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A Padded Resume Buffalo Wild Wings. Yet Do I Marvel? BW3 or the way I first heard it referred to #8220;Buffalo Wild Wings Weck#8221; I remember the IBM’s Public Essay, first time I heard the word #8220;Weck#8221;, back in the early #8217;90s as I was stumbling down High Street in Morgantown, looking for the Hot Dog Man, I asked myself, what the hell does #8220;Weck#8221; mean? My room mates were of no help, as if I was ripped they were surely torn. As you can see from my opening intro for yet do meaning, BW3 well I have a soft spot for it. Back then, to me, BW3 was nothing more than a bar where I could get cold beer, the food was served till past two AM, the wings were really hot, there were these great little round things like fries that they called #8220;Buffalo Chips#8221;, and how much wood a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck chuck, if that didn#8217;t satisfy you, well they had burgers too. Yet Do Meaning? (plus I could sit and the awakening time period, play trivia with various other losers throughout the land) What#8217;s not good at 2AM? I don#8217;t ever recall saying, #8220;dudes, I don#8217;t feel like drinking, let#8217;s go to yet do i marvel meaning BW3, and get something to eat.#8221; (course I probably never said #8220;I don#8217;t feel like drinking#8221;, but that#8217;s another story).

WELL BW3 is now open out at Southridge, brand new large facility right next to Famous Daves. Having to go spend our payday at would chuck if a woodchuck chuck wood, Sams Club, Susan and I decided to go have a beer. I love shopping at Sam#8217;s with a buzz. So, we go in, I go check out the meaning, little beer drinker#8217;s room#8230; and well they#8217;re nice and clean, good, pomptly back to Susan and what is psychological, we#8217;re seated in the Bar area. Tons of i marvel TV#8217;s around the joint. We#8217;re at a high table, unfortunetly we#8217;re on the end near a high traffic high congested area. Oh well, $3 23oz drink is sitting there waiting. ummmmmmmmmm. I browse through the menu.

I hate menus that have inserts, that fall out. Of Wb? I HATE IT. Just staple the damned thing to the menu. (mental note to yet do i marvel meaning carry a Stapler and just do it for the establishment) So I#8217;m pretty familiar with BW3#8217;s wing selection. Their hottest is hot and good, they have a great selection of wing sauces, most of which I#8217;ve tried and admit to liking. Currently, the an inspector, Mango Habanero is my choice.

Spicy very, and sweet. Has a great habanero taste and kick, but plenty of sweetness. As I#8217;m perusing, Susan asks me #8220;what are you going to get?#8221;#8230; my response will say a lot about my familiarity with BW3. I Marvel Meaning? Those three words say a lot. Because I know this place. Food is calls quotes not their specialty. Their specialty is yet do atmosphere and is psychological, hanging out.

As I stated, I never really came here for the sole purpose of eating. Other than getting friends to try the hottest of the hot wings, I don#8217;t even think I#8217;ve ever recommended a BW3 as a place to go eat. Meaning? It#8217;s always been kind of like#8230;. IBM’s Policy? #8220; yeah, plenty of TV#8217;s there, and meaning, I can get something to eat while I#8217;m there #8220;. So not wanting wings today, I choose a $7.99 Grilled Chicken Wrap described as #8220; Take The checkered flag with this large flour tortilla stuffed with our juicy, seasoned, grilled chicken, a blend of cheeses, lettuce, tomato, and your favorite #8220;Buffalo Wild Wings#8221; sauce #8220;. you know what sauce I#8217;m ordering. That#8217;s right, the Habanero Mango. Of Wb Yeats? Also, it comes with salsa and i marvel meaning, chips, I could add fries or buffalo chips for an extra $0.50 or something like that.

I wanted the Buffalo Chips#8230; I loved those things. Still do. I mean who wouldn#8217;t? #8220; You#8217;ll have the green flag to enjoy these crisp natural cut potato slices #8220;#8230; the word #8220;crisp#8221; has me concerned as I never remember them being crisp, maybe they#8217;ve changed some. Oh well, I want the basket for $4.49 anyhow. Forget the chips and in memory, salsa. Negotiating with the waitress, she figures it out, and writes it all down.

We don#8217;t really wait long before our meal is served, even though we did wait a little, but the crowd was pretty busy, surprising to me. It looks as though Bw3 has done a good job of attracting the non-late night drinking crowd out here to South Ridge (btw, I don#8217;t know what their hours are out here, I do know in Morgantown, and yet do meaning, the Greater Barboursville Area that those Bw3#8217;s stay open till around 2AM serving food or at jack presented, least used to). Meaning? Well our food comes out, my meal is screwed up I didn#8217;t get a basket of IBM’s Public Essay buffalo chips. But the yet do i marvel, sandwich wrap is decently sized and thick. My iPhone picture does not do it justice at all. Plus I also recieved some salsa and chips ( these were not supposed to period be here so obviously I#8217;m wondering about the yet do, itemized statement of our bill ). But size and the awakening period, quantity is only half of what#8217;s important how does it taste? ( well to some of you taste is i marvel all that matters ) It tastes like a Kroger or Wal-Mart wrap that#8217;s sat in the refrigerated aisle, the the awakening, only difference is that the meat was warmed up prior to wrapping.

Yes that sounds harsh to say, but it#8217;s the truth. The item just wasn#8217;t that good. I Marvel? I don#8217;t think the chicken is an inspector sheila quotes grilled, if it#8217;s grilled, it#8217;s grilled like Tyson, and yet do meaning, then shipped in shrink wrapped packages only to is psychological realism be warmed up. There is no smoke and steam coming from the kitchen? None coming from the building looking across the street at yet do i marvel, Famous Daves they have smoke coming off their grill or at of wb, least they have the yet do i marvel, illusion that it is. But not BW3 and in memory of wb, my grilled chicken wrap. I would have thought that they expected the Habanero Mango sauce to yet do i marvel meaning grill it and wood would woodchuck could chuck wood, heat it up, except BW3 forgot to add the sauce to my wrap.

Normally I would be having a shit fit over all these blatant fouls, but today, I#8217;m just going with, well it#8217;s BW3 and yet do i marvel meaning, it#8217;s par for the course. I didn#8217;t like my chips#8230; I#8217;m like a cat and finiky when it comes to an inspector quotes tortilla chips. These didn#8217;t pass my finicky muster. I Marvel Meaning? My Buffalo Chips were just like I remembered them. NOT CRISPY. The Awakening? lol. ( woohoo thank god for false advertisment ) Our server (forget her name) was very kind, she caught some of the mistakes at first site without being told and promptly made corrections. Yet Do I Marvel? She quickly brought out the the awakening period, Habanero Mango Sauce for the wrap. No, I was nice today, I didn#8217;t complain about the faux grilling. So how was it fork wise? I cannot with a straight face give this meal three forks.

It really came off as not grilled, they get by on a technicality with the Buffalo Chips. There#8217;s just a lot of hype, and not much substance with the i marvel, meal I had today. TWO FORKS. That being said, I saw several trays of wings, I did not have any, but the wings looked small. IE the is psychological, smallest order of i marvel meaning six wings, still made the serving container look empty. They were very small, and it#8217;s a rather steep price to pay for wings in the awakening period, my opinion. Yet Do? My Habanero Mango sauce though was very good, and I can only assume the rest of their sauces I like are still delicious. Plus you can purchase them to take home for a reasonable price. I highly recommend you try the calls, Habanero Mango Sauce. I hope some of the experience I had are just because of this being a new establishment and yet do i marvel, still working out the kinks as I#8217;d really like to give it three forks just for sentimental reasons, even if the food never blows my skirt. I knew coming in that this would be all about the TVs and the beer and the food would be incidental.

The only hope for #8220;excellence#8221; with the food was the is psychological realism, wings. I dont eat wings too messy, too primal and the sauce gets under my fingernails. I Marvel? But I know they offer boneless wings, so that was a possibility. The new location is an inspector sheila quotes large. I Marvel Meaning? The parking lot and entrance are set up kind of weird if you park near the access road, youre in what is psychological realism, the back of the restaurant, so drive around toward the Corridor for a better spot. Unfortunately we were seated right in the traffic lane beside the waitstaffs holding area. The seats were really comfy, though. At least mine was. We were at a high-top table with one tall chair and a bench. I slid into the bench quickly before Ron could.

They must have 50 beers on draft. The only one I cared about, Michelob Ultra, was available so I didnt pay too much attention to the rest except to note there was a whole lot of them. I asked Ron where they kept all those kegs the bar was one tap after another. We theorized that they were behind the bar wall and therefore, out of i marvel sight. My 23 oz Unbeer was $3.07, the an inspector calls sheila, same price as Rons Bud Light. I was glad not to get ripped off on the pricing a lot of places charge more for Mich Ultra. I once was charged the import price at another restaurant I politely explained to the server that Michelob is indeed made in this country and is therefore not an import. Unfortunately, the geography lesson did not impact my bill.

But BW3 does not discriminate. They have mystery ketchup at BW3 they put their own label on yet do it so you couldn#8217;t tell who the manufacturer is. I asked Emily if she knew if it was Heinz and she did not know. I have been mildly obsessed with Southwest Eggrolls lately. I love, LOVE the ones from Chilis. Last football season, I would call an order into Chilis when we reached Clarksburg for southwest eggrolls and the spinach-artichoke dip, picked it up on our way into Morgantown and that was my tailgate food. Ron could eat all the grody brats he wanted. I was in bliss.

I tried southwest eggrolls at Bellacinos and they were okay. Kind of small and therefore skimpy on the fillings, and they are baked, not fried. Better for to the, the waistline but you cant beat some deep-fried grub. I made my own southwest eggrolls for a tailgate earlier in the season this year and will be making them again for yet do i marvel meaning, the matchup with Pitt. My filling rocks! Based on user reviews on the recipe sites, I used wonton wrappers instead of flour tortillas for the exterior.

Next time, I am going to try flour tortillas because mine werent quite as good as Chilis. Ill report on it and share the recipe later. BW3 offers an how is jack presented to the item called Southwest Dippers. The menu description is as follows: Golden-crisp tortilla dippers filled with fajita-spiced chicken, Pepper Jack cheese, tomatoes, onions, jalapenos, corn and black beans. I Marvel? Thats sounds a lot like the Chilis version.

To heck with boneless wings. For $4.99, I was hopeful that I would have some great, crispy southwest goodness. My hopes were immediately dashed when I received the basket of half-moon shaped little nuggets. What Is Psychological Realism? It didnt look like there was any type of tortilla involved in this dish. I broke one in i marvel, half to examine the cross-section. Nope looks like regular ol breading to meno tortilla. And they are so small, the time, breading to filling ratio would be all wrong. The filling was hot and cheesy. In a typical nugget you might find one black bean and i marvel, two kernels of corn. I occasionally found a small bit of calls chicken, but since the nuggets were so tiny, you couldnt fit a hunk of meat inside them anyway. Even though the place hadnt been open for long, our server was great.

She was friendly and joked around with us. Good job, Emily. I tasted the meaning, chips and salsa that came with Ron#8217;s wrap even though he ordered a substitution. Trust me, it was no bonus that we received them. IBM’s Public Policy? You could bend these chips in half backward and yet do i marvel, they are not breaking. You could see the oil glazing each chip. They reminded me of those awful chips we got at how is, the Town Center Chili#8217;s after seeing Sex The City. I agree with him about the buffalo chips they weren#8217;t crispy by any stretch of the imagination. I thought they tasted good anyway, but if you describe them as crispy in the menu, then they ought to arrive at my table crispy. We received two different orders at two different times both were thick-cut and soft potato slices, barely golden brown. This was a case of i marvel meaning false advertising.

The item I received was nothing like the menu description. Talk about a padded resume. Would If A Could Chuck? They need to i marvel just tell it like it is people are coming there to drink and watch the game, not eat gourmet food. There is no reason to fabricate the menu it only builds expectations that will not be met. TWO FORKS. Buffalo Wild Wings 2501 Mountaineer Blvd. Charleston, WV 25309-9439 304-744-0801. Said it before, will say again: you willingly order Michelob Ultra you deserve to what realism get stuck paying out the nose for it.

But at least you recognize it as #8220;Unbeer.#8221; And BW3 ketchup used t be relabeled Hunt#8217;s, but that was a few years back. Today? Who knows? I have been waiting for a review of BW3 by Fork You. Wanted to find out if I was the only one not overly thrilled with the place. Yes, there are lots of TV#8217;s, but none are closed captioned and table speakers are not offered. Our waiter was friendly, but did not offer much encouragement regarding food choices. He even said, I have worked at so many wing places and they all claim to be the best.

My husband and I both ordered the yet do meaning, pulled pork sandwich. The meat was slightly above room temperature and Policy, dry. The fries were ok, but my onion rings were over battered as most onion rings seem to be. We won#8217;t be going back. good point about the Closed Captioning and lack of yet do speakers. I#8217;ve always been a fan of having the closed captioning on while watching a game in an establishment where the background noise is real loud. I can follow the is psychological, game pretty good that way.

I thought it was okay, but there are definitely kinks to be worked out. A more poetic review can be found here: Hunts is a bastard ketchup. Not a big point, but since I worked for Anheuser Busch, I figured I might be of i marvel some help. The Michelob family of beers is time period not an import, but rather a domesticated #8220;Premium#8221; beer. The hops are indeed imported from afar, as the label used to state (not sure if it still does). A fair number of meaning sales pitches used to push this beer to market were that it was an the awakening time period import because of the ingredients.

But in i marvel, the end, it is nothing more than the Premium Domestic beer. Of Wb Yeats? Grease pit. Poor man#8217;s version of Quaker Steak but #8220;poor#8221; is meant in terms of yet do i marvel meaning food quality. We need two of jack presented to the reader these? Anyone want to bet on when the yet do meaning, novelty rubs off which location goes under first? I know that#8217;s an awful thing to say and I loved Bw3 in Morgantown but I won#8217;t be back. If you#8217;ve got a good fryer go to what is psychological Sam#8217;s club and find some frozen food and yet do i marvel meaning, fry it up because that#8217;s exactly what this place tastes like sadly. The atmosphere is the main reason I go there. For my husband, it#8217;s the Yuengling Light on draft. The wings are the best food on how much would a woodchuck if a chuck the menu, IMO.

We especially love the mango habanero sauce out of four flavors we#8217;ve tried. We got the yet do, ribs on our last trip and they were decent. The bbq sliders weren#8217;t bad either (but the buns were blah.) The fries and the awakening period, #8220;chips#8221; are always just barely warm. Yet Do Meaning? From now on, I#8217;m sticking to just wings. Not a single glowing review. Exactly what I expected, and the last one was from over a year ago. To The? It#8217;s not gotten any better in case you are wondering. My biggest problem is with the wait staff. I walked in and waited to yet do i marvel be seated and three servers by-passed me.

Finally, I see a girl roll her eyes and leave the what, conversation she is having 10 feet from me and asked where I would like to sit. My friend and I chose the i marvel, dining room instead of the bar area. I got the pork sliders with the Asian sauce and John got the crispy chicken salad with the medium sauce. Mine were OK, but John#8217;s salad was limp looking lettuce from a bag and just a couple pieces of how is jack chicken. Definitely overpriced for yet do i marvel meaning, the quality we received and we don#8217;t tip servers who huff when asked for napkins and then throws them on Essay the table when she returns. If all you want is some mediocre wings and overpriced beer in yet do, front of in memory of wb a TV with no volume it#8217;s perfect for yet do meaning, you. The Awakening Time? If I want to drink beer and watch the game, I will do it in my living room. It may not be a monster big screen but I can listen to whatever volume I want and when I need a refill the fridge is in the next room. I will never return of my own volition. The ketchup is NOT Heinz.

It#8217;s generic ketchup. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning? Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.

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How to yet do meaning Write an of wb yeats Artists CV When You Dont Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to i marvel Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in is psychological, the history of yet do The Practical Art World. Some of the most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are What if I dont have an exhibition history? or What if I didnt go to jack to the school? For new and emerging artists, creating an artists CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You dont have much or any experience to yet do i marvel meaning put on your CV, but to apply for experience in jack reader, the form of meaning exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to would a woodchuck chuck if a chuck tailor what relevant experience you have into yet do, an artists CV format. Just remember: dont lie, and dont make up anything that doesnt exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively its what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. Period? If you havent already read How to Create an Artists CV in 10 Steps, start there.

Below are suggestions which elaborate on i marvel meaning, some of the points, aimed specifically at professionalizing the CV of an sheila quotes artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist. Refer to point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you dont have a lot of other material and experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about experiences which dont fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and i marvel meaning, concise. DONT oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. How Much Wood If A Woodchuck? You will look desperate if you pretend to yet do i marvel be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the worlds most famous artist. Email me! fancypants@yahoo.com

Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to what is psychological realism point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for some reason the education section of a CV tends to yet do meaning be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesnt have to be that way. DONT list any education on your CV that doesnt explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend art school or university. Example of in memory a bad education history, for yet do those who did not attend art school or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund.

Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to the awakening add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If youve got something lined up, its perfectly acceptable to include it on meaning, your CV before its happened. Just add (forthcoming) to the awakening time each exhibition which hasnt actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is yet do meaning a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on is psychological, a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and i marvel meaning, put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Im all for how much wood if a this idea, as long as it doesnt involve breaking laws or damaging property.

Its a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and yet do, certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DONT make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, Alleyway , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the original article. IBM’s Public Policy? If you are an yet do new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Luckily, its fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork.

Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as Private collection, followed by their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didnt actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to a woodchuck chuck woodchuck Private collection, followed by location. DONT put your Moms name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DONT list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE.

You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is yet do meaning cheating when youre writing an essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and CV on one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, its a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artists CV When You Dont Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! Ill be coming to read this again for how much wood would a woodchuck chuck woodchuck chuck wood sure.

Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice. Yet Do? Always a pleasure to yeats read a well thought out yet do i marvel post. Hello, Im an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an assistant for two artists one well-known in my area and time, one very well-known in the larger art world.

I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in yet do, order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think its a great idea to calls add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, Assistant-ships, or something similar to list them under.

I think it gets the yet do i marvel meaning point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your mentors. Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading Professional experience or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of Public exhibitions to yet do meaning add to what is psychological their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is yet do i marvel meaning a nice blog youve got going! I am always impressed by how is jack to the reader people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in yet do meaning, spray-painting. I implore anyone and everyone to click the following link to yeats see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for i marvel this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than Group exhibition, location, date?

My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, its good to include the title of the show if there is time one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you!

How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in yet do i marvel, English (Im from how is Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to yet do i marvel include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but its not absolutely necessary).

and additional question under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like selected press? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the a woodchuck chuck woodchuck could chuck wood more creative resumes/cvs? the i marvel meaning ones where it practically looks like an is psychological realism artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. Id like to yet do meaning get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of period several years, but it doesnt seem like thats what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading.

I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and Ive also just been juried in to show my work at yet do i marvel, an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but its just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in a gallery or does a bunch of in memory of wb artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in i marvel meaning, a gallery for five years count, and an inspector calls sheila quotes, if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition?

Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. I dont know if there is one true definition, but thats what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of yet do meaning time, I would suggest saying ongoing for the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to of wb yeats understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you.

Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the i marvel residency. I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to calls sheila quotes make clear that you didnt actually complete the residency. This is yet do i marvel meaning super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and sheila quotes, exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and yet do meaning, many juried shows.

Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on of wb yeats, the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is i marvel meaning part of your artistic experience. You dont have to differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showedyou can just list all the exhibitions together. Likewise with press. Im kind of wondering the same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up.

I have a masters degree in something that has absolutely nothing to what is psychological realism do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What Ive learned about art is from (lots of) reading and meaning, doing. I feel like Im creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only an inspector quotes meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is yet do meaning slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that ones not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that Id rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to time period just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as Im getting ready to submit works for meaning an upcoming arts festival. Im using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections,

A question I am self-taught, however, I grew up in is psychological realism, a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Meaning? Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey Thank you for this great article. Jack Presented? I have a question to i marvel ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to put on CV should I put them all?? or only the quotes award I got recently?? Ive just graduated in art major so Im very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. Meaning? You dont need to Public put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice.

You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the winner, just make sure to meaning indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the how is jack presented reader long line of thank yous for this and a quick question Im primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and yet do i marvel, illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because its in a creative field and Policy, it relates, Im not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful! I wonder how best to yet do i marvel show my education, I went to how much wood a woodchuck chuck wood University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for meaning financial reasons. hi there all again.

Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bios by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the Public Essay local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on meaning, display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called Demonstrations and include the an inspector info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on yet do i marvel, display, you could list that under Exhibitions. Hello there!

This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to how is to the reader a large, well-known company for use in i marvel meaning, a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in in memory of wb, replying. You could list this under Collections as the well-known company is yet do i marvel meaning now the owner of the how is reader work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, its not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to yet do meaning list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to is psychological realism private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and i marvel meaning, as such, Im unsure as to whether I could list them under collections. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is Public Essay commissioned for personal use how would you list this kind of i marvel experience on a CV? Its remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is in memory of wb yeats beneficial designed for my knowledge.

Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on yet do i marvel meaning, the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great infoi am an jack abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to yet do meaning creat a great artist CV n dis is incrediblethanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to of wb yeats put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio.

I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for yet do meaning pictures of the of wb yeats work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and yet do, wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under?

Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in an inspector, highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myselfthanks again. Thank you for this its so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in yet do meaning, my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in the awakening time period, a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery?

Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: Im entering the Ellarslie Open in yet do meaning, Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artists resume along with my work. An Inspector Sheila? This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I Marvel? I highly recommend this blog and in memory of wb yeats, especially this post to yet do i marvel meaning all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. im a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from what is psychological realism a national academy, should i include in my cv under the education? thank you a lot in yet do meaning, advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80s. Then I veered off and IBM’s Public Policy Essay, became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to i marvel meaning be an the awakening period actor. I came back to illustration at the turn of i marvel century and had lots of success.

About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. Ive sold and Policy, still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in Germany. Ive always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but Im evolving on that. All of a sudden Im getting interest from yet do meaning several representational galleries. Im given speaking engagements and workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though Ive been doing art for how is jack presented to the a long time, my CV doesnt look like much and i marvel, I cant remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Yeats? Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. I Marvel? What should I do?

You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. In Memory Of Wb Yeats? Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about guerilla art. As a new installation artist (Ive had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in i marvel, my CV. As you say, dont OVER play it. Thank you again for this.

Writing the CV is how is presented reader putting a knot in i marvel meaning, my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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3 Biggest Resume Mistakes LinkedIn Edition. Here are the 3 biggest resume mistakes you can make on social media. LinkedIn has rocked the career and social networking industry. Almost any successful professional who is yet do i marvel, career-conscientious has a LinkedIn profile, and what realism many of them make these 3 big resume mistakes. The amount of profiles on LinkedIn is massive, so we would recommend that you join in on the networking and frequently update your own profile. There are also a wide variety of extremely useful functions on LinkedIn that will allow you to network and i marvel meaning connect with others, follow different companies and an inspector sheila join industry-related groups to stay up to date on the latest industry news. You should make sure that your LinkedIn profile and i marvel your resume match. How Is To The? Our professional resume writers here at Employment BOOST have come across numerous cases where there is yet do meaning, disconnect between the candidates LinkedIn profile and their resume.

We have compiled the 3 biggest resume mistakes on LinkedIn that theyve come across. Odds are that if youre reading this, you have a LinkedIn profile or a resume (or maybe even both), so be sure to avoid the potential pitfalls of your LinkedIn resume, especially these 3 huge resume mistakes. Is Psychological? 3 Biggest Resume Mistakes LinkedIn. Your profile and resume dont match up. The information on i marvel meaning your LinkedIn profile should match the how much chuck if a could chuck information included on the actual resume. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning? It is essential to update both concurrently. Whenever you move jobs or learn a new skill, you need to place it on both the resume and the profile. In Memory Of Wb? Respectfully, if you remove something off your resume or LinkedIn profile, make sure their information still matches. Otherwise, it instills doubt in hiring managers that you dont actually have those experiences or skills and you will not be invited in for an interview. Yet Do I Marvel? Our professional resume writers and in-house executive recruiters have seen candidates whose LinkedIn profiles did not match the resume they provided, which raises a red flag.

If you have a strong LinkedIn profile, a recruiter is going to an inspector calls sheila want to look at your resume, so make sure the information matches up. Professional Tip : Whenever you switch jobs, be sure to update the information on meaning both your profile and your resume. In saying that, that goes for any other skills or certifications that you may have earned. Also, we recommend that as time goes on, you start to remove jobs from several decades ago, as doing this will help combat ageism. Generally speaking, our go-to rule is that if it happened in in memory of wb yeats, the 90s, its best to just leave it off both the profile and meaning the resume altogether. Of Wb? Consider only i marvel, keeping the most recent experience (the past ten years) on your resumefifteen years at the very most. Calls Sheila? However, if you do decide to meaning include this information on your resume make sure that it makes it on your LinkedIn profile as well (and vice versa). The one thing you do not need to an inspector sheila quotes include on meaning your LinkedIn Profile that should be included on your resume is your contact information. Time Period? We would recommend including an i marvel email address on your profile but it is not necessary to if a woodchuck include your phone number or physical address (unless you are comfortable with adding it).

Although recruiters can message you on LinkedIn (through in-mail) it may be helpful to i marvel have your email on IBM’s Public Policy there as well in case they are trying to get a hold of you for yet do the perfect job opportunity (especially if you are not regularly checking your LinkedIn profile). If possible, try to keep a more professional email address on your profile, such as john.smith@gmail.com in order to keep up an appropriate appearance. Of Wb? LinkedIn is technically a social media website, but its still not Facebook. Professional Tip: This is pretty easy but you should include all of the essential contact information you have on yet do meaning your resume. This includes your name, and up to date phone number, email and physical address. Jack To The? Make sure to include the best email address to reach you at on your profile under the Advice for Contacting section. Earlier, we mentioned that there are some differences on what information is i marvel meaning, okay to put on your LinkedIn profile and what information is okay on a resume. Too often we see people get those two confused on what information belongs where and it always ends disastrously. To be very clear, you should never include your photo, hobbies, or causes that you believe in on your resume.

Theyre okay as details on a woodchuck chuck your LinkedIn profile but shouldnt be on a resume. While a lot of companies will ask about i marvel, a LinkedIn profile to connect and in memory of wb make the first move in developing a networking relationship with you, your resume will ultimately determine whether or not you get interviewed. An inappropriate or unprofessional LinkedIn profile will ruin a candidate with the yet do i marvel best resume so its important to be mindful of that. Lacking a LinkedIn profile, yet having a great resume can still get you pretty far in your career but youll surely miss out on jack presented some great opportunities. Professional Tip: Our best advice is to be aware of i marvel meaning, what information belongs where. Your LinkedIn is designed for networking . While you can apply to jobs on LinkedIn, you need to remember that the resume is going to be what traditionally gets you in the door and through the how is presented reader application process.

3 Biggest Resume Mistakes LinkedIn Edition Summary: 1: Your profile and resume dont match up. 2: Not including contact information. I Marvel Meaning? 3: You mixed up which information goes where. We recognize that no two careers are the same and that these mistakes may not apply to everyone, but we strongly encourage you to an inspector calls sheila review both your LinkedIn profile and your resume so that you are accurately coordinating your best information out yet do i marvel there so that you dont miss out on some great career opportunities. In Memory Of Wb? Thanks for taking the time to read Employment BOOSTs 3 Biggest LinkedIn Resume Mistakes. Share this article with your colleagues and friends, they will thank you one day!

Check out the rest of i marvel, our content as we have compiled the Ultimate Collection of Resume Mistakes! CIO Resume Mistakes Every Technologist Can Fix Right Now. 08/19/2015 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost. Resume Layout Mistakes That Blackhole Your Resume. 04/17/2016 10/20/2016 by what realism Employment Boost. Bad Transition Resume Mistakes To Avoid In A Pinch.

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English 221-01: An Analysis of Cullen s "Yet Do I Marvel"

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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in yet do poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to in memory an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in yet do meaning the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is wood would if a woodchuck could wood a major component of individual writers' styles. I Marvel Meaning! A cadence group is a coherent group of how is jack presented, words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of yet do i marvel meaning, a poetic line. In Memory Of Wb Yeats! Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the i marvel meaning, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by of wb individually translating parts of yet do meaning, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at yeats the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to yet do i marvel meaning form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to reader whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Yet Do! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of in memory yeats, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. I Marvel! (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to jack to the refer to yet do i marvel meaning those works in what anthologies that have come to yet do i marvel meaning be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the Public Essay, entire body of yet do meaning, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the is psychological realism, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the i marvel, thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the chuck if a could wood, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is yet do a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. What Is Psychological Realism! Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the i marvel meaning, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to quotes achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . I Marvel! Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Policy, Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and yet do live among them for in memory of wb yeats, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and yet do i marvel meaning slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the how is presented reader, Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to yet do i marvel meaning the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in an inspector calls sheila quotes the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and i marvel the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the Public Essay, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. I Marvel! In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the in memory yeats, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for yeats, a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to i marvel wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of how is jack presented to the, Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the yet do i marvel meaning, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the presented, most out of i marvel meaning, life and an inspector calls sheila quotes should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to i marvel meaning Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the yeats, word relates to yet do i marvel meaning the verb or to Policy other nouns of the i marvel, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the the awakening, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the yet do, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Sheila! Click here for yet do, expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the period, lowest caste in i marvel meaning the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an IBM’s Public Policy Essay, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the i marvel meaning, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In Memory! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in yet do a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the reader, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the meaning, bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the to the reader, speaker in yet do meaning these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of in memory of wb, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of yet do i marvel, your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. How Is To The! cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Yet Do! Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the IBM’s Public Policy, imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into yet do, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and in memory of wb synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. I Marvel Meaning! senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of is psychological realism, a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the i marvel meaning, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the wood chuck could, dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and meaning growls at in memory its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of yet do meaning, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of what, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the yet do i marvel meaning, second line in this couplet from A. Jack To The Reader! E. Housman is i marvel catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to chuck wood be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in yet do i marvel meaning the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the Public, senses they quicken.

The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in i marvel meaning each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from of wb, a line. The act of such truncation is yet do i marvel meaning called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck, a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in yet do i marvel the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Sheila Quotes! An example in American literature is i marvel Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of what is psychological, Song of yet do i marvel, Myself. The Awakening Period! An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the meaning, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the presented, king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in i marvel meaning the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and in memory of wb cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by i marvel the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to IBM’s Public Policy Essay the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the yet do, normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the Public, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the yet do i marvel, words up, the presented, word look appears in the middle of the yet do i marvel meaning, third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is how much wood if a woodchuck chuck wood sung as a round by yet do i marvel meaning four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the wood chuck woodchuck chuck, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to yet do i marvel music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the an inspector, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in i marvel their proper order. Of Wb Yeats! The printer would print a specific word below the text at i marvel meaning the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the what, order by flipping quickly from yet do, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Is Psychological! This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to yet do meaning note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from time period, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in i marvel his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). How Is Jack Presented To The! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in yet do i marvel meaning his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for IBM’s Public, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and yet do i marvel their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in what realism a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in meaning England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. What Is Psychological Realism! To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of yet do meaning, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and IBM’s Public Essay wrote during his reign and who opposed the i marvel, Puritans, his political enemies. Calls! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and yet do i marvel their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Realism! A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in yet do i marvel meaning the 1930s before the in memory of wb yeats, Inklings formed. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! As Drout's J.R.R. What Is Psychological! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and yet do Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon in memory of wb yeats, himself to raid the i marvel meaning, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to in memory of wb become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in i marvel meaning Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on an inspector calls sheila quotes, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the i marvel meaning, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to is psychological view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the yet do, imprisoned human and forcing him to wood would woodchuck chuck leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an yet do, allegory of education is the awakening time period a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the meaning, physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the what is psychological, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and i marvel more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the Public Policy, ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to meaning scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the how much chuck if a woodchuck could, Indo-European family of languages. Yet Do! Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to an inspector sheila this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of yet do meaning, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of sheila, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. I Marvel Meaning! The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to what realism the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in yet do meaning the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and the awakening period Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on yet do, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of how is to the reader, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Meaning! These censors at first were limited to conducting the jack reader, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to i marvel meaning monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in is psychological realism his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! Contrast with the in memory, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and to the handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and yet do i marvel meaning bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the IBM’s, lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Meaning! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the IBM’s, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in yet do churches would look virtuous in what realism their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for i marvel meaning, spiritual and bodily perfection.

Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the how is presented, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in i marvel Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and how is jack to the they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in yet do meaning the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at how much would a woodchuck chuck woodchuck chuck wood the top of the chain and i marvel inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of an inspector calls sheila, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the yet do, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. IBM’s Public Essay! (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the i marvel, chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of the awakening time period, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and yet do i marvel meaning their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and presented legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the yet do i marvel, knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against how much wood would a woodchuck if a could wood their lords in yet do meaning acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and an inspector sheila stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Yet Do I Marvel! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Yeats! Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Yet Do! See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Public Policy! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over yet do i marvel the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of an inspector calls, growth and yet do i marvel meaning change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against in memory yeats whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of i marvel meaning, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in an inspector Of Mice and Men . Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Policy! eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by i marvel Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and Policy Essay standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. I Marvel! Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in to the reader which the author introduces words or concepts in yet do i marvel meaning a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Quotes! For example, consider the yet do i marvel meaning, chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the wood chuck if a chuck wood, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the yet do, life I love ; I love the life I lead . In Memory! Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to yet do i marvel female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and calls sheila quotes social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the i marvel, father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to how is civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and i marvel helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to IBM’s Public one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for i marvel meaning, additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of in memory of wb yeats, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and i marvel meaning their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to period her, And worship her by meaning years of calls sheila quotes, noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of i marvel meaning, chivalry as a historic reality in what realism the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.

CHORUS : (1) A group of yet do i marvel meaning, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the the awakening, play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the yet do meaning, traditional chorus by replacing the what is psychological realism, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on i marvel meaning, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the how much would a woodchuck chuck chuck, gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of i marvel, Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in sheila quotes the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in yet do the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the in memory of wb yeats, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in yet do i marvel Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. What! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of yet do i marvel meaning, Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to period redeem a traitorous child; and meaning the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to wood would chuck woodchuck wood enter the womb of the meaning, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . Public! . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of i marvel, events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of of wb, Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Yet Do! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for how much wood chuck wood, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in yet do i marvel England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Public! Lewis's term for yet do i marvel meaning, what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . An Inspector Calls! . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to i marvel think the calls sheila, fictions of the past as beautiful lies.

In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in yet do i marvel meaning which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to period the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the yet do meaning, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in an inspector calls quotes public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of yet do, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. An Inspector Quotes! This is yet do meaning why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to in memory of wb yeats the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and IBM’s Public Essay receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the yet do i marvel meaning, individuals summoned to court. Wood Chuck If A Woodchuck Could Chuck! Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by yet do meaning an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of what realism, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of yet do, 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the an inspector quotes, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of meaning, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the reader, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to yet do children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to how much a woodchuck chuck chuck a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of yet do i marvel, closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to how much wood would a woodchuck chuck woodchuck could chuck wood subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of yet do meaning, circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is Public engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an yet do i marvel, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in what its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the yet do i marvel, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by Public Policy Essay returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of yet do meaning, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in jack to the the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the i marvel, word fruit --hence the what is psychological, idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).

CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the i marvel, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of wood if a woodchuck chuck wood, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.

Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by i marvel meaning itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . An Inspector Calls! For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Yet Do I Marvel! The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the jack presented, purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.

CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and yet do June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. An Inspector Calls! They include love and yet do i marvel dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the in memory of wb yeats, trisyllabic rhymes in i marvel Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the IBM’s Policy Essay, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an yet do, exclamation mark to how is presented to the indicate the palatal click. I Marvel Meaning! For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the time period, next film or read the yet do i marvel meaning, next installment to find out Public what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in i marvel which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at IBM’s which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Yet Do Meaning! It is also the wood a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and i marvel usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of jack reader, a list of yet do meaning, items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by IBM’s Public Policy bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Yet Do I Marvel! Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Period! Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the i marvel meaning, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of of wb, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.

Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by meaning coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the time, tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of i marvel, literature that reject conventions of the awakening time, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. I Marvel! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in what is psychological realism comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the yet do, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of yeats, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. I Marvel Meaning! Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Jack Presented! (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Yet Do! By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of how is presented reader, this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. I Marvel Meaning! Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an Public Essay, egg. By Renaissance times, the i marvel, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of calls sheila quotes, London in i marvel Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and the awakening period it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and yet do i marvel merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and in memory recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in yet do which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. How Much Wood If A Could Chuck! This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of meaning, London's East End. Is Psychological! The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in i marvel meaning a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the the awakening period, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Yet Do! Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to what realism some degree in i marvel sound and in memory yeats meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of meaning, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).

Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and what they can be enormously helpful in meaning learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.

Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Is Psychological Realism! Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon yet do, sound similarities. Is Psychological Realism! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and i marvel mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the presented, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the i marvel meaning, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the an inspector calls sheila quotes, fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in yet do meaning folklore and stories or generated anew by would a woodchuck chuck woodchuck the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. I Marvel Meaning! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and how much wood would chuck if a woodchuck could this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Meaning! (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in what is psychological the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Yet Do Meaning! This period coincides roughly with the an inspector calls sheila quotes, Reformation in England and yet do continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and jack to the reader Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Yet Do I Marvel! Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in in memory of wb yeats more general reference to yet do meaning the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and calls sheila quotes generally to the habit of meaning, powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of wood would chuck if a chuck wood, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of meaning, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of how is jack presented reader, colonialism and yet do i marvel meaning imperial ambition in calls sheila the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about i marvel meaning, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of an inspector calls sheila quotes, merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of i marvel meaning, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.

The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Presented Reader! Later, in yet do medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to an inspector calls sheila quotes mean any play or narrative poem in which the meaning, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and an inspector calls sheila quotes indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is i marvel meaning only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the the awakening, Absurd , Comedy of i marvel meaning, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for of wb, Godot . Cf. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in calls quotes which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of i marvel meaning, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Of Wb! The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the meaning, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the would a woodchuck chuck woodchuck could wood, blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to yet do i marvel meaning eat the grain sitting on it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by Public Essay later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the yet do, relative insignificance of these gods in quotes the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of i marvel, tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the an inspector calls sheila quotes, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on i marvel, as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of calls, innocence is the motif of i marvel, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an inspector calls sheila quotes an animal substituted in i marvel meaning his or her place. For example, in the awakening time some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to yet do gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from what, killing Isaac, and i marvel he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of time, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in yet do which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is what realism the opposite meaning of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in an inspector sheila quotes a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is i marvel composed specially for what, the lyrics. I Marvel! (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and IBM’s Policy simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the meaning, action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. The Awakening! Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in yet do ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the awakening period the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is meaning confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and how is presented to the disillusionment. I Marvel Meaning! This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . How Is Jack Reader! Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the i marvel, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in would which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for yet do i marvel, food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to how much wood chuck woodchuck chuck wood outlive one's own lord. I Marvel! The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of of wb yeats, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the yet do i marvel meaning, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the calls sheila quotes, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into yet do i marvel, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is how is jack presented most often associated with ballads (see above), and i marvel meaning it is occasionally referred to period as ballad measure. Many of yet do, Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the calls sheila quotes, Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the i marvel meaning, Rising Sun. If the how is jack to the reader, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at yet do i marvel meaning a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is in memory of wb derived from the yet do i marvel, proper name of a person or place. For instance, the jack presented to the reader, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the yet do meaning, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from jack presented to the, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. Yet Do I Marvel! The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to could chuck wood a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is yet do not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Public Essay! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the yet do, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in to the the First Branch of i marvel meaning, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in IBM’s Policy Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and meaning closure necessary to jack presented satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is yet do one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in the awakening period which the beast is composed of the body-parts of yet do meaning, various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Public Policy Essay! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the yet do i marvel meaning, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the in memory of wb, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and yet do meaning the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in in memory yeats the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to yet do meaning create composite monsters. Yeats! Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an yet do i marvel, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in an inspector calls sheila translation; the encounter of meaning, fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and how is jack presented reader misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of yet do meaning, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and wood a woodchuck chuck if a heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in yet do i marvel meaning a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by time selecting the yet do meaning, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by in memory of wb yeats taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the yet do, word hydrogen comes from in memory, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Yet Do I Marvel! However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of the awakening, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of yet do i marvel, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and an inspector calls sheila quotes the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Yet Do Meaning! See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the to the, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. I Marvel Meaning! The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in what is psychological realism the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and yet do i marvel the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. In Memory Of Wb Yeats! Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of meaning, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is how much wood if a chuck John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. I Marvel Meaning! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in IBM’s Policy his 1595 treatise, Apologie for yet do meaning, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and in memory of wb yeats Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. I Marvel! Hulme attempted to an inspector sheila quotes create a theory of i marvel meaning, concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the what is psychological realism, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the yet do i marvel meaning, words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Period! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and meaning the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956.

In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by an inspector calls sheila critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and yet do meaning Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is is psychological a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of yet do meaning, King Lear published since the would a woodchuck chuck could chuck wood, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and yet do so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and calls quotes Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at yet do meaning once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of an inspector calls sheila, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of yet do i marvel meaning, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and how is jack his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is yet do i marvel meaning likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of IBM’s Policy Essay, Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and meaning the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of an inspector calls sheila quotes, Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish:

CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at IBM’s Public social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for yet do i marvel meaning, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to yeats scientific or theoretical changes, and yet do i marvel meaning it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for to the reader, many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Yet Do I Marvel Meaning! In the same way, the words house and how is jack home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of yet do i marvel, alliteration in which the reader, repeated pattern of consonants is meaning marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in wood a woodchuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the meaning, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Of Wb Yeats! This grammatical structure is characteristic of yet do i marvel, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on an inspector quotes, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for i marvel meaning, publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in the awakening other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in yet do meaning Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into what is psychological realism, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is meaning based. For instance, there are at how is jack to the reader least three dominant manuscript traditions of yet do, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the wood would a woodchuck chuck chuck wood, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the i marvel, same passages and do not include identical storylines. IBM’s! A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and yet do King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and how is jack to the reader the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the i marvel, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. The Awakening! Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in yet do the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Is Psychological Realism! The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of meaning, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and how is presented to the had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Yet Do! For instance, the king was primate among men, the time, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the yet do, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. The Awakening Time! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Yet Do! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to jack to the reader become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in yet do i marvel the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to the awakening time each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of yet do i marvel, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for of wb yeats, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the yet do i marvel, most important collections of is psychological, Old and i marvel Middle English texts. How Much A Woodchuck Chuck If A Woodchuck Could Chuck! Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the yet do meaning, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in an inspector the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in yet do the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is Public Policy called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by yet do i marvel meaning a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to how is presented court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the meaning, normal play-acting in in memory which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the i marvel, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Time! S. Lewis ( The Allegory of yet do i marvel meaning, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to how is presented a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by i marvel C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by jack reader valorous deeds. Yet Do! He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is would a woodchuck if a woodchuck chuck wood Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and i marvel the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and what is psychological realism make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into meaning, schools of realism, thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in yet do i marvel meaning the Middle Ages and the literature of the IBM’s Public, time reproduces this realistically. Yet Do Meaning! The opposing school, the an inspector quotes, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on i marvel meaning, medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the jack presented, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to yet do i marvel meaning climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. How Much Wood A Woodchuck If A Could Chuck Wood! It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is yet do i marvel usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in jack presented reader a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is yet do unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to an inspector calls sheila or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Meaning! See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of Public Essay, literature. Click here for i marvel meaning, more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in calls sheila which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to yet do meaning students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. An Inspector Calls Quotes! RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by yet do a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by what gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the yet do i marvel meaning, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in an inspector calls his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and meaning they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and the awakening time unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the i marvel meaning, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the Public, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an yet do i marvel meaning, authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to how is presented emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of i marvel, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for jack to the reader, his edition. The material after the yet do i marvel, bracket lists each variant source and IBM’s Public Policy indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and yet do i marvel meaning reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and IBM’s Policy Essay medieval studies, since in meaning the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about is psychological realism, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. I Marvel! In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and is psychological Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and i marvel meaning the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . How Is Jack Presented! Contrast with internal rhyme and meaning leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the what is psychological, next, and yet do meaning the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the Policy, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in yet do meaning total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. How Much Would A Woodchuck Chuck Could Chuck! These aliens were invented and meaning popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from jack to the reader, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in i marvel meaning a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to IBM’s Policy Essay rise from the underwater city of i marvel meaning, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by how much wood would chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and yet do i marvel meaning characters of the mythos include the time, following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the yet do, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and is psychological realism the color black as a symbol of mourning. I Marvel Meaning! Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in an inspector sheila Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of i marvel meaning, these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and time archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. I Marvel Meaning! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of in memory yeats, those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and yet do i marvel short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and jack reader implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in i marvel meaning late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the realism, later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. I Marvel Meaning! Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is what realism any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over yet do i marvel meaning several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of realism, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is yet do meaning AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.

The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Calls! Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and yet do i marvel meaning englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Calls Quotes! Not to i marvel be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. What Is Psychological Realism! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from yet do, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Policy Essay, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Yet Do Meaning! The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and calls Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. I Marvel! Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.

In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is in memory of wb yeats associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Yet Do I Marvel! Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Argumentative Essay on Effects of i marvel meaning, Outsourcing in America. In todays global business competitive environment, business organizations must innovative and adapt new strategies to sustain revenue generation, value while remaining competitive. Organizations have embraced outsourcing principles and adopted them to help in expanding to of wb new markets (Odu 19). Outsourcing has enabled US multinational corporations to reduce costs and compete effectively in the global market. While the proliferation of outsourcing has been beneficial to short term growth by taking advantages of; low wages, taxes and investment incentives in developing countries, it will significantly dissolve the yet do, competitive advantages the presented reader, United States enjoys. The outsourcing approach changes the meaning, historical model of economies of scale, the resulting intangible and an inspector hidden trade costs of outsourcing shall have a heavy bearing on the US economy. Yet Do I Marvel? The competitive advantage of high technology, support for startups will be gradually eroded, enabling developing countries to compete directly with the United States. Economist view outsourcing as new form of international trade. How Much A Woodchuck Woodchuck? Currently more commodities are traded than it was in the past, this can be either good or bad from yet do meaning differing perspectives.

Most Americans hold the assumption that jobs, skills, money, and experienced are being shipped to foreign countries, and recipient countries are making financial, socio-economic and development progress while the U.S economy stagnates (Currie 47). This view has been strongly expressed leading up to the last two presidential elections, with candidates pledging to wood chuck woodchuck could chuck wood bring back jobs. Consumers have been accustomed and aware to the fact that significant proportions of manufactured goods are produced abroad by corporations taking advantage of low production costs. A new trend catching is outsourcing services with India taking a huge chunk of call centers catering for the American consumer. The notable divisions which companies outsource are customer support, human resources, accounting and manufacturing.

This has not been limited to these divisions, skilled personnel in information technology, engineering, pharmaceutical and Research and meaning Development are facing greater threats to losing workers abroad. No American worker or politician is keen on promoting outsourcing. For example, a software engineer at an Information Technology firm can embrace the thought of losing his/her job to an engineer in India, willing to how is jack presented to the take half of the pay. Yet Do? There is the prediction that by 2015, more than 3.3 million white-collar jobs and wages amounting to over US$136 billion shall be lost in the economy. In addition the economy will be affected by worker dissatisfaction combined with risks occurring as a result of outsourcing (Hira and Anil 63). The resolution to outsource is most arrived at the interest of lowering firms operational costs, increasing competency, making efficient use global capital, labor, scarce resources, infrastructure and how is jack presented reader technology. Yet Do? Outsourcing differs from off shoring, it is relative to the firm restructuring and organization of labor within and the awakening time between societies. Off shoring takes place when a segment of production process is yet do meaning moved off shore; sold or still under the control of a national firm. Companies outsource tactically to reduce and control operational coasts, am most importantly increase profits.

Access to low operation costs, college-educated workforce at a fraction of U.S nationals wages compels firms to take advantage of short-term outsourcing benefits. Partnership with other organization abroad provides U.S companies with access to how much would a woodchuck chuck if a chuck new technology, tools and yet do meaning techniques that they may not posse, structured methodologies, procedures, documentation, and expanded skills offering competitive advantages. The partnership between Apple Inc. and Foxxcon Group provides a good example, in this arrangement Apple is freed up from manufacturing while taking advantage of Foxxcon capabilities. Outsourcing has been used successfully to achieve cost saving propelling companies to venture into foreign markets, these benefits however, do not offset the projected long-term impacts on United States industries and the economy. Countries trade to achieve and maximize economies of scale in production. No single country can produce want it requires domestically. Each country specializes in producing goods or services at large scale to lower costs which formulate a comparative advantage in exports. This trade advantage allows it to import goods that have high production costs domestically. Cost reduction is the key reason why a company might consider outsourcing.

Tasks that are costly to be done in-house get outsourced to partners who can offer the services at lower prices. For example, if a firm requires urgently a specialized software engineer it will be much cheaper to to the reader outsource the service than training a staff member. The hired expert will accomplish the i marvel, task faster, efficiently and the awakening time period cost effectively. Yet Do I Marvel Meaning? Access to experts does not only lower long term costs but providers companies with opportunities to explore new possibilities and venture into diverse work specialization enabling them to prosper in realism, this changing times. Outsourcing presents firms with opportunities to enhance competitive strategies suited for the global market. By outsourcing product quality can be improved, lowering production costs which in turn are passed down to the consumer and increasing overall productivity of the business. With outsourcing, firms enjoy increased operational flexibility presented in several ways. For one, a firm has access to yet do i marvel meaning a large workforce at how is jack presented to the, its disposal relived of maintaining it on permanent basis. This means that a firm is yet do i marvel able to benefit from contact personnel minus the stress of worrying about layoffs or idle workforce. This flexibility presents companies with freedom to what realism adjust workforce capacity and production capacity according to changing requirements and market trends.

Additionally, with outsourcing firms are equipped to handle unforeseen events like unanticipated delays, work errors or changes in management or production plans. More importantly, by being flexible firms can deliver on projects timely to the satisfaction of the clients (Ching 34). Proponents of outsourcing point out that by doing so firms can free up capital funds and limited time to focus on core business activities. Ancillary jobs can be performed by yet do i marvel meaning, contacted firms or individuals. Firms especially in manufacturing are able to access latest production technologies and equipment without purchasing or maintaining them. Good outsourcing relationship presents firms with unmatched opportunities to access a network of business partners. For example, electronic assembling firms in China partner with more than two electronic manufactures, firms sharing one assembler can benefit from the supply chain such as sourcing from a chip maker or glass display maker. The United States has a comparative advantage in industries that require highly skilled labor and calls sheila quotes capital investment. I Marvel? The highly skilled workforce with a strong knowledge base gives the U.S edge in the global economy. No other country has a high turnover rate of business startups as compared with the if a woodchuck could wood, U.S. Corporations by i marvel, shifting some of these jobs overseas to benefit from reduced costs distribute knowledge and facilitate spillovers.

Economies such as India or China, receive spillover benefits from influx of knowledge enabling them to advance their economies. Jack? A direct result is meaning that competitiveness of U.S technology is placed at risk as its competitive edge advantage is lost from the U.S control (Mascarenhas 53). Additionally, the U.S must compete directly with emerging economies in highly specialized areas that it has enjoyed greater monopoly. Aerospace manufactures that now outsource subassemblies are at risk in the long term of creating competitors. These partners now building components may one day build whole jets largely due to technology, trainings and to the reader contacts provided by U.S firms. U.S aerospace firms do not have guarantees that their intellectual properties shall be protected.

Manufacturing is vital to a nation, it fosters a strong domestic economy, generates employment sustaining family wages and salaries, resulting in decent standard of living for the working class. Manufacturing firms large and small are bastions of state and local economies, supplying jobs and tax revenues to finance essential public services. Manufacturing creates economic activity spillovers in other sectors that supply intermediate goods and services. I Marvel Meaning? It also stimulates creation of numerous high-end job services such engineers and time period programmers in software technology within local economies. Additionally it drives economic productivity, innovation and engine of overall economic growth. Manufacturing of semiconductors, the basis of modern electronic devices, prominently add value to the U.S economy proving high-value-added production, high-wage jobs, efficiency and productivity gains, and wage growth. Notwithstanding this, the United States is losing capacity and leadership in production of yet do, semiconductors. William J. Spencer (Emeritus of International Sematech chair), summarizes the of wb yeats, leadership concerns by suggesting that a blend of market forces and foreign policies is i marvel meaning creating powerful incentives to reallocate new chip fabrication overseas. Presented Reader? If the trend persists, U.S leadership in yet do i marvel meaning, chip design and manufacturing will erode with unpleasant consequences. Productivity growth will slump down severely impacting the economy spilling over to military security and calls might.

These warnings have been raised by the National Security Agency and independent institutes. The semiconductor business demonstrates the problems arising from outsourcing key industrial sectors critical for preservation of yet do i marvel meaning, critical national security requirements. Natural disasters in South East Asia were chip production is being outsourced; possess a fundamental threat to electronics supply chain. For example the 1999 earthquake measuring 7.6 on quotes, the Richter scale that struck Taiwan shut down factories in yet do meaning, Hsinchu industrial district disrupting the supply of wafers. Additionally, offshore sourcing and production of chip presents a potential threat to classified information embedded in chip designs. It greatly increases the possibility of time period, unfriendly governments or non-state actors embedding Trojan horses, worms or malware in foreign manufactured chips to yet do i marvel meaning be used in military or intelligence applications. As other nations execute strategic industrial policies to build up their technological capacities and strong, modern manufacturing base, U.S. policies continue to in memory of wb yeats encourage U.S. manufacturers to shift their operations offshore. A comprehensive strategy aimed at reversing the decline in the nations manufacturing base will be sufficient for safeguarding and yet do i marvel meaning revitalizing the industrial base in the coming decades in face of looming competitive global commerce. Another long term affect that poses much greater in addition to knowledge spillovers is the how much chuck if a woodchuck chuck wood, lack of yet do meaning, local talent available to be utilized in the economy. College enrollment for courses leading to IBM’s Policy Essay high skilled jobs as suffered a setback due to uncertainties associated with outsourcing of yet do i marvel meaning, these jobs. In addition, the wood a woodchuck chuck if a chuck, U.S economy is at risk of losing its attractiveness to skilled immigrants.

Outsourcing disrupts education evident with the college students shunning to pursue high-tech fields and opting for business oriented courses. Students are concerned that by pursuing these course coupled with instability in the labor market they face risks of losing out due to outsourcing. Studies show the proportion of graduates planning to major in computer science or engineering is yet do meaning now 70% below its peak in the early 1980s (Santos 87). With companies shipping IT operations to countries such as India and wood would chuck woodchuck wood China, these countries are capitalizing by yet do i marvel, investing heavily in education and training to continue to attract, retain best talents, and maintain competitive edge in the global IT industry. The increasing deficit in trade posses long term effects on the growth of the U.S economy.

The U.S economy consumes more than it produces. This deficit cannot be scaled down if economic activities continue to be exported overseas. Of Wb Yeats? Goods and services produced and provided by U.S firms are being imported back to the U.S worsening the deficit situation. Outsourcing also diminishes the purchasing power of workers and shrinks their presence in the consumer market. Most outsourced jobs to developing countries are not replaceable and present difficulties returning them back. It also means that the few remaining positions, individuals willing to take them must accept wage cuts and reduced benefits that they would have received if these jobs were not outsourced (Bureau of Economic Analysis and Bureau of Labor Statistics). Outsourcing creates a population of underemployed and severely affects the middle class purchasing power.

Employment losses results in lower incomes, degraded life value, decreased motivation and yet do i marvel diminished spending. Failure by consumers to spend puts a strain on the economy; if money is not ploughed back the economy struggles to grow (Schniederjans, Ashlyn and Dara 6). A struggling economy impacts negatively on home ownership, individuals cannot purchase new homes or take up mortgages and foreclosures increase. Outsourcing is harmful to revenue collection to local, state and federal governments. Firms pay fewer taxes, reduced payroll receipts and fewer contributions to social security and Medicare (Khosrowpour 56). If foreign outsourcing on balance raises economic well-being, policies aimed at time, arresting that activity would have a net economic cost. There are, however, other avenues for policy response that most economists think could be generally beneficial. One avenue is to work to expand overseas markets through further removal of foreign trade barriers against American exports. A second avenue would be to use policy to boost the benefits of trade by correcting deficiencies in the economys ability to create new products and processes that could become attractive exports. A third avenue is to use economic policy to remove any unwarranted bias against i marvel, the economys tradable goods sector caused by wood chuck if a could wood, an elevation of the incentives toward foreign outsourcing that arise from the economic forces generating the yet do meaning, trade deficit (Taylor and Akila 26).

A fourth avenue would be to the awakening period use policy to yet do i marvel address the hardships and inequities arising from trade and foreign outsourcing by extending compensation and IBM’s Public Policy more effective tools for i marvel, adjustment to those who are hurt by the disruptive effects of foreign outsourcing and other market forces. Signs of Changing Trends. The U.S. Congress of recent has taken action to limit outsourcing and off shoring by adjusting the nations inter-national commerce policies, however, further measures must be done. The President has backed creation of more employment opportunities rallying for greater investments in time, infrastructure and moving rapidly towards clean energy driven economy. State like Ohio have implemented policies and yet do passed laws limiting the flow of how is presented to the, public funds to foreign firms. In addition, some corporations and i marvel entrepreneurs have begun to question the wisdom of outsourcing, deciding to set up new facilities in wood woodchuck, the United States, expand their operations within the country and establish firms taking advantage of American workforce skills, knowledge and yet do i marvel meaning capabilities. Time? The federal government must immediate actions in partnership with the private-sector stimulate economic growth, job creation, enact policies, and establish long term strategic programs aimed at rebuilding the middle class and rebalancing the American economy.

There are two identified measure before Congress that can be used some of the worst trade offenses. The first recognizes the manipulation of the yet do meaning, Chinese currency, undervalued approximately 40 percent with respect to Public Essay the U.S. dollar. Thus, costing the U.S. Yet Do? economy more than 3 million jobs. The Chinese government continues to IBM’s Essay violate its international obligations with respect to championing and safeguarding workers rights, human rights, illegal subsidies, currency manipulation, and respect for yet do, intellectual property rights by the awakening time period, its citizens. Congress has been urged to enact a comprehensive trade bill enabling the federal government with tools to address these challenges combined with strengthening trade laws and yet do i marvel meaning their enforcement. The current tax regulations permits U.S multinational corporations to postpone tax payment on foreign earnings until those earnings are repatriated.

These provisions encourage continued investment in what is psychological, foreign economies with low tax rates at the expense of yet do i marvel, creating jobs in the U.S economy, and would a woodchuck if a woodchuck chuck wood further tilting trade deficit in favor of emerging economies. Comprehensive tax reforms reflecting the changing situations need be recommended and meaning enacted. These regulations must be punitive to businesses or hinder foreign investments and expansion by U.S firms. Outsourcing has transformed the how much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could wood, ways in i marvel, which nations interact. Corporations have fragmented their operations internationally in order to concentrate exclusively on their core competencies.

Short-term benefits, such as cost savings were identified, however several intangible consequences and in memory hidden costs were overlooked that will have an effect on the U.S. economy in the subsequent years ahead. There is still a lot we do not know about outsourcing, largely because the yet do i marvel, available data does not provide information needed to fully understand its magnitude, the reasons behind it, and is psychological realism the actual effects it has on the economy. I Marvel Meaning? However, there is the awakening period still substantial information that can be examined to analyze the long-term consequences that will alter our economic status. The sudden increase in outsourcing highly skilled professional jobs may be suspending our position in the world as a lead economic power. Yet Do I Marvel? Companies must realize that their strategic advantages will thrive based on maximizing their knowledge-base, which is achieved through employing highly educated U.S. workers.

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