructs. Time-sharing . Time-sharing brought a major improvement in the productivity of programmers and in the quality of their product, although not so large as that brought by & Importance high-level languages. Time-sharing attacks a quite different difficulty. Time-sharing preserves immediacy, and marginless car hence enables one to Definition Essay maintain an overview of complexity. The slow turnaround of john mendel batch programming means that one inevitably forgets the minutiae, if not the very thrust, of what one was thinking when he stopped programming and & Importance called for compilation and execution. This interruption is costly in time, for one must refresh one's memory. Marginless Car! The most serious effect may well be the decay of the Creativity: Definition grasp of all that is going on in a complex system. Slow turnaround, like machine-language complexities, is an accidental rather than an essential difficulty of the software process.

The limits of the potential contribution of time-sharing derive directly. The principal effect of timesharing is to shorten system response time. As this response time goes to zero, at some point it passes the gladiator wars human threshold of noticeability, about 100 milliseconds. Beyond that threshold, no benefits are to be expected. Unified programming environments. Unix and Interlisp, the first integrated programming environments to come into widespread use, seem to have improved productivity by integral factors. Why? They attack the accidental difficulties that result from using individual programs together, by providing integrated libraries, unified file formats, and pipes and & Importance Essay filters. As a result, conceptual structures that in gladiator wars, principle could always call, feed, and use one another can indeed easily do so in practice. This breakthrough in turn stimulated the Definition & Importance development of whole toolbenches, since each new tool could be applied to any programs that used the standard formats.

Because of these successes, environments are the subject of much of today's software-engineering research. We look at their promise and limitations in the next section. Ada and other high-level language advances. One of the inventory car most touted recent developments is Ada, a general-purpose high-level language of the 1980's. Ada not only reflects evolutionary improvements in language concepts, but indeed embodies features to encourage modern design and modularization. Perhaps the Creativity: Definition Essay Ada philosophy is more of an advance than the Ada language, for it is the philosophy of sense was written by modularization, of abstract data types, of hierarchical structuring. & Importance! Ada is interpellation over-rich, a natural result of the process by which requirements were laid on its design. That is Creativity: & Importance not fatal, for subsetted working vocabularies can solve the learning problem, and hardware advances will give us the cheap MIPS to pay for the compiling costs. Advancing the structuring of software systems is indeed a very good use for the increased MIPS our dollars will buy. Define! Operating systems, loudly decried in the 1960's for Creativity: Definition, their memory and cycle costs, have proved to john mendel be an excellent form in Definition Essay, which to john mendel use some of the MIPS and cheap memory bytes of the Creativity: Essay past hardware surge. Nevertheless, Ada will not prove to be the silver bullet that slays the software productivity monster.

It is, after all, just another high-level language, and the biggest payoff from African Essay, such languages came from the first transition -- the transition up from the Creativity: & Importance Essay accidental complexities of the machine into the more abstract statement of step-by-step solutions. Once those accidents have been removed, the remaining ones will be smaller, and gladiator wars the payoff from their removal will surely be less. I predict that a decade from now, when the effectiveness of Ada is assessed, it will be seen to have made a substantial difference, but not because of any particular language feature, nor indeed because of all of Creativity: & Importance them combined. Marginless Inventory Car! Neither will the new Ada environments prove to Creativity: & Importance Essay be the cause of the improvements. Gladiator Wars! Ada's greatest contribution will be that switching to it occasioned training programmers in modern software-design techniques. Object-oriented programming. Many students of the art hold out more hope for object-oriented programming than for any of the other technical fads of the day. [2] I am among them. Essay! Mark Sherman of Dartmouth notes on Women's Right, CSnet News that one must be careful to distinguish two separate ideas that go under that name: abstract data types and hierarchical types . The concept of the abstract data type is that an object's type should be defined by & Importance Essay a name, a set of proper values, and a set of proper operations rather than by its storage structure, which should be hidden. Examples are Ada packages (with private types) and Modula's modules. Hierarchical types, such as Simula-67's classes, allow one to define general interfaces that can be further refined by providing subordinate types.

The two concepts are orthogonal_one may have hierarchies without hiding and hiding without hierarchies. Both concepts represent real advances in the art of building software. Each removes yet another accidental difficulty from the john mendel process, allowing the designer to express the essence of the design without having to express large amounts of syntactic material that add no information content. Creativity:! For both abstract types and hierarchical types, the result is to remove a higher-order kind of accidental difficulty and allow a higher-order expression of car design. Nevertheless, such advances can do no more than to remove all the accidental difficulties from the & Importance Essay expression of the design. The complexity of the gladiator wars design itself is essential, and such attacks make no change whatever in that. An order-of-magnitude gain can be made by Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay object-oriented programming only on A Right in Britian, if the unnecessary type-specification underbrush still in our programming language is itself nine-tenths of the work involved in & Importance, designing a program product. I doubt it. Artificial intelligence. Many people expect advances in artificial intelligence to provide the revolutionary breakthrough that will give order-of-magnitude gains in West African Essay, software productivity and quality. [3] I do not.

To see why, we must dissect what is meant by Creativity: Definition & Importance artificial intelligence. D.L. 1776, Common By! Parnas has clarified the terminological chaos: [4] Two quite different definitions of AI are in common use today. AI-1: The use of computers to solve problems that previously could only Creativity: Definition, be solved by applying human intelligence.

Al-2: The use of a specific set of programming techniques known as heuristic or rule-based programming. In this approach human experts are studied to Essay Women's to Vote in Britian determine what heuristics or rules of thumb they use in solving problems. Definition & Importance Essay! The program is designed to solve a problem the way that humans seem to solve it. The first definition has a sliding meaning. Something can fit the definition of Al-1 today but, once we see how the marginless car program works and understand the Definition & Importance problem, we will not think of it as Al any more. Unfortunately I cannot identify a body of technology that is unique to this field. Most of the work is define problem-specific, and some abstraction or creativity is required to see how to transfer it. I agree completely with this critique. The techniques used for speech recognition seem to have little in common with those used for Creativity: Definition, image recognition, and both are different from inventory car, those used in expert systems. I have a hard time seeing how image recognition, for Creativity:, example, will make any appreciable difference in programming practice. The same problem is true of speech recognition.

The hard thing about building software is deciding what one wants to say, not saying it. No facilitation of expression can give more than marginal gains. Expert-systems technology, AI-2, deserves a section of car its own. Expert systems. The most advanced part of the artificial intelligence art, and the most widely applied, is the technology for building expert systems. Many software scientists are hard at work applying this technology to the software-building environment. [3, 5] What is the concept, and what are the prospects? An expert system is Creativity: Essay a program that contains a generalized inference engine and a rule base, takes input data and assumptions, explores the inferences derivable from the rule base, yields conclusions and advice, and offers to explain its results by retracing its reasoning for john mendel, the user. The inference engines typically can deal with fuzzy or probabilistic data and Essay rules, in addition to purely deterministic logic. Such systems offer some clear advantages over programmed algorithms designed for arriving at the same solutions to the same problems: Inference-engine technology is developed in 1776, common sense, an application-independent way, and then applied to many uses. One can justify much effort on the inference engines.

Indeed, that technology is well advanced. The changeable parts of the application-peculiar materials are encoded in the rule base in & Importance Essay, a uniform fashion, and tools are provided for West African Culture, developing, changing, testing, and documenting the rule base. This regularizes much of the complexity of the application itself. The power of such systems does not come from ever-fancier inference mechanisms but rather from ever-richer knowledge bases that reflect the real world more accurately. Definition & Importance Essay! I believe that the most important advance offered by the technology is the Essay Women's Right separation of the application complexity from the program itself.

How can this technology be applied to the software-engineering task? In many ways: Such systems can suggest interface rules, advise on testing strategies, remember bug-type frequencies, and offer optimization hints. Consider an imaginary testing advisor, for example. In its most rudimentary form, the diagnostic expert system is very like a pilot's checklist, just enumerating suggestions as to possible causes of difficulty. As more and more system structure is embodied in the rule base, and as the rule base takes more sophisticated account of the trouble symptoms reported, the Essay testing advisor becomes more and more particular in the hypotheses it generates and the tests it recommends. Such an expert system may depart most radically from the conventional ones in that its rule base should probably be hierarchically modularized in the same way the corresponding software product is, so that as the product is inventory modularly modified, the diagnostic rule base can be modularly modified as well. The work required to generate the diagnostic rules is work that would have to be done anyway in generating the Creativity: Definition Essay set of test cases for Essay Right to Vote in Britian, the modules and for the system. If it is Creativity: done in a suitably general manner, with both a uniform structure for published in january 1776, common sense was written, rules and a good inference engine available, it may actually reduce the total labor of generating bring-up test cases, and help as well with lifelong maintenance and modification testing. & Importance Essay! In the same way, one can postulate other advisors, probably many and probably simple, for the other parts of the software-construction task.

Many difficulties stand in the way of the gladiator wars early realization of useful expert-system advisors to the program developer. Definition & Importance Essay! A crucial part of our imaginary scenario is the define development of easy ways to get from program-structure specification to the automatic or semiautomatic generation of diagnostic rules. Even more difficult and important is the twofold ,task of knowledge acquisition: finding articulate, self-analytical experts who know why they do things, and developing efficient techniques for extracting what they know and distilling it into rule bases. The essential prerequisite for building an expert system is to have an expert. The most powerful contribution by expert systems will surely be to put at the service of the Creativity: Definition & Importance inexperienced programmer the experience and accumulated wisdom of the best programmers.

This is no small contribution. The gap between the best software engineering practice and the average practice is very wide_perhaps wider than in any other engineering discipline. A tool that disseminates good practice would be important. Automatic programming. John Mendel! For almost 40 years, people have been anticipating and Creativity: & Importance writing about automatic programming, or the generation of a program for solving a problem from a statement of the problem specifications. Some today write as if they expect this technology to provide the next breakthrough. [5] Parnas [4] implies that the term is used for glamour, not for semantic content, asserting, In short, automatic programming always has been a euphemism for programming with a higher-level language than was presently available to the programmer. He argues, in essence, that in most cases it is the solution method, not the problem, whose specification has to be given. One can find exceptions. The technique of Essay Women's Right to Vote building generators is Creativity: Definition very powerful, and it is routinely used to interpellation good advantage in programs for sorting.

Some systems for integrating differential equations have also permitted direct specification of the problem, and the systems have assessed the parameters, chosen from Definition Essay, a library of methods of solution, and generated the Culture Essay programs. These applications have very favorable properties: The problems are readily characterized by Creativity: & Importance Essay relatively few parameters. There are many known methods of solution to provide a library of alternatives. West Culture! Extensive analysis has led to explicit rules for selecting solution techniques, given problem parameters. It is hard to see how such techniques generalize to Creativity: & Importance Essay the wider world of the ordinary software system, where cases with such neat properties are the exception. It is hard even to imagine how this breakthrough in generalization could occur. Graphical programming. A favorite subject for Women's to Vote in Britian, PhD dissertations in software engineering is graphical, or visual, programming--the application of computer graphics to software design. [6, 7] Sometimes the promise held out by such an approach is postulated by analogy with VLSI chip design, in which computer graphics plays so fruitful a role. Sometimes the theorist justifies the approach by considering flowcharts as the ideal program-design medium and by providing powerful facilities for constructing them.

Nothing even convincing, much less exciting, has yet emerged from such efforts. I am persuaded that nothing will. In the first place, as I have argued elsewhere [8], the flowchart is a very poor abstraction of software structure. Indeed, it is Creativity: Definition Essay best viewed as Burks, von Neumann, and Goldstine's attempt to provide a desperately needed high-level control language for their proposed computer. In the marginless pitiful, multipage, connection-boxed form to which the flowchart has today been elaborated, it has proved to Definition & Importance be useless as a design tool--programmers draw flowcharts after, not before, writing the programs they describe. Second, the screens of today are too small, in pixels, to show both the scope and gladiator wars the resolution of Essay any seriously detailed software diagram. The so-called desktop metaphor of today's workstation is instead an airplane-seat metaphor. Anyone who has shuffled a lap full of papers while seated between two portly passengers will recognize the difference--one can see only a very few things at once. The true desktop provides overview of, and random access to, a score of pages. Moreover, when fits of creativity run strong, more than one programmer or writer has been known to abandon the gladiator wars desktop for Creativity: Essay, the more spacious floor. The hardware technology will have to advance quite substantially before the scope of gladiator wars our scopes is sufficient for the software-design task.

More fundamentally, as I have argued above, software is very difficult to visualize. Whether one diagrams control flow, variable-scope nesting, variable cross references, dataflow, hierarchical data structures, or whatever, one feels only one dimension of the intricately interlocked software elephant. If one superimposes all the diagrams generated by the many relevant views, it is & Importance Essay difficult to extract any global overview. The VLSI analogy is fundamentally misleading--a chip design is a layered two-dimensional description whose geometry reflects its realization in 3-space. A software system is interpellation define not. Program verification. Much of the effort in modern programming goes into testing and the repair of bugs. Is there perhaps a silver bullet to be found by eliminating the errors at the source, in the system-design phase?

Can both productivity and product reliability be radically enhanced by following the profoundly different strategy of proving designs correct before the immense effort is poured into implementing and testing them? I do not believe we will find productivity magic here. Program verification is a very powerful concept, and it will be very important for such things as secure operating-system kernels. The technology does not promise, however, to save labor. Verifications are so much work that only a few substantial programs have ever been verified.

Program verification does not mean error-proof programs. There is no magic here, either. Mathematical proofs also can be faulty. So whereas verification might reduce the Creativity: Definition program-testing load, it cannot eliminate it. More seriously, even perfect program verification can only establish that a program meets its specification. The hardest part of the software task is arriving at a complete and in january 1776, common was written consistent specification, and Creativity: much of the essence of building a program is in published 1776,, fact the debugging of the specification. Environments and tools. How much more gain can be expected from the exploding researches into better programming environments?

One's instinctive reaction is that the big-payoff problems-- hierarchical file systems, uniform file formats to make possible uniform program interfaces, and generalized tools--were the first attacked, and have been solved. Language-specific smart editors are developments not yet widely used in practice, but the most they promise is freedom from syntactic errors and simple semantic errors. Perhaps the biggest gain yet to be realized from programming environments is the use of Definition & Importance Essay integrated database systems to keep track of the myriad details that must be recalled accurately by the individual programmer and kept current for a group of collaborators on a single system. Surely this work is worthwhile, and surely it will bear some fruit in both productivity and Essay reliability. But by Creativity: Definition Essay its very nature, the return from now on must be marginal.

Workstations. What gains are to be expected for the software art from the certain and rapid increase in the power and memory capacity of the individual workstation? Well, how many MIPS can one use fruitfully? The composition and editing of programs and Essay on A Women's Right in Britian documents is fully supported by Definition Essay today's speeds. Compiling could stand a boost, but a factor of 10 in machine speed would surely leave thinktime the dominant activity in the programmer's day. Indeed, it appears to be so now. More powerful workstations we surely welcome. Magical enhancements from gladiator wars, them we cannot expect. Promising Attacks on the Conceptual Essence. All of the technological attacks on the accidents of the software process are fundamentally limited by the productivity equation:

If, as I believe, the conceptual components of the Creativity: & Importance task are now taking most of the marginless inventory car time, then no amount of activity on the task components that are merely the expression of the concepts can give large productivity gains. Hence we must consider those attacks that address the essence of the software problem, the formulation of these complex conceptual structures. Fortunately, some of these attacks are very promising. Buy versus build. The most radical possible solution for constructing software is Creativity: not to construct it at all. Every day this becomes easier, as more and more vendors offer more and better software products for a dizzying variety of applications. While we software engineers have labored on production methodology, the personal-computer revolution has created not one, but many, mass markets for software. Every newsstand carries monthly magazines, which sorted by machine type, advertise and review dozens of products at prices from a few dollars to a few hundred dollars. More specialized sources offer very powerful products for published was written, the workstation and Creativity: other Unix markets.

Even software tools and environments can be bought off-the-shelf. I have elsewhere proposed a marketplace for individual modules. [9] Any such product is cheaper to john mendel buy than to build afresh. Even at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars, a purchased piece of software is Creativity: costing only john mendel, about as much as one programmeryear. And delivery is immediate! Immediate at least for products that really exist, products whose developer can refer products to a happy user. Moreover, such products tend to be much better documented and somewhat better maintained than home-grown software. The development of the mass market is, I believe, the most profound long-run trend in software engineering.

The cost of software has always been development cost, not replication cost. Sharing that cost among even a few users radically cuts the per-user cost. Creativity: Essay! Another way of looking at it is that the use of n copies of a software system effectively multiplies the productivity of its developers by n . That is an Essay on A Right to Vote in Britian, enhancement of the productivity of the Creativity: discipline and of the nation. The key issue, of course, is define applicability. Creativity: & Importance Essay! Can I use an available off-the-shelf package to perform my task? A surprising thing has happened here. During the 1950's and 1960's, study after study showed that users would not use off-the-shelf packages for payroll, inventory control, accounts receivable, and so on. The requirements were too specialized, the case-to-case variation too high. During the African Culture 1980's, we find such packages in Creativity: & Importance Essay, high demand and widespread use.

What has changed? Not the packages, really. They may be somewhat more generalized and marginless inventory somewhat more customizable than formerly, but not much. Not the & Importance Essay applications, either. If anything, the business and scientific needs of West Essay today are more diverse and Definition & Importance complicated than those of 20 years ago. The big change has been in the hardware/software cost ratio. In 1960, the buyer of 1776, was written by a two-million dollar machine felt that he could afford $250,000 more for a customized payroll program, one that slipped easily and nondisruptively into & Importance Essay, the computer-hostile social environment. Today, the buyer of a $50,000 office machine cannot conceivably afford a customized payroll program, so he adapts the payroll procedure to the packages available. Computers are now so commonplace, if not yet so beloved, that the adaptations are accepted as a matter of course. There are dramatic exceptions to my argument that the generalization of software packages has changed little over the years: electronic spreadsheets and simple database systems. In January Common Sense! These powerful tools, so obvious in Definition & Importance, retrospect and yet so late in appearing, lend themselves to myriad uses, some quite unorthodox.

Articles and even books now abound on gladiator wars, how to tackle unexpected tasks with the Essay spreadsheet. Large numbers of applications that would formerly have been written as custom programs in Cobol or Report Program Generator are now routinely done with these tools. Many users now operate their own computers day in and day out on various applications without ever writing a program. Gladiator Wars! Indeed, many of these users cannot write new programs for their machines, but they are nevertheless adept at Creativity: Definition Essay solving new problems with them. I believe the single most powerful software-productivity strategy for gladiator wars, many organizations today is to Creativity: & Importance equip the computer-naive intellectual workers who are on the firing line with personal computers and good generalized writing, drawing, file, and spreadsheet programs and then to turn them loose.

The same strategy, carried out with generalized mathematical and statistical packages and some simple programming capabilities, will also work for hundreds of laboratory scientists. Requirements refinement and rapid prototyping. The hardest single part of building a software system is deciding precisely what to build. No other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as establishing the detailed technical requirements, including all the interfaces to people, to machines, and to gladiator wars other software systems. No other part of the work so cripples the & Importance Essay resulting system if done wrong.

No other part is more difficult to rectify later. Therefore, the most important function that the software builder performs for gladiator wars, the client is the iterative extraction and refinement of the product requirements. For the truth is, the client does not know what he wants. The client usually does not know what questions must be answered, and Definition he has almost never thought of the problem in the detail necessary for specification. Interpellation Define! Even the simple answer_Make the new software system work like our old manual information-processing system_is in fact too simple. One never wants exactly that. Complex software systems are, moreover, things that act, that move, that work. The dynamics of that action are hard to imagine. So in planning any software-design activity, it is Essay necessary to allow for an extensive iteration between the client and the designer as part of the system definition. I would go a step further and assert that it is really impossible for a client, even working with a software engineer, to specify completely, precisely, and correctly the gladiator wars exact requirements of a modern software product before trying some versions of the product.

Therefore, one of the most promising of the current technological efforts, and one that attacks the essence, not the accidents, of the software problem, is the development of approaches and tools for rapid prototyping of Creativity: systems as prototyping is part of the iterative specification of requirements. A prototype software system is one that simulates the define important interfaces and Definition & Importance Essay performs the main functions of the intended system, while not necessarily being bound by the same hardware speed, size, or cost constraints. Prototypes typically perform the mainline tasks of the application, but make no attempt to handle the exceptional tasks, respond correctly to invalid inputs, or abort cleanly. The purpose of the prototype is to make real the gladiator wars conceptual structure specified, so that the client can test it for consistency and usability. Much of Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay present-day software-acquisition procedure rests upon the assumption that one can specify a satisfactory system in advance, get bids for its construction, have it built, and install it. I think this assumption is fundamentally wrong, and that many software-acquisition problems spring from that fallacy.

Hence, they cannot be fixed without fundamental revision--revision that provides for Essay, iterative development and specification of prototypes and products. Incremental development--grow, don't build, software. I still remember the jolt I felt in 1958 when I first heard a friend talk about building a program, as opposed to writing one. Essay! In a flash he broadened my whole view of the software process. The metaphor shift was powerful, and accurate. On A Women's To Vote In Britian! Today we understand how like other building processes the construction of software is, and we freely use other elements of the metaphor, such as specifications , assembly of components , and scaffolding . The building metaphor has outlived its usefulness. It is time to Creativity: & Importance change again. If, as I believe, the conceptual structures we construct today are too complicated to be specified accurately in advance, and too complex to be built faultlessly, then we must take a radically different approach.

Let us turn nature and study complexity in living things, instead of just the dead works of man. Here we find constructs whose complexities thrill us with awe. The brain alone is intricate beyond mapping, powerful beyond imitation, rich in diversity, self-protecting, and selfrenewing. The secret is that it is grown, not built. So it must be with our software-systems.

Some years ago Harlan Mills proposed that any software system should be grown by incremental development. [10] That is, the system should first be made to run, even if it does nothing useful except call the proper set of Culture dummy subprograms. Then, bit by bit, it should be fleshed out, with the subprograms in turn being developed--into actions or calls to empty stubs in the level below. I have seen most dramatic results since I began urging this technique on the project builders in my Software Engineering Laboratory class. Nothing in the past decade has so radically changed my own practice, or its effectiveness. The approach necessitates top-down design, for Definition, it is a top-down growing of the software. It allows easy backtracking.

It lends itself to marginless early prototypes. Creativity: Definition & Importance! Each added function and new provision for more complex data or circumstances grows organically out of what is already there. The morale effects are startling. Enthusiasm jumps when there is a running system, even a simple one. Efforts redouble when the first picture from a new graphics software system appears on the screen, even if it is West African Culture only a rectangle. One always has, at every stage in the process, a working system. Creativity: & Importance Essay! I find that teams can grow much more complex entities in four months than they can build . The same benefits can be realized on large projects as on my small ones. [11] Great designers. The central question in how to gladiator wars improve the Creativity: software art centers, as it always has, on people.

We can get good designs by following good practices instead of poor ones. Good design practices can be taught. Programmers are among the interpellation define most intelligent part of the population, so they can learn good practice. Definition Essay! Hence, a major thrust in Essay on A Women's Right in Britian, the United States is to promulgate good modern practice. New curricula, new literature, new organizations such as the Software Engineering Institute, all have come into being in order to raise the level of our practice from poor to good. This is Creativity: Definition entirely proper. Nevertheless, I do not believe we can make the marginless inventory car next step upward in the same way.

Whereas the Creativity: Definition & Importance difference between poor conceptual designs and good ones may lie in the soundness of design method, the difference between good designs and great ones surely does not. Great designs come from published 1776, common sense by, great designers. Software construction is a creative process. Sound methodology can empower and liberate the Creativity: creative mind; it cannot inflame or inspire the drudge. The differences are not minor--they are rather like the differences between Salieri and Mozart. Study after study shows that the very best designers produce structures that are faster, smaller, simpler, cleaner, and published in january 1776, common was written by produced with less effort. [12] The differences between the great and the average approach an order of magnitude. A little retrospection shows that although many fine, useful software systems have been designed by committees and Creativity: Definition Essay built as part of multipart projects, those software systems that have excited passionate fans are those that are the products of marginless inventory car one or a few designing minds, great designers. Consider Unix, APL, Pascal, Modula, the Smalltalk interface, even Fortran; and Creativity: Definition contrast them with Cobol, PL/I, Algol, MVS/370, and MS-DOS. (See Table 1.) Hence, although I strongly support the technology-transfer and curriculumdevelopment efforts now under way, I think the most important single effort we can mount is to develop ways to grow great designers. No software organization can ignore this challenge. Good managers, scarce though they be, are no scarcer than good designers.

Great designers and great managers are both very rare. Most organizations spend considerable effort in finding and cultivating the management prospects; I know of none that spends equal effort in finding and interpellation define developing the great designers upon whom the technical excellence of the products will ultimately depend. My first proposal is that each software organization must determine and proclaim that great designers are as important to its success as great managers are, and Creativity: that they can be expected to be similarly nurtured and rewarded. Not only 1776, by, salary, but the perquisites of Creativity: Definition Essay recognition--office size, furnishings, personal technical equipment, travel funds, staff support--must be fully equivalent. How to grow great designers? Space does not permit a lengthy discussion, but some steps are obvious: Systematically identify top designers as early as possible. The best are often not the most experienced. Assign a career mentor to be responsible for the development of the john mendel prospect, and carefully keep a career file. Devise and maintain a careerdevelopment plan for each prospect, including carefully selected apprenticeships with top designers, episodes of advanced formal education, and short courses, all interspersed with solo-design and technicalleadership assignments. Provide opportunities for growing designers to interact with and stimulate each other.

[2] G. Booch, Object-Oriented Design, Software Engineering with Ada , 1983, Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/ Cummings. [3] lEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on artificial intelligence and software engineering), l. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. Essay! 11, No. 11, November 1985. [4] D.L. Gladiator Wars! Parnas, Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems: American Scientist , November 1985. [5] R. Definition Essay! Balzer, A 15-year Perspective on john mendel, Automatic Programming, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on artificial intelligence and software engineering), J. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. 11, No.

11 (November 1985), pp. 1257-67. [6] Computer (special issue on Creativity:, visual programrning), R.B. Graphton and interpellation define T. Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. Creativity:! 18, No. 8, August 1985. [7] G. Raeder, A Survey of Current Graphical Programming Techniques, Computer (special issue on visual programming), R.B. Graphton and T. Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. 18, No. 8, August 1985, pp. 11-25.

[8] F.P. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month , Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975, Chapter 14. [9] Defense Science Board, Report of the interpellation Task Force on Military Software in press. [10] H.D. Creativity: Definition & Importance! Mills, Top-Down Programming in Large Systems, in Debugging Techniques in Essay in Britian, Large Systems , R. Creativity: Essay! Ruskin, ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

[11] B.W. Boehm, A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement, 1985, TRW Technical Report 21-371-85, TRW, Inc., 1 Space Park, Redondo Beach, Calif. 90278. [12] H. Sackman, W.J. Erikson, and E.E. Grant, Exploratory Experimental Studies Comparing Online and Offline Programming Performance, Communications of the ACM , Vol.

11, No. 1 (January 1968), pp. West African Culture Essay! 3-11. Brooks, Frederick P., No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering, Computer , Vol. 20, No. 4 (April 1987) pp. 10-19.

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8 essay paragraph Thesis statement: an paragraph. You are usually not sure you will. Self reliance paragraphs in the introductory paragraph essay, 10th grade appropriate. Some students can use transition words, a quality paragraph: copyright by & Importance Essay using a good essay writers use this document will be about interpellation pages. A paragraph convinces the criteria. Sentence summarizes an Creativity: Essay argumentative essays from youtube. Published In January Common Sense Was Written! Don't be the summer. Definition Essay! What you don't be afraid to published 1776, common, have a, oloillaria where found in an paragraph in modern five paragraph essay teacher. Paragraph essay instructions for a paragraph essay common core state the best to Creativity: Definition Essay, write effective.

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Exhibition Programme as a Marketing tool. An exhibition program is the strategy put in place by a business of presenting and displaying a selection of various products of a business for & Importance customers to purchase and to attract new customers. Having a good exhibition programme in a business will sell itself to customers and will help increase the sales of the business. This means that the money used by investors in areas such as marketing strategies can be spent on exhibition so that the marginless business can achieve more sales and hence more profits for the business. Exhibitions also know as trade fairs, expos or even trade shows can help achieve various results for Creativity: Definition & Importance a business as will be discussed here.

In many occasions, the john mendel exhibitions are in most cases organized by various interested parties so that various organizations in Creativity: Essay a certain specific industry or who have a specific interest can showcase and give a demonstration of the various latest products, study activities, and even services of competitors and also to have a look at the current trends in the business industry and the opportunities that may be available for the business to venture in. There are some exhibitions which are always open to the public while there are others which can only be attended by various company representatives who are members of that trade and also the members of the press for coverage of the exhibition (Siskind, 2005). Through the years exhibitions have been identified as one of the most effective and efficient tool that is powerful and effective for doing business. An exhibition involves the business investors being able to meet the customers face-to-face and hence create a great target opportunity for the business to African achieve the various trade objectives that it has. Creativity: & Importance Essay. Exhibitions are known to car be one of the most cost effective for Creativity: & Importance Essay of reaching out to the customers since the business investor is able to reach the customers at West African one time and in Definition & Importance Essay one place that does not involve moving the location.

Therefore, it is notable that exhibitions have various advantages for a business if a good exhibition programme is created and implemented by the business investor (Tileaga, Cosmescu, 2012). Exhibition as a means of trade for a business has various advantages to any form of business if created and implemented in West Essay a good way as compared to & Importance Essay marketing strategies. Discussed below are the advantages that a business will derive from Right a good exhibition programme implemented by an investor: In exhibitions, the business investors have the opportunity of meeting the customers face-to-face in Creativity: Definition & Importance one time and in one place. This means that the trade shows or exhibition provides a very excellent and conducive environment for john mendel the business investors to Creativity: Definition Essay initiate contacts with customers who are new to the business. This helps the business investor to be able to develop new trade leads for the products of the business since the investor is able to marginless inventory answer any questions that the new customers may have concerning the products that the business is offering (Ausstellungs- und Messe-Ausschuss der Deutschen Wirtschaft, 2010). The business has the first hand opportunity of giving detailed information to Definition the new customers about their products that are under exhibition and in turn this will help in creating a new customer base for the business. In addition to the new customers whom the business investor has the opportunity to win over for the business and creating new customer base, the business investor is also able to in january 1776, common sense was written by renew its old contacts with the valued clients of the Definition & Importance company or business firm. There are times when businesses lose their old clients due to various reasons.

Through a good exhibition programme, the business investor is bale to renew the lost contacts with its previous customers and also to inform the old customers of the new products that the company may be offering in addition to the improvements that the African Essay business has made on the previous products that it was offering (Frain, 1999). Opportunity to create an Image for the Business. Through exhibitions, the business investor is able to meet new and old customers some of who may not e familiar with the business. Creativity: & Importance Essay. The contact that the business investor has with the customers offers an opportunity for Essay Right in Britian the investor to create and improve the image of the business towards the customers. Customers who had a bad perception about the business will be able to have firsthand experience of knowing more about the business and the products of the investors and Definition, get clear understanding of how the business operates and in january 1776, was written, what products the company is offering to its clients (Johnston, Beaton, 1998). This means that, not only will the company be able to win ore customers but it will be able to give firsthand information to the customers which will help in improving the image of the business. A good image for the business means that customers will want to associate with the business; hence those customers who visit the exhibition will also inform other people about the Definition business. On A Right. This will act as a way of advertising the business through word of mouth from Creativity: & Importance those customers who had the firsthand experience with the business at the exhibition.

Therefore, it is quite notable that exhibitions not only bring new business contacts but also helps to strengthen and maybe restore the image of the business which is important for every business to succeed. Product and service launch platforms. Many businesses always face the challenge of launching their products and services to the market. Launching of a new product or service by West Essay a company can be very challenging to any business and can also be costly in terms of advertisements as a form of marketing for the new products and services. Many platforms that business investors can use to launch their new products or services are always costly and at times may not be effective in reaching out to as many customers as possible. To overcome this challenge that is involved in the launching of new products or services to the market by business investors, exhibitions offer a much better platform for the business investor to launch their products or services.

Exhibitions in many cases involve live presentations and Creativity: Definition, various demonstrations of the products or services of the company to the customers. This means that the products or the services are able to ďspeakĒ for themselves and influence the customers to marginless make purchases or even obtain the services even if they were not prepared to do so in the first place. When customers are able to Creativity: & Importance Essay see for themselves the use of gladiator wars a product or the importance of a product at first hand, they tend to have the urge to try out the product or service so that they can find out if whatever they saw during the Essay live presentations and demonstrations are actually the results that they can obtain from using the particular product or service which has been launched into the market. This means that the process of gladiator wars selling the new products or services is Definition Essay accelerated (Frain, 1999). When the Right to Vote customers are influenced to purchase the new products or services that have been launched at the exhibition trough live presentations and demonstrations, the sales of the products or services are likely to increase, and this will mean that new sales will be generated for the company at a quicker rate than through marketing. Creativity: Definition & Importance. Launching of a new product or service through live presentations or demonstrations at the exhibitions means that the company will not incur a lot of costs that are always involved in the launching of new products or services (Johnston, Beaton, 1998). In the exhibitions or trade fairs, there is always a lot of 1776, sense was written by focus that is & Importance always put on the company and the products r services that the company is offering.

Many exhibitions involve the media and hence the attention of the media is always on the company and the products or services of the company. This means that the marginless inventory car business investor has an opportunity of focusing his/her public relations efforts on raising the profile of the company and that of the products or services of the company. This will also help in improving the image of the company. Since the focus of the media attention is on Definition Essay, the company and the products or the services that the company s offering, there is an opportunity for the company to advertise itself without incurring any extra cost on advertisement of the companyís products or services. Gladiator Wars. The exhibition offers a platform for improvement of the companyís public relations since the company comes into closer contact with the public than it could do through areas such as advertisements. Creativity: Definition Essay. This will also help in improving the image of the in january 1776, common was written company and Definition Essay, the image of the products of the company by building trust and good relations with the customers who have visited the exhibition. Therefore, exhibitions will not only help in developing great public relations, building companyís image but also will help in gladiator wars opening new markets for the company (Frain, 1999). Every business investor has one aim in business which they strive to accomplish through every operation that the business undertakes. The main objective for any business investor in a business environment is to make and maximize profits.

For the business to Definition Essay obtain profits it must incur costs that are involved in the running of the business. Costs in business may be in form of advertisements, production and any other operational costs for the company. Higher profits and maximization of profits can only interpellation define, be achieved by a business if the business ensures that the costs that it incurs are less and do not exceed their sales. To achieve this, a company must ensure that it employs strategies that will help in minimizing costs involved in its operation while at the same time maximizing its sales for higher profits. The returns must always be higher while the expenses must always be lower in Creativity: any successful business. This means that a business must always be able to obtain high returns from interpellation its sales when compared to the expense that the business has incurred in its operations. Exhibitions help businesses in achieving this objective of higher returns compared to the expenses incurred. The expenses that a business will incur in its operations when conducting exhibitions is less when compared to other forms of marketing such as advertisements. Exhibitions also create an Creativity: Essay opportunity for higher sales for the business since the company is able to attract more customers through close customer contact, live presentations and demonstrations. Since exhibitions are conducted in one time and in one place, any costs involved such as transportation costs are minimised, customers are able to find the products of the company in one place without having to move from one place to another (Johnston, Beaton, 1998). West Essay. This means that exhibitions have a higher return/expense ratio, something which every business always strive to achieve.

The higher return/expense ratio is as a result of the following reasons: Many customers or attendees who come to the exhibitions always arrive with a particular agenda or a need which they seek to accomplish at Definition & Importance the exhibition. This means that the customers who arrive at the exhibition will not cause the business to incur more expenses in attracting the customers except for what has already been incurred to prepare for African Culture Essay the exhibition. In the exhibitions, the Creativity: business investors do not require to make any sales calls to Essay Women's close the deals with the customers since most of the people who attend have their agenda already set. This means that the business will not incur any extra cost involved n making sales calls since the live presentations and the demonstrations of the companyís products or service are enough to lead the customers to purchase the products or services of the company. Compared to Creativity: product or services sales calls which are quite costly, the exhibition leads do not require a lot of john mendel expense to accomplish or close a deal. Definition & Importance Essay. Field sales require sales calls to be made by Essay on A to Vote in Britian the company but in the exhibitions on Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay, the demonstrations and live presentations are enough. This means that exhibitions are much cheaper in helping the business to African Essay achieve its main objective of maximizing profits and minimizing expense hence higher returns/expense ratio which is good for Definition the business. Exhibition provides an avenue for the exchange of information between the exhibition attendees and interpellation, the companies that are displaying their products or services at the exhibition.

At the exhibition, the Definition & Importance Essay business investor has the opportunity to pass information to the customers about the products or services that the published in january company is offering since the investor comes into face-to-face contact with the new and old customers. These customers will in turn act as a tool of advertising the products and services of the company to those other potential customers who never went to the exhibition. Creativity: & Importance Essay. The customers help in advertising the published in january common sense was written by companyís products and services through word of mouth. This helps the company to reach more potential customers without incurring extra costs of Definition advertisement. Therefore, exhibitions help the company to achieve higher return/expense ratio which will in turn mean the company will be able to maximize profits (Frain, 1999).

Exhibitions also play an important role in a business if a good exhibition programme is created and implemented by a business. Through exhibition, a company is able to meet with other business investors. This will enable the business to exchange business ideas and information which might be helpful to the running of the business. Exhibitions help the investor to identify and establish new joint ventures and marginless inventory car, projects by other business investors which may result in partnership hence helping to Creativity: & Importance expand the business. This is because, at the exhibitions, the business investor may meet other business investors who share the same business ideas and beliefs which then could translate into interpellation new ventures for the business (Ellis, 2010). There are some many people who attend exhibitions some of who are potential business agents, distributors or even employees for the business. Through the & Importance Essay opportunity of published in january 1776, common sense face-to-face interaction between the business investor and the exhibition attendees, the business investor has the opportunity of Creativity: Essay identifying and recruiting new business agents, distributors and even staffs for the business.

The business investor does not incur any extra cost in this activity since they are able to meet the potential agents, distributors and even staffs face-to-face without having to locate them. This also helps in saving time in terms of searching for new agents, distributors or even employees (Ellis, 2010). Easy Market Research and Information Gathering. When a business investor involves in on A Women's in Britian exhibitions, they have the opportunity of meeting the customers face-to-face. The business investor through live presentations and demonstrations of the products or services of the Creativity: Definition Essay company is able to obtain an immediate feedback from the john mendel new customers or the Definition & Importance old customers on African Culture Essay, the various products or services that the company offers. This can be done through free samples and the live presentations and demonstrations. Since there is face-to-face contact, the customers are able to provide an immediate feedback about the product or the service (Morley, Lees, 2009).

The company can use these feedbacks to improve on its products or services or simply to maintain the quality depending on the feedback they obtain. The company does not have to wait for too long to obtain customer feedback. The feedback obtained by the company at Definition an exhibition can be used immediately by was written by the company to help it achieve more results for its products or services. In addition, through the feedback the company is able to obtain at an exhibition, the company is able to understand the needs of the customers and in turn react immediately to Definition Essay those needs than the competitors in the same market (Huang, Lund, 2009). Focusing on the needs of the customers is Women's crucial to a business and also helps the business to overcome competition and Creativity: Essay, hence immediate feedback through the interaction at the exhibition, helps the business to keep its focus on the actual needs of the interpellation define customers. The exhibitions also helps in understanding the strengths and weakness of the competitors since the research results and feedback obtained during the exhibition, can help the business in knowing what areas of business it can improve on to fight off competition. Exhibition helps the business to understand how competitors react to the needs of customers and also to learn the various changes that are taking place within the Essay industry of the business. Research and immediate customer feedback obtained by the company during the exhibition helps the in january 1776, common sense was written company to stay ahead of the competitors through product or services advancement and the use of new technology. The graph below illustrates the effectiveness of various channels of Definition & Importance Essay marketing in the exchange and interpellation define, gathering of information in any business environment: From the Figure 1 above, it can be noted that exhibitions and Personal sales share the same percentage in terms of exchange and gathering of information for the business when engaging customers and other potential business partners. This is due to the reason that, under exhibitions and personal sales, there is close contact with the customer hence the higher chances of Creativity: Definition Essay getting information in john mendel an easy and quicker way.

Marketing requires large sums of money to conduct in a business. This means that the business will not be able to achieve higher profits. On the other hand, in & Importance Essay an exhibition, the business needs only to hire a stand where it will display its products and define, services. This is quite a convenience for the company since the company will not have to spend a lot of money while at the same time the Creativity: impact of the exhibition will be greater than that experienced with marketing such as advertisement. For those business investors who are not sure of the amount of return on investment they will achieve when first attending an exhibition, this is a very convenient way o introduce products or services to the public at a cheaper cost (Solberg, 2013). Every business seeks a way of define undertaking its operations while at the same time having the opportunity to change whenever necessary and still achieve its main objective of Definition & Importance Essay higher profits. Exhibitions offer an opportunity to be flexible since the business investor has the inventory ability and freedom to customize his/her exhibits for each exhibition that they have to attend.

This means that the business investor has the opportunity to experiment on matters such as size and also has the opportunity to configure their exhibits to see and find out Definition Essay, what works best for Essay Right the schedule of exhibitions that the company has to attend in its quest to Creativity: make profits and expand its markets. Exhibitions are quite cost effective to any business especially through the hiring of the exhibition stand. It is also cost effective since exhibitions provide extra options whereby, the business investor is able to stretch the marginless inventory car budget for the exhibition to include many other new options that the business investor may not have been able to afford. These may include issues such as dramatic lighting, brochure racks, furniture and even extra large formatted graphics among others which can be added to create a greater impact for the business exhibition at no extra cost hence making exhibitions a lot cheaper than marketing strategies such as advertisement (Raluca, Cristina, 2008). The graph below helps to demonstrate the effectiveness of exhibition as a method of promoting the products or services of a company when compared to the other channels or strategies such as direct marketing, Print advertising, Public relations, and the internet: From the Figure 2 above, Series 1 represents the Benefits of Creativity: & Importance Products and Services when the various strategies are applied by a business in selling of its products and services. The above Figure 2 demonstrates that a good exhibition programme is quite effective in helping the business to benefit from its products and services since it is able to realize more sales when compared to on A to Vote in Britian the other channels of Creativity: Definition & Importance product or service marketing. Series 2 in Figure 1 above represents the define impact of the various channels on the building of public relationships with the Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay customers and other potential customers or business partners. From the graph, it can be noted that exhibitions gives a higher percentage when it comes to issue of building public relationship with the customers and potential business partners.

This is due to the reason that, under exhibition, the business investor is in close contact with the customers and the potential business partners hence a greater advantage in building public relationship that is stronger (Solberg, 2013). The internet is the poor performer in terms of benefits of the published in january 1776, was written by products and services of the company since some aspects such as customer contact is Creativity: Essay not available. Therefore, it can be said that exhibition, as a mode of product and services marketing has a greater impact in terms of achieving the Essay Right in Britian main objective of every business of maximizing profits and also creating and maintaining great public relationship with customers and the potential investors. The other advantage that is derived from exhibitions is that the business investor has the opportunity to observe and evaluate the products of the competitors of the business. This will enable the business investor to know the Definition Essay strengths and weaknesses of the competitors in African Culture terms of the products that they are offering to the customers. Knowing the products or services that the competitors of the business are offering gives the business an added advantage since the investor is able to Creativity: & Importance know what changes to make on their product or services so that they are superior to Essay Women's Right in Britian the products of the Creativity: Definition Essay competitors (Mei-Chin, Sui-Ming, 2013). Having superior products or services to gladiator wars those of the competitors will mean that the business is capable of overcoming the competition in the market.

Problems Associated with Exhibitions. Even though exhibitions may be the best form of business promotion for products and services, there are various challenges or problems that business investors will be faced with in the process of participating in exhibitions or trade shows. Some of those problems are such as increase in costs of Creativity: Definition & Importance construction and Essay on A Right in Britian, exhibits, personnel travelling, boarding and lodging fees which add to the cost of Definition Essay conducting the exhibitions (Honess, 1997). In addition, the West Essay choice of which exhibitions to participate in, how much to be spent on every exhibition, and Creativity: Definition Essay, ways of building exhibits that will be attractive to customers are some of the other challenges that are faced by business investors who engage in business exhibitions to inventory car sell and promote their products and Creativity: & Importance Essay, services. Ways of overcoming challenges involved in Exhibitions. There are some considerations and issues that a business investor will need to put in mind so that they can engage in a successful exhibition. In addition, to achieve the above advantages for gladiator wars the business through exhibitions, business investors need to plan and create an exhibition programme that is Definition Essay good and capable of achieving the above advantages and bring high returns for the business (White, 2013). The following are some of the considerations and objectives that a business investor will need to set when engaging in exhibition as a form of promoting the African products or services of the company to achieve maximum results:

Every business encounter such as involvement and participation in exhibitions requires that a business investor must have an objective they want to achieve through the exhibition. There must be a goal to be accomplished at the end of the Definition Essay exhibition and without setting out the objective or purpose of participation, then success in an exhibition will not be achieved ( Thomas, 1995). Business investors who participate in Women's in Britian exhibitions must ensure that there are actual sales made during the exhibition. This should be the main objective of participating in an exhibition since more sales translates into more profits for the business. There is no business that wants to incur costs and realize no sales. Therefore, the exhibition must help to realize actual sales for the business for it to be considered successful and beneficial. For a successful exhibition, a business investor must have an objective of identifying and Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay, obtaining potential new customers for the business and improving on the relations with the older customers. This ensures the business of an added market and creating a new market for the products and services of the company. In addition, the business investor must be able to marginless inventory car obtain sales leads for the business.

This will enable the business to make sales without making sales calls which are costly. Gathering Competitive Intelligence. For a successful exhibition, the business investor must ensure that they are able to obtain competitive intelligence that will give them an added advantage over the competitors. Every business investor who attends an exhibition must be able to information that is relevant for the business and which can help the Creativity: & Importance Essay business to better its performance and achieve higher profits (Havaldar, 2005). Target audience to be reached.

There are different types of people who attend the exhibitions. For success of the business in Essay Right an exhibition and to be able o achieve maximum results from the Creativity: Definition & Importance exhibition, the business investor must be able the audience that they want to reach out to with their products and services. In January 1776, Sense Was Written. Identifying the suitable and targeted audience makes it easy for the business investor to sell their products and services to the targeted market since the Essay products and services will have been made to suit that particular targeted audience. Gladiator Wars. Therefore, based on the various specific objectives that a business investor has laid down for the business, he/she is able to Creativity: make a decision on which exhibitions to attend that will bring maximum results for the business and at a cheaper cost (Thomas, 1995). There are many forms of business promotion that an investor or companies can apply to promote their products or service and achieve results. Businesses have a main aim and objective of maximizing profits at the lowest costs possible. Some of the methods of product or service promotion are costly and the results achieved may not be impressive. Therefore, compared to the other forms of business product or service promotion, exhibition comes out as one of the most effective tool of marketing products or services of a company. Exhibitions provide a cheaper avenue of promoting a business while at the same time availing so many opportunities to the business which are useful in helping the business to achieve maximum profits.

Therefore, exhibition can be said to be one of the in january 1776, common was written by most effective form of product or services promotion for any business due to the various advantages that the business can achieve at lower costs . Ausstellungs- und Messe-Ausschuss der Deutschen Wirtschaft. (2010). Exhibition Market Latin America 2011/2012: Trade Shows in Latin America: New Opportunities for International Exhibitors . Stuttgart: local global GmbH. Ellis, N. (2010). Business-to-business marketing: Relationships, networks and strategies . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frain, J. (1999). Introduction to marketing . Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay. London: International Thomson Business. Havaldar, K. K. (2005). Gladiator Wars. Industrial marketing: Text and cases . New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Honess, S. (1997). Marketing for construction firms . London: Thomas Telford. Huang, B., Lund, D. W. (2009).

Influence of the Yiwu Fair on the development of business travel and the local economy. Definition & Importance. Global Business Organizational Excellence , 28 (6), 53-63. Johnston, S., Beaton, H. (1998). Foundations of international marketing . London: International Thomson Business. Mei-Chin, C., Sui-Ming, C. (2013). Effective Marketing Strategies to gladiator wars Attract Business Visitors at Trade Shows. International Journal Of Business Management , 8 (24), 64-72. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v8n24p64. Morley, J., Lees, S. Creativity: Definition. (2009). The brighter marketing bible: For small businesses . England?: Lean Marketing Press.

Raluca, C., Cristina, D. (2008). Measuring The Efficiency Of The Prospecting Activity. John Mendel. Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series , 17 (4), 796-801. Siskind, B. (2005). Powerful exhibit marketing: The complete guide to successful trade shows, conferences and Creativity: Essay, consumer shows . Mississauga, Ont: J. Wiley Sons Canada. Solberg, S. K. (2013). Exhibit marketing and trade show intelligence: Successful boothmanship and booth design . Berlin: Springer. Thomas, M. J. (1995).

Gower handbook of marketing . Interpellation Define. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Gower. Tileaga, C., Cosmescu, I. (2012). Realities And Perspectives Of Business Tourism On A Global Scale. Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series , 21 (1), 432-438. White, D. (2013). Definition. Get set for john mendel your first exhibition. Fmcg , 19 (2), 49. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Definition, Exhibition.

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The CMA Exam Essays: Everything You Need to Know. The IMA hosted a webinar this week about the Essay portion of the CMA exam. It was very insightful and informative. Iíd like to share with you the specific topics they covered and Definition Essay also what Iíve done to john mendel, successfully answer the essay questions on the exam. If you are worried about this section of the exam, learn what Iím about to share with you and youíll be in Definition & Importance a much better position to pass on define, your first try.

What Will You Learn from this Post? Why you should become a CMA Understand the CMA exam format The 12 best CMA exam essay strategies What the essay section looks like and how to answer essay questions. If you are reading this post, probably you have already decided to become a CMA. Kudos to you! But if not, let me tell you why becoming a CMA will do wonders for Definition Essay your career and success. First of gladiator wars, all, being a CMA confirms that you have a mastery of the critical skills and knowledge in planning, analysis, control, and decision support. This is in Definition the realm of accounting, finance, and gladiator wars business management. Lastly, salary surveys continue to show that CMAs earn substantially higher than their non-certified peers. Essay? On average, CMAs earn over john mendel $115,000/year. Pass the CMA Part 1 and Part 2 Exam on Your First Try Ė Guaranteed.

The easiest weekly study plan to follow Learn the secrets strategies to pass on Definition, your first try The best techniques to john mendel, prepare for the essay questions What to expect on exam day much more in this guide Learn more. Part 1 Ė Financial Reporting, Planning, Performance and Control. 4 hours, 100 multiple-choice questions, and two 30-minute essay scenarios. External Financial Reporting Decisions (15% of the exam) Planning, Budgeting, and Forecasting (30% of the exam) Performance Management (20% of the exam) Cost Management (20% of the exam) Internal Controls (15% of the Creativity: & Importance Essay exam) Part 2 Ė Financial Decision Making. 4 hours, 100 multiple-choice questions, and two 30-minute essay scenarios. Financial Statement Analysis (25% of the exam) Corporate Finance (20% of the exam) Decision Analysis (20% of the exam) Risk Management (10% of the exam) Investment Decisions (15% of the exam) Professional Ethics (10% of the exam) 3 hours of interpellation define, multiple-choice questions Ė 75% of score 1 hour of essay scenarios Ė 25% of score Must earn at least 50% on Definition Essay, multiple-choice section in order to West Culture, advance to Creativity:, essay section.

If in the exam you are not advanced to the essay section, it means that you failed the exam. Cannot return to john mendel, the multiple-choice section once youíve advanced to Creativity:, the essay section of the exam. Exams administered at Prometric testing centers Schedule your exam date and time online, only after receiving your exam authorization from the IMA. Three exam testing windows offered: January February, May June, September October. The 12 Best CMA Exam Essay Strategies.

Stay positive and published in january 1776, sense donít be afraid of this section If you show your work and assumptions, you can earn partial credits Expect 3 to & Importance Essay, 6 questions for each essay scenario You can scroll between questions and scenarios within the essay section. This will help you assess how much time youíll need for marginless inventory responses Pay close attention to Creativity: Definition & Importance, verbs. African Essay? If it says compare or contrast , donít spend your time defining something. Only do what is asked on the question Read the entire question to understand all requirements Focus is on Creativity:, the use of Essay on A, standard English, organization and clarity Graders are looking for Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay effective writing skills Be brief and to the point. Bullet points are OK Donít leave questions blank. If short on time, at 1776, sense, least write an outline of Definition Essay, your main points Graders are looking to give you points, not take them away. Make it as easy for john mendel the graders to give you points by & Importance showing your work. Be sure to use all the time available to gladiator wars, you.

What the Essay Section Looks Like. Type your responses into the text box. This is similar to MS Word but easier and simpler. If you are familiar with MS Word, this wonít be an issue at all. As you can see, the module shows you the number of questions on Creativity: & Importance, the top left hand corner, and your time remaining on published in january common was written by, the top right hand corner. Donít be afraid of this section of the exam. Many, including myself, have gone through it with success. If others could do it, you can too!

If you are new to this community and to the CMA journey, let me point you to a resource page that will help you get started. Creativity: Definition? The CMA Toolkit page is on A Women's Right to Vote, packed with the Creativity: Definition best resources to john mendel, make your CMA journey a total success. Already know what youíre looking for? Head to the CMA Coach Shop and grab your study materials now! Best of luck on the exam! CMA Exam Part-One Textbook. HURRY! Only 1,000 FREE Copies Available. Save over $300 today by Creativity: Definition & Importance claiming your FREE copy of my CMA Part-One test prep textbook in define paperback. Written by CPAs and Creativity: & Importance Essay CMAs in an easy-to-understand format.

It covers every single section and topic you'll be tested on your CMA exam. Just help with shipping and gladiator wars handling charges and Creativity: & Importance Essay the textbook is yours for gladiator wars FREE. Claim yours while supplies last. Click on “I Want My Free Textbook“ now. 52 Comments on Definition & Importance Essay, “The CMA Exam Essays: Everything You Need to Know” When are you going to post the essay notes part 2? Ali, not anytime soon unfortunately. Iím working on videos at interpellation, the moment.

Did the writing skill ,spelling and grammar effect the the answer if it is & Importance Essay, correct, specially for those the English in not the mother tongue ? have got part 1 2 ver3.0 books of IMA from one of my friends. Would request you to suggest if these books are okay for studying or do I need to buy new books for taking exam in may14Ö? Awaiting your response. With borrowed books you wonít have access to the online test bank, which I think is very important for interpellation your preparation. Must earn at Definition & Importance, least 50% on multiple-choice section in order to advance to essay section. Published 1776, Common? If in & Importance Essay the exam you are not advanced to the essay section, it means that you failed the exam. Ė If student gets 50 or more % in MCQs than does it mean that student has passed the exam or what ? Candidates must earn at least 50% in the MCQ section in order to advance to the essay section. That does not mean you have passed the exam. It means that you have earned sufficient points to move onto the essay section. If a candidate scores below 50% in the MCQ section and scores 25% in the essay section, the West Essay candidate will have failed the Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay exam due to insufficient points. This is why the IMA doesnít let candidates with a score below 50% move onto the essay section because they have already failed.

Iím curious, in order to pass part 1 and/or part 2, one needs to score a 360+ out of 500. If the multiple choices account for 75% of the test, theoretically, I can pass both parts by West answering all the multiple choices correctly. Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay? 75% of 500 is 375. I understand the degree of difficulty and improbability of answering all the multiple choices correctly, but Iím just speaking hypotheticals here. I think itís not correct. 75% of 500 is 375. In January 1776, Sense? Hense, the essay section would have 125 points (500-375=125). If you pass the MCQ section with 50% and essay section with 100% correct answers, you will get only 313 points (375/2+125=313), which less thn required 360.

I didnít press save in the text box of the essay question .dose it saves automatically or my reply will be blank? If you donít press the Save button, I believe it wonít save your answer unfortunately. I NEED TO DOWNLOAD MCQS. Your best bet is to purchase a test bank from Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay, Gleim or Wiley. There are no free MCQ test banks to my knowledge. I am preparing for the Part II exam and my exam date is on 22.10.2014. I almost cover the topic and essay writing practice is pending. Now I am getting 80-85 score for gleim online.Expecting your advice for final reviewÖ Your article is really helpful. In January Common Sense Was Written? However, I am worried about one thing. Will we have the facility to make a table to document our response for the essay question?

In other words, what does that response box allow other than plain text? I donít believe youíll have the option to create tables. What should be the strategy to pass the CMA exam? Does practicing the online question bank provided by Wiley material sufficient to score 75% on the MCQs? Will the exam questions on the final exam day be based on the question bank provided by WIley? Kindly share your experience.

Is not enough to practice with the online test bank. You will also need to read the textbooks, use flashcards and get coaching if you need it. The MCQs in the test bank are retired questions so you will not see exactly the same ones on the exam. If you score above 80% consistently using your test bank, I think youíll be in good shape. Your tips have been helpful for Creativity: Definition & Importance Essay me.

Wondering if Cost allocation techniques, Equivalent Unit ( conversion costs) have come up on gladiator wars, essays over the last 3 -4 Part 1 exams?? Count on it. Study every single topic. Creativity: & Importance? Donít skip any. I have written essay question and when i mood to next and previous they were there. But I didnt click save button.

How will it be. Furthermore, If I passed MCQ without essay Q. Gladiator Wars? What is the chance to pass? Thanks and Regards, What if we add more than what is Creativity: & Importance, required from us in the essay is published in january 1776, sense by, that ok? eg. the essay question is asking to list 3 actions then I list 5 or 6 just to broaden my answer and to cover as much possible! If you have time to add more answers go ahead. It doesnít hurt to give graders more information to grade you with. But do this only if you have extra time. Otherwise focus on Creativity: Definition & Importance, finishing the exam on marginless car, time and completing ALL answers.

What is the probability of passing Part 1 of the CMA exam by knowing the theory 100% and just a little portion of the calculations? Hi Rilky, itís hard to Definition & Importance Essay, predict but if you are not ready to perform calculations during the exam, your chances of passing are very slim. How to prepare exam please share some techniques. which one is the best test bank Gleim or Hock? Hi Ali, Both have excellent test banks. In January 1776, Common Was Written By? Are you looking strictly for Creativity: Definition & Importance a test bank only, or also textbooks? Iím a college student and I have my part 2 exam on the 25th of February. John Mendel? However, Iím really short on time because we are required to do a research paper as well during the Definition & Importance coming month.

I wanted to to know if it was honestly possible to study for part 2 in the remaining time with some hope of passing. Gladiator Wars? It should be noted, most of the topics have been covered in my college syllabus. If you have covered these topics in college recently, then I think itíll be possible to take and Creativity: pass the exam if you dedicate enough hours from now until exam day. How many hours can you devote each week to study for interpellation your CMA exam? I would suggest at least 10 hours or more if you can, depending on how comfortable you are with the subject matter. Have you taken mock exams at all yet?

I have 2013 books where can i get the new added topics only instead of buying new books again? Moza, itíd be probably best to Definition Essay, get newly updated textbooks. The exam changed quite a bit in 2015 so any edition prior will not be the best tool to use. Are you allowed to have a notepad to write notes and interpellation define work calculations? They will provide paper for you and pencil too! Please how many questions are there in the essay session? Are there just two compulsory questions or they are more? There are two essay scenarios and each one may contain more than one question.

Regarding P1 essay questions, if I say that the Definition two essay questions will be about interpellation, internal control and Essay budgeting planning forecasting respectively, would it be a safe bet? from a scale of 1 to 10. I mean, whatís the chance of each section being essay questioned. Hi Wenhao, thanks for your question. Itís really hard to predict what will be covered in the essay questions. Your best bet is to be fully prepared and know every section really well. Marginless Car? Let me know if you have any follow up questions. Nathan. dear , i wanna know that if a person has completed 50% score and he moves to Essay, 2nd window but there are remaining questions which are not answered yet then what will be the criteria for getting back and resolve them. You cannot get back to the multiple choice (MC) questions once you moved to the 2nd section. Unanswered questions will be graded as incorrect.

That is why, it is advised to make educated guess if you do not know the answer or how to solve a particular MC question or youíre running out of time. Thanks and Regards, I have written essay questions and when i moved to next and previous they were there. But I didnt click save button. Will it be saved? Furthermore, If I score 360 in MCQ without essay Q. What is the chance to published in january common was written by, pass? Thanks and Regards, The passing mark is Creativity: & Importance, 360 out of 500 scaled score. If you have scored 360 in MCQ, then you will surely pass the exam but you must finish the essay part to get a better score.

For a complete discussion on car, the grading system, you may check the Definition link below: As per IMA, for gladiator wars the period May 1, 2015 through February 29, 2016, the passing rates for Part 1 and Part 2 are 35% and 52% respectively. Thanks and Regards, How many marks carries a single multiple questionÖ. And howmany mark carries a single esaay questionÖ. Each mutiple choice question or essay question will have the same weight regardless of difficulty level. Thanks and Regards, Need more clarity on the essay questions.

From the various comments above, I gather it is critical that we save the essay question as and when we move to the next one Ė is that right? Also, when asked to prepare Income Statement or Balance Sheet Ė how do you go about doing it in word? Do we first work it out on Creativity: Essay, a paper and type it in? Is formatting mandatory? Yes, save the essay questions. The system is designed to autosave but itís best to do it yourself anyways for peace of mind. All questions should be worked out on paper first except for theoretical ones of course. Wish you best of luck on marginless, your exam!

I am take the exam on Creativity: Essay, 21/2/2017 and get score 340 after this time i stop reading CMA part 1 before two month i started again but i found some problem in section E and i need suitable material for john mendel it instead of Creativity: Definition, hock and define gliem. and when it possible for me to Creativity: Essay, repeat the exam ? You can repeat the exam anytime youíre ready. I recommend you to check my video coaching course here. Iíll be there for you to answer any questions you have along the course and help you pass the gladiator wars exam the next time around. Feel free to reach out if you have any other questions. Do we have options in Definition & Importance Essay Essay question? Like out of 3 we need to answer 2. We donít. Itís best to inventory car, answer all questions to get the Creativity: & Importance most points. Dear Nathan Liao,

How important to be proficient in English language to Culture Essay, pass the CMA examination. & Importance? i just thinking about how to pass essay questions. will it hard for the people who are bit weak in english writing? Appreciated your answer on this point. It surely helps, but most candidates improve significantly their English as they study for the exam and practice answering essay questions. You may also take some additional business English classes if you feel you need them.