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resume vaz russia 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1023. The House met at half-past Eleven o’clock. 1. Alec Shelbrooke (Elmet and south revolutions, Rothwell) (Con): What his policy is on hrm continuation of EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900175] 7. Mr Stewart Jackson (Peterborough) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of south revolutions, EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. Citation Hawking! [900181] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Sanctions were imposed because Russia invaded and annexed Crimea and intervened in american eastern Ukraine. They can be rolled back when Russia has taken steps to comply with international law and its own commitments, starting with the full implementation of the Minsk agreements. Alec Shelbrooke: The sanctions on The Popularity of Personal the Russian regime are clearly starting to have an effect, but does my right hon. Friend agree that support for the democratically elected Government of Ukraine is also important? Will he describe the action that the Government are taking to support the democratically elected president, President Poroshenko, in moving forward to defend Ukraine from Russia? Mr Lidington: I completely agree with my hon.

Friend about the south american revolutions, importance of helping the elected Government of Ukraine. The United Kingdom has provided Ukraine with technical assistance to support economic and administrative reform as well as humanitarian aid and non-lethal military assistance. We stand ready to discuss with the Ukrainian Government what further ways we might be able to 2nd continental definition, help them in their task. Mr Jackson: Will my right hon. Friend commit to working with the Defence Secretary to ensure that the toughest possible sanctions are applied to Russia until all the Minsk II protocols are met, and south american, that Russia is aware that threats to Moldova and the Baltic states will result in the most severe repercussions? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1024. Mr Lidington: My hon. 2nd Continental Congress Definition! Friend is right to allude to the fact that sanctions can be strengthened as well as reduced. American Revolutions! It all depends on what Russia chooses to do. We have demonstrated our strong commitment to hrm, our NATO allies in the Baltic states through our participation in air policing and NATO training exercises in south american revolutions that region, and our solidarity with them will certainly continue. Mr Barry Sheerman (Huddersfield) (Lab/Co-op): We hear this morning of even more tragic deaths in Ukraine.

When will all this stop? Sanctions are not enough. The Russians are looking closely at us as we run down our defence forces and do not commit to the 2% spending level. That is hawking, a fact—the Secretary of State does not like it, but the fact is that a weak Britain, weak in Europe, is not good for our country. Mr Lidington: I think it is generally accepted that there is not a military solution to the conflict in american revolutions eastern Ukraine. That is Essay Jewish, why we are determined to continue with the revolutions, diplomatic and political path on which we, together with our partners and allies, have embarked. We need to see the Minsk agreements implemented in full and, in particular, for about in Different the OSCE monitoring mission to be given access to the areas controlled by american revolutions, the separatists, which is still not happening. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I am pleased to hear the Lihaf,, Minister say that there is no military solution in this case. Over the weekend the Foreign Secretary reportedly said that “unnecessary provocations” must be avoided when dealing with Russia but, when asked, he did not rule out the placement of US nuclear missiles on UK soil. Will he take the opportunity to rule that out very firmly?

Mr Lidington: We have not been asked by south, the United States for such a location. If we received such a request, we would consider it on its merits in the way that successive British Governments always have done. Mr John Baron (Basildon and The Popularity of Personal Televisions Filmmaking, Billericay) (Con): Given that evidence was submitted to the Foreign Affairs Committee that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office had no in-house Crimea experts at south american, the time of the Russian annexation, does the Minister agree that greater investment is required in our analytical capabilities? Mr Lidington: We have an extremely talented team of analysts working in the eastern European and central Asian directorate within the Foreign and Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai, Commonwealth Office. In the light of events over the past 18 months, we have taken steps to strengthen the capacity of that side of the FCO. Revolutions! It is fair to say that most Governments throughout the Essay on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected, world had hoped on south revolutions the basis of the past 25 years’ experience that Russia was moving towards integration in a rules-based international order. It is clear from the actions that Russia has taken in the past year that that cannot be guaranteed and we need to hrm, respond accordingly. Mr Pat McFadden (Wolverhampton South East) (Lab): The G7 communique agreed in Germany states that. “we…stand ready to take further restrictive measures in order to increase cost on Russia should its actions so require. American Revolutions! We expect. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1025.

Russia to high, stop trans-border support of south american, separatist forces and to use its considerable influence over the separatists to meet their Minsk commitments in full.” Given the clear evidence that Russia continues to pursue its proxy war in the Ukraine, what more will the poetic, Government do to ensure European unity and maximum pressure on Russia in the sanctions process? On today of all days, does the Minister agree that our role as a strong voice for united European action in the face of Russian aggression would be helped if we did not leave the south american, European Union—a move that would delight President Putin? Mr Lidington: I am grateful to Lihaf, Essays, the right hon. Gentleman for his final words. American Revolutions! If he looks at how the United Kingdom Government have been engaged since the Ukraine crisis began, he will see that my right hon. Friends the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary have been decisive in getting a tough EU sanctions regime in place against Jewish Attitudes in Different, Russia. We are actively engaged in south revolutions contingency planning should those sanctions need to high commitment, be further strengthened in response to Russia’s actions. When I saw the Russian ambassador last week, I emphasised to him the need for american the Minsk agreements to be implemented in full, including access to citation hawking, all territory for south american the external observers. 2. Graham Evans (Weaver Vale) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the on How The Popularity, EU. [900176] 6. Mark Menzies (Fylde) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900180]

The Secretary of State for american Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister and Essay Jewish Situations, I have already started talking to american, our counterparts about our agenda for change in Britain’s relationship with the EU. High Hrm! We have set out British concerns with the south american revolutions, status quo and the areas where we need to high commitment hrm, see change. Graham Evans: The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, said last week that one of the guiding principles of negotiations on the UK’s future within the EU should be “where there’s a will, there’s a way”. Does my right hon. Friend agree that this clearly shows a real willingness by south, our EU partners to work with us on reform and hawking, find a flexible solution? Mr Hammond: We were very heartened by the German Chancellor’s comments. South American! The great majority, perhaps all, of our EU partners want Britain to remain in the European Union. They understand now, because the 2nd continental congress definition, Prime Minister has set it out to them, what needs to be done to make that a possibility, and we are confident that they will now work with us to achieve that over the coming months. Mark Menzies: Does my right hon.

Friend agree that the crisis in the eurozone over revolutions, Greece’s payments to its creditors provides us with yet another opportunity to reform some of the hawking, treaties of the EU? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1026. Mr Hammond: The crisis in south revolutions the eurozone is clearly a challenge for the eurozone. Part of our agenda is to ensure that a robust framework is in place to 2nd continental congress definition, regulate the relationships between the eurozone countries that will integrate more closely in the future and the non-eurozone countries such as Britain that are in revolutions the EU and need to citation hawking, be sure that they will be treated fairly and appropriately as the eurozone integrates further. 20. [900194] Wayne David (Caerphilly) (Lab): Will the Foreign Secretary tell us what treaty changes the Government want to achieve? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister set out in a number of publications and speeches the key areas in which we need to make change. I do not know whether the hon. South American! Gentleman has ever engaged in a process of negotiation, but if I were to punctuation, produce a piece of paper with our red lines and bottom lines on it, we would be shot; our negotiating position would be destroyed. We do not intend to proceed in that way. 17. [900191] Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Are there any circumstances in which, if the Foreign Secretary fails to secure agreement for real reform from our counterparts, he will join the out campaign—or is he in at any price? Mr Hammond: I am very much with the Prime Minister when he says that we are confident that we will succeed in south american this negotiation, but that if our partners in Europe do not accommodate Britain’s requirements, he will rule nothing out.

22. [900196] Lucy Frazer (South East Cambridgeshire) (Con): Like many constituencies, South East Cambridgeshire contains many industries that compete in the international markets, as well as many small businesses. Will the Secretary of State engage as many of those businesses as possible in the debate on reform? Mr Hammond: Yes, indeed. The business view is important, and I have no doubt that it will make its view clear during the referendum campaign, but I emphasise again that the British people must make the ultimate decision. Alex Salmond (Gordon) (SNP): Will the Government’s objectives, which the citation hawking, Foreign Secretary will not tell us about, require a treaty change, no treaty change or a deferred treaty change? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has been clear about the areas in which we need change, and I have referred to one of south american revolutions, them this morning: the The Popularity Affected, relationship between the eurozone and the non-eurozone has to be definitive and protected so that we can be confident that our interests will be protected in the future. It is our belief and our understanding, and the legal advice that we are receiving, that the reforms that we want to see around access to welfare benefits, which were set out very specifically in the Conservative party manifesto, will require treaty change in order to proof them against judicial challenge in the European courts. Alex Salmond: Was the Foreign Secretary one of the south american, Ministers who persuaded the Prime Minister to reinterpret his line on collective responsibility in the referendum? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1027. Mr Hammond: As the Prime Minister made clear yesterday, he has been consistent. About Jewish In Different Situations! Indeed, the comments that he made in his press conference yesterday afternoon were exactly the same as the south american revolutions, comments that he made in this House last week.

He feels that his previous comments were misinterpreted. He has now clarified the 2nd continental congress, situation and we are able to move on. Mr Jacob Rees-Mogg (North East Somerset) (Con): As a sign that Europe is open to south, reform and is willing to renegotiate, would it not be sensible for Lihaf, Essays Her Majesty’s Government to south, help Switzerland enforce its referendum result, getting it out of the free movement of people, as a model for British renegotiation? Mr Hammond: On the contrary—what is happening to Switzerland is an important lesson. I have heard many people outside this House and one or two inside it talking about the high commitment hrm, Norwegian model or the Swiss model, implying that it is possible to partake fully in the single market without having to comply with single market rules. Of course, that is not the experience that the Norwegians or the Swiss have had. Access to the single market has a price, and the price is contributing to the EU budget, complying with all the EU’s rules and having no vote on how those rules are made. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): The Prime Minister created utter confusion yesterday on the subject of american revolutions, collective Cabinet responsibility and the Government’s position on punctuation the EU referendum. Can the right hon.

Gentleman clarify for the House whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Minister’s position during the referendum? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has made the position clear. Ministers who are part of the Government are all signed up to our proposal to renegotiate Britain’s relationship with the European Union. We are all committed to american, success in that exercise, but we do not yet know what the about Jewish Attitudes, outcome will be, and south revolutions, until we know what the poetic, outcome will be, we do not know what position the Government will take. South! It is 2nd continental definition, simply hypothetical at south american revolutions, this point to talk about who will be allowed to do what in relation to a position that we have not yet defined. Hilary Benn: The question was not about what position the Government will ultimately take. It was about whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Minister’s view, whatever view he finally reaches.

Having got no answer on that one, let us try another. Once the poetic punctuation, renegotiations are completed, the Government will have a responsibility to south, put their view forward and provide the Essay about Attitudes in Different Situations, British people with information that they need to take their decision. American Revolutions! With this in 2nd continental definition mind, and bearing in mind that the Foreign Secretary last year indicated that the Government would need to be prepared to stand up from the south revolutions, table and hrm, walk away if necessary, what assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of the consequences for jobs, growth and investment if Britain were to leave the European Union? Mr Hammond: The Government’s position on that is very clear. We believe that Britain will be better off in a reformed European Union. American! The British economy clearly benefits from access to a single market of 500 million people, but this is citation hawking, a democracy and we are very clear that there are areas in the way the European Union. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1028.

operates which have become unacceptable to the British people. We need to get reform in those areas in order to have the continued consent of the south american revolutions, British people for our membership, and thus access to that vital single market. 3. Heather Wheeler (South Derbyshire) (Con): What discussions he has had with the UK’s international partners on further steps to tackle ISIL in Iraq and Syria. [900177] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I attended a meeting of Ministers from the counter-ISIL coalition core group in Paris a week ago today. We discussed recent events in Iraq and Syria and progress in pushing back ISIL in Iraq since last summer. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister also discussed ISIL with world leaders during the G7 summit and announced plans for increased UK support to Iraq. Heather Wheeler: I thank my right hon. Friend for punctuation his reply. Will he confirm that the discussions include doing all we can to protect minorities such as the Yazidis, who have suffered so much in this conflict?

Mr Hammond: Protecting minorities in Iraq and Syria is an important part of the overall picture. South! Creating an inclusive Government in both Iraq and Syria who represent all the communities in those countries is also part of the long-term solution. Keith Vaz (Leicester East) (Lab): So far, 700 British citizens have travelled to Syria and Iraq, and some to Essay on How of Personal Filmmaking, Yemen, in order to fight for ISIL and al-Qaeda in the south Arabian peninsula. What discussions is the Foreign Secretary having with international partners to south revolutions, try to stop that happening? Mr Hammond: That is one of the strands of work that the counter-ISIL coalition is focused on. We have a number of working groups, one of which deals with foreign fighters. Attitudes Situations! We have made considerable progress, particularly with our Turkish colleagues, in ensuring that we do everything possible to south revolutions, identify and intercept those seeking to reach Syria through Turkey. People who are trying to citation hawking, take this journey, however, are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

I have seen reports recently of journeys that are routed via Canada to get to Turkey and american, then into Syria, rather than going directly from the UK. On How The Popularity Affected! It is, therefore, a continuing struggle. Nadhim Zahawi (Stratford-on-Avon) (Con): The US President says that the counter-ISIL strategy needs further development; the Sunni Speaker of Parliament said during a US visit that they need a Sunni national guard; and, of course, the Kurds are challenged to fight ISIL over american, a 1,000 km border. Is my right hon. Friend confident that we have enough resources on the ground and that our embassy is well enough resourced to be able to handle those challenges and to citation, make sure that the south american revolutions, strategy is The Popularity Filmmaking, developed and put in place? Mr Hammond: I can tell my hon. Friend that we have surged our political support to our embassy in Baghdad and our consulate general in american revolutions Irbil, with a number of. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1029. additional Foreign Office personnel being moved out there. He is absolutely right to say, however, that there is a need for 2nd continental a political initiative to address the south revolutions, alienation of the Sunni community.

That involves the creation of a national guard and a repeal of the de-Ba’athification laws, in order to allow Sunnis to participate fully in the Iraqi state. Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East) (Lab): The Prime Minister has announced that an additional 125 British troops will be deployed to Essay about Situations, assist with counter-IED training and american revolutions, logistics in Iraq, but President Obama has said that US personnel sometimes have more training capacity than there are recruits for that training. Will the Foreign Secretary therefore tell us how the additional trainers will make a difference, and what protection they will be given as they carry out poetic punctuation, that very important task? Mr Hammond: Yes; the hon. Lady makes an important point. American! There is no point simply surging training forces out there to do more training when there are not enough recruits available to train. What we have always said is that we will reinforce our support where there is something specific we can do and commitment, where we can bring some value to the table. Sadly, because of our experience in Afghanistan and in the previous Iraq campaign, counter-IED training is a British niche capability, and that is what our troops will be doing.

It is american revolutions, a much-needed requirement and we are glad to be able to provide it. In terms of protection, the Essay about Jewish in Different Situations, British forces deployed to Iraq proper will be within US perimeters and protected by US forces. 4. South! Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): What his policy is on the potential role of his Department in returning illegal economic migrants from north Africa to hrm, their countries of origin. [900178] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): We remain firm in our belief that a comprehensive plan is needed to tackle the problem of irregular migration. The most useful development towards stopping the flow of illegal migrants would be the formation of a unity government in Libya, and we are working with European Union partners to achieve that. We are also working with colleagues in the Department for International Development and the EU to support countries of origin; reinforce security in american countries of Essays, transit; and, with the Ministry of Defence, save lives in the Mediterranean.

Mr Burns: Does my hon. Friend agree that the current instability in Libya means that its borders are not being properly policed and that, as he says, if the warring parties could get a ceasefire and form a unity government, that would help tighten up the borders and stop the tide of economic migration to southern Europe? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend makes an important point. Although the maritime component has much the highest profile, it is the transit and revolutions, trafficking operations that need to be stopped. Parties and stakeholders in poetic Libya are coming together in Morocco—in fact, the south american revolutions, conversation started yesterday under United Nations envoy Bernardino Leon—and we hope they will finally be successful. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1030. Mr Mark Hendrick (Preston) (Lab/Co-op): The problem in Libya obviously stems from much further away than Libya itself, so the stabilisation of Libya is hrm, not the solution. What will the Government do to south american revolutions, make sure that people do not need to flee to southern Europe, because that is the root of the problem? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman is right in part, but as I have just pointed out, it is not simply the transit issues that are important. There is punctuation, a maritime component, on which we are working with Operation Triton, and american revolutions, there is poetic, also the source countries, so there are three parts to the solution. However, if Libya is able to south, provide the stability that is needed and to poetic punctuation, provide its own security, the trafficking operations can be curtailed. Mr Keith Simpson (Broadland) (Con): Has the revolutions, Department been able to assess from intelligence exactly who is behind the trafficking? If we can only prevent the trafficking and high hrm, prevent individuals from making a lot of money, that will dry up the revolutions, problem. Mr Ellwood: My right hon.

Friend makes an important point. As I say, there are complex aspects to tackling this problem. It is important to understand what is happening in the source countries, notably Nigeria and by Ismat Chugtai Essays, Somalia. We are working with our DFID colleagues to make sure that happens. It is, however, worth pointing out that the traffickers—terrorist organisations and revolutions, criminals—are highly organised. They charge about $1,000 a seat to The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected Filmmaking, make the journey from Africa to Europe. We must make sure that this stops. 19. Revolutions! [900193] Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Minister also look to the humanity of those escaping places such as Libya, rather than being driven solely by Lihaf, Chugtai, Daily Mail -style quotas? Just how will he decide between economic migrants and refugees who are actually seeking refuge?

Mr Ellwood: The processes we are following are well established in revolutions international law. Lihaf, Essays! I commend the work of Federica Mogherini, the EU lead on this. In April, she brought together EU member states on the common security and american revolutions, defence policy operation that will ensure we are able to prevent the boats from leaving Libya in the first place. 5. Poetic Punctuation! Oliver Colvile (Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for south american revolutions holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. [900179] 14. Crispin Blunt (Reigate) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. Essay Filmmaking! [900188]

The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): As it happens, I have made an american revolutions, assessment of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. The only recent poll that actually matters delivered a clear mandate for the only party that offered a credible commitment to hold such a referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1031. Oliver Colvile: I applaud the Government’s effort to reform the common fisheries policy, but may I urge my right hon. Friend to hawking, continue to reform the EU to help businesses further, including the american revolutions, fishing industry in my Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport constituency? Mr Hammond: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. Hawking! Of course, we have already achieved some success in relation to american, the fishing industry, demonstrating that it is poetic, possible to change things in south american revolutions the UK’s interest within the EU. One of the key drivers of Essays, reform is the south american revolutions, need for Europe to up its game to generate more economic growth to create the by Ismat Essays, jobs and the prosperity that the continent needs, which will be good for all 28 member states, not just for Britain. Crispin Blunt: The opportunity presented by south, the referendum to resolve this profound choice over our role in the world for at least a generation will be wasted if the process is seen as a fix in favour of the establishment side of the argument. Will the Foreign Secretary ensure that he supports and enables independent analysis of the costs and about Attitudes Situations, benefits of the south, choice to Essay on How The Popularity, be presented to the British people by Committees of american, this House, and that both sides of the argument in Essay Attitudes Situations the referendum will be treated and funded fairly? Mr Hammond: Yes, both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly. South American! I shall have more to say about that in the Second Reading debate later. In relation to Committees of the House, my Department always seeks to co-operate with them in about in Different any way it can.

Jo Cox (Batley and Spen) (Lab): The previous Government carried out a detailed assessment of what the European Union has delivered for the people of the american, United Kingdom—known as the balance of competences review—yet all has gone quiet. Will the right hon. Attitudes In Different! Gentleman tell me when his Government will come forward with an overview of south revolutions, all 32 reports to show the British people what the European Union has delivered, and help to inform the by Ismat, debate? Mr Hammond: The balance of south american, competences review was published during the last Parliament. It was always intended to 2nd continental congress definition, be a factual assessment of the balance of competences that could be drawn on by all parties in the forthcoming debate.

As a body of factual information, it is already proving its worth. In fact, a number of other countries in Europe have started to draw on information in our balance of competences review for use in debate in south american their own countries. Mr Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and Shetland) (LD): I join the hon. Member for Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport (Oliver Colvile) in urging the Foreign Secretary to use the negotiations as an opportunity to achieve the hawking, fundamental reform that we need of the common fisheries policy—a policy that has been an unmitigated disaster for fishing stocks, the fishing industry and the fishing communities that depend on south american them. Surely it cannot be difficult to build a consensus among our partner nations on that point. Mr Hammond: As the right hon. Gentleman well knows, it may be quite difficult to build such a consensus. I promise that I will take on board the comments that he and commitment hrm, my hon. Friend have made, as we put together our agenda. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1032. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): The Prime Minister’s in/out referendum is widely popular in north Northamptonshire.

As my hon. Friend the Member for Reigate (Crispin Blunt) said, it needs to be a fair referendum if the result is to be accepted by the nation. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that the Government will not seek to campaign, and that there will be a purdah period for the referendum? Mr Hammond: I understand my hon. South American Revolutions! Friend’s concern. I think he is Essay Televisions Affected Filmmaking, referring to the media comments about the proposal to disapply section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. I shall have more to say about south revolutions that, including a detailed explanation, during my Second Reading speech later today. I hope that I will satisfy his concerns then.

Mr Speaker: I call Mr Peter Grant. 24. [900198] Peter Grant (Glenrothes) (SNP): Thank you, Mr Speaker, for citation hawking calling me to speak for the first time in this Chamber. As part of the right hon. Gentleman’s assessment of public support for holding a referendum, what discussions has he had with all parties in Scotland about the massive public support that there is for extending the south american, franchise for the referendum to 16 and Essay about, 17-year-olds, who will, after all, be the people who have to live longest with the result, whatever that might be? Mr Hammond: Our position is that the appropriate franchise for south american revolutions a United Kingdom question—a question about the future of the whole country—is the Westminster franchise. Poetic Punctuation! I know there are people in this House who think we should review the scope of the Westminster franchise, and that is another debate. We are very clear that the franchise for this referendum should be the Westminster franchise, and that it would not be appropriate, as an exception, to include 16 and 17-year-olds.

Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): Many constituents in Basingstoke have expressed their support for a referendum on our future membership of the EU. South Revolutions! Local businesses, in particular, are keen for it to happen sooner rather than later. What assessment has the Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, Foreign Secretary made of whether the referendum can be held sooner—perhaps even in 2016—rather than waiting until 2017, as was indicated in the manifesto? Mr Hammond: As my right hon. American! Friend will know, the legislation sets 31 December 2017 as the congress, latest possible date for the referendum, but the Prime Minister has made it clear that we do not intend to wait until the end of 2017.

We will hold the referendum as soon as we are ready to do so. South Revolutions! The ball will be firmly in the court of our EU partners. If they embrace our agenda with enthusiasm and facilitate a rapid move forward, a referendum in 2016 may be possible. Mr Nigel Dodds (Belfast North) (DUP): On the timing, and given the importance of this question for the country as a whole, will the right hon. Citation! Gentleman have regard to the respect agenda for american revolutions the devolved countries of the United Kingdom and guarantee that the referendum will not be held on the same day as the elections to the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly, in line with the high hrm, Electoral Commission’s recommendation? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1033. Mr Hammond: I am, of revolutions, course, aware of the feeling on by Ismat Chugtai this issue within the devolved Administrations, but we intend to maintain maximum flexibility in the Bill.

I shall explain why that is in american the debate that follows. 8. Mark Durkan (Foyle) (SDLP): What steps his Department has taken to address the security situation in Burundi and to about Attitudes in Different, support the emergence of conditions conducive to inclusive and peaceful elections in that country. [900182] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and american, Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): The Minister for Africa, the Under-Secretary of Essay about Attitudes in Different, State for american revolutions Foreign and Essay on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected, Commonwealth Affairs, my hon. Revolutions! Friend the Member for Rochford and Southend East (James Duddridge), has called on all parties to end the violence and respect the principles of the citation, Arusha agreement. Revolutions! He repeated those calls when he spoke to the Burundian Foreign Minister on 28 May. Mark Durkan : I thank the Minister for that answer. He and the Minister for Africa will be aware that just this week civil society representatives have called for congress definition the replacement of the UN special envoy who is meant to be mediating the dialogue. The Burundi electoral commission’s legitimacy is also being questioned, and it has now scrambled together a date for an election in circumstances that are particularly adverse, with repression still at play, refugees unable to return and south american, armed youth groups not disarming.

What will be the Lihaf, Chugtai Essays, Africa Minister’s message to international partners and the Burundi Government at the African Union meeting? Mr Ellwood : We need to focus on the Arusha agreement. The UK Government are extremely concerned about the instability in Burundi that the south, hon. Gentleman articulates and are working actively within the region, with the African Union and the international community, to resolve the crisis. 23. [900197] Stephen Phillips (Sleaford and North Hykeham) (Con): The instability is principally being caused, of course, by President Nkurunziza’s desire to by Ismat Chugtai, avoid the constitutional term limits, which threatens not only Burundi but the region as a whole. What discussions has my hon.

Friend had with Ministers in Burundi’s neighbouring countries about their attitudes to that extension to the constitutional term limits? Mr Ellwood : First, I acknowledge my hon. and learned Friend’s interest in and understanding of that part of the world. He is absolutely right that there needs to be a regional solution, and south american revolutions, I believe that the only way forward for future stability involves President Nkurunziza stepping down and a political solution in line with the Arusha principles. Stephen Twigg (Liverpool, West Derby) (Lab/Co-op): The situation in Burundi reminds us of the risk of Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai Essays, mass atrocities and the need for the international system to be more effective in preventing them and revolutions, responding to them. What is the Foreign Office’s attitude to the French initiative, which proposes veto restraint by the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council in cases in on How Televisions Filmmaking which mass atrocities might have occurred? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1034. Mr Ellwood : The hon. Gentleman is absolutely right to illustrate that the situation is about what is happening not just in Burundi but in neighbouring Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. That is why we are putting extra effort into seeing what we can do to work with our partners, including the French.

Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Is it not the south american revolutions, case that the Situations, office of the american, President, the Opposition parties and the constitutional court in Burundi need to definition, ensure that peace breaks out, not violence, and that all parties need to revolutions, agree a new date for the presidential and parliamentary elections? Mr Ellwood: My hon. Friend is right that the elections were delayed because of the dangers and the hostilities that were taking place. Citation! We very much support the holding of inclusive, peaceful and credible elections once peace has resumed. 9. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): What recent discussions he has had with his Indian counterpart on the continued detention of crew members of south, MV Seaman Guard Ohio in that country. [900183] The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): I can only imagine how difficult the situation continues to be for about Jewish Attitudes Situations the men and their families, and I share their frustration. South Revolutions! We have repeatedly raised this case with the Indian Government at the highest levels, including with Prime Minister Modi.

The case is now before the Supreme Court bench in New Delhi, and citation, we expect the response in July. Ian Lavery : There has been meeting after meeting and discussion after discussion with the Government and authorities in India, yet my constituent Nick Dunn and four other former British soldiers are still being detained in India. They are innocent people. South Revolutions! What more can the Minister and Essay The Popularity of Personal Affected Filmmaking, the Government do to ensure that they are returned to the UK as soon as practicably possible? Can he give the families a glimmer of hope, for goodness’ sake? Mr Swire : The hon. Gentleman is right to continue to campaign for his constituents. The basic fact is that we cannot simply ignore the Indian judicial process, although we are frustrated by the pace of progress. We have sought to keep the families’ representatives in this House informed at every level, and the consular access that we have provided has been kept under review and is extremely good. I say to the hon. Gentleman, and to the three new Members who represent those who are currently in India, that I understand that officials in the consular section of the Foreign Office have offered them a meeting.

I would welcome them coming in, and I would chair that meeting to south american, keep them informed. Mr John Spellar (Warley) (Lab): We should acknowledge that the Indian navy has been an excellent partner in the fight against piracy off the Somali coast and in on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions Filmmaking the wider Indian ocean. However, as the case highlighted by my hon. South American Revolutions! Friend the Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) shows, other parts of the Indian bureaucracy have not been as helpful. Frankly, do we not need the Foreign. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1035. Secretary and the Prime Minister to get off their backsides and strongly press the Indian Government to set these men free to get back to their long-suffering families, back to work and back to normal life? Mr Swire: The right hon. Gentleman lets himself down by the content and tone of Attitudes Situations, his question, and I am not sure what relevance the american revolutions, Indian navy has to this case. My right hon. Friend the Essay Attitudes Situations, Prime Minister raised the issue with Prime Minister Modi in November last year, as did my right hon.

Friend the Foreign Secretary when he met his counterpart in american March. Perhaps when the right hon. Gentleman’s party decides who will lead it, that person can make their own representations. We look forward to that day. 10. 2nd Continental Congress! Robert Jenrick (Newark) (Con): What estimate he has made of the number of UK citizens volunteering to fight in militia groups against ISIL. [900184] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Given the volatile situation in Syria, it is south, difficult to ascertain exactly the number of British nationals who are fighting in militia groups against punctuation, or for ISIL without the risk of being inaccurate. We advise against south american, all travel to Syria and parts of Iraq and hawking, do not want British nationals taking part in the conflict on either side.

There are ways to south, support the Syrian people more effectively and poetic punctuation, get aid to american, where it is most needed. Robert Jenrick: A young and quite vulnerable Newark man with autism has recently been recruited to fight with the Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, Kurdish peshmerga through their foreign legion, the Lions of Rojava, who recruit—somewhat indiscriminately —through Facebook and websites. While we all stand shoulder to shoulder with the brave peshmerga, will the Minister urge the Kurdish Government to exercise greater caution and, in particular, to review those websites? Mr Ellwood: I am sorry to hear about the case of my hon. Friend’s constituent, and if he would like to meet me I would be delighted to take more details so that we can look into it. I will be visiting the countries shortly and I will seek in Irbil to see how a better process can be established to understand who is coming into the country. Kevin Brennan (Cardiff West) (Lab): The Minister will be aware that Cardiff, like many parts of the UK, has been afflicted by young people being attracted to revolutions, fight for ISIL. Poetic! What steps is the Foreign Office taking with the Turkish authorities to help to close that route into that part of the world? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman raises an important point, and my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary attended the meeting in Paris last week, where 20 of the 60 nations came together to work on the five key themes, one of which is countering the movement of foreign fighters, including the sharing of south revolutions, information between countries—including Turkey. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1036. 11. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): What assessment his Department has made of the likely success of the French initiative for a UN resolution for new peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. Poetic Punctuation! [900185] The Secretary of State for south american Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): We do see merit in a balanced UN Security Council resolution at the right moment, setting out parameters for a political settlement. But if such a resolution is to be part of citation hawking, a successful process, it must command the full support of the Security Council and, in particular, of the United States, which is the only power that has any leverage over Israel. Our judgment is that now is not the right moment for such an initiative, but I have regular discussions with my French and American counterparts on the middle east peace process. We will judge any proposal on american the basis of whether it supports further progress in that process. Andrew Gwynne: I am grateful to the Secretary of State for his detailed reply.

Given that Mr Fabius will visit Israel and hrm, the Palestinian territories at the end of this month to push for a United Nations Security Council resolution to revive the peace talks between the two sides, what more can the Secretary of State do to convince the american revolutions, United States of America and his EU counterparts that it is now crucial to get Israel and commitment, the Palestinians round the table again? Mr Hammond: I agree with the last part of the south american revolutions, hon. Gentleman’s question: it is crucial that we move forward. The issue with timing is that until we have resolved the Lihaf, Chugtai, nuclear negotiation with Iran, which is an south american, extremely sensitive issue in the middle east—including with Israel—our judgment is that we would be throwing away an high commitment hrm, opportunity to play an important card in the middle east peace process. South! We need to get the Iran thing dealt with first, and then we need to press the US Administration to deliver on the commitment that they have repeatedly made to us—that after the Israeli elections and poetic punctuation, the Israeli Government had been formed, there would be a new, American-led initiative. Mr Speaker: Extreme brevity is now required. Mr David Burrowes (Enfield, Southgate) (Con): What has been the impact of the south, unilateral action last October by Sweden to Lihaf, by Ismat, recognise the state of Palestine? Mr Hammond : We believe that European Union countries individually unilaterally recognising Palestine is throwing away an opportunity that the European Union has to exercise leverage by collectively holding out the prospect of recognition or non-recognition as a way of influencing behaviour. Sir Gerald Kaufman (Manchester, Gorton) (Lab): Last Wednesday, the Minister of State, Department for International Development, the right hon. South American Revolutions! Member for New Forest West (Mr Swayne) told the House: “The international community has recognised that the PA is now ready for statehood.”—[ Official Report , 3 June 2015; Vol. 596, c. 575.]

When will the high, Government recognise the Palestinian state, in line with the vote of this House last October? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1037. Mr Hammond : Long before the House voted last October, the Government’s position has been clear: we will recognise Palestinian statehood at a time that we judge contributes most to the delivery of an enduring settlement in the middle east. Mr Philip Hollobone (Kettering) (Con): What is the Foreign Secretary’s present assessment of the south american, extent to which the high commitment hrm, Palestinian side is unified between Hamas and Fatah? Mr Hammond: In a word, it is not. 12.

Jessica Morden (Newport East) (Lab): What steps his Department is taking to protect Christians from persecution worldwide. South! [900186] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Freedom of Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai, religion and belief is one of the Government’s core human rights priorities. Revolutions! We try to help Christians facing persecution overseas through our bilateral diplomacy and our participation in international organisations, most notably the United Nations Human Rights Council. Jessica Morden : Christians suffer the most persecution globally, and many of my constituents with relatives in Syria and Iraq, and on How The Popularity Filmmaking, Church groups, rightly campaign to highlight that. People of different faiths and atheists are at risk in different parts of the south american, world. What more can the UK do to promote more collaboration between faith communities to poetic, promote more religious tolerance? Mr Lidington : Obviously, the american revolutions, approach that is likely to work best will vary from one country to another, but we do, for example, through the Department for International Development, fund a number of programmes that try to help community and religious leaders in particular conflict-torn parts of the world to Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, learn the importance of religious tolerance and to apply that within their own societies. Mr Mark Prisk (Hertford and Stortford) (Con): Given this country’s excellent record in defending liberty abroad, may I strongly encourage Ministers to make religious freedom a strategic priority, as proposed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and american revolutions, the Religious Liberty Commission? Mr Lidington: We certainly continue to treat religious freedom and the freedom of Lihaf,, people to express their beliefs as a core element of south, our broader human rights agenda.

It is often Christian communities themselves who say that it helps them if their own concerns are presented within that broader human rights context. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, I call Cat Smith. 13. Cat Smith (Lancaster and Fleetwood) (Lab): What steps he plans to take in response to demolition of Palestinian homes to make way for Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem. [900187] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and high hrm, Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Demolitions are an impediment to the two-state solution and, in all but the most limited circumstances, contrary. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1038. to international humanitarian law. South American! We have made our concerns clear to the Israeli Government, and definition, I raised our objections with the Israeli national security adviser last week and during my visit to the occupied territories in October.

Cat Smith : I welcome those steps, but that is broadly the same answer Ministers have been giving for revolutions a number of years. The demolitions are breaches of the fourth Geneva convention on war crimes. Given that the demolitions are continuing in spite of these steps, is it not time to consider stronger action, such as the suspension of the citation hawking, arms trade with Israel? Mr Ellwood: The hon. Lady is south american revolutions, right to say that these complex issues have perplexed the House—and, indeed, the international community and 2nd continental congress, the region—for a long time, but as my right hon. Friend the american, Foreign Secretary articulated, we want the talks to resume as soon as possible. The Israeli elections are now out citation hawking, of the way and that is what we now need to be looking towards. T2. [900166] Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): If he will make a statement on his departmental responsibilities. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond ): The priorities of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for this Parliament will remain the protection of Britain’s security, the promotion of Britain’s prosperity and the projection of Britain’s values in support of a rules-based international system. The three key immediate challenges on which I am focused are the struggle against violent extremist Islamism in all its forms; the containment of Russia’s aggressive doctrine of asymmetric warfare and american, her incursion in Ukraine; and the renegotiation of Britain’s relationship with the European Union. Mrs Miller: I thank the Foreign Secretary for his response.

The illegal sale of high hrm, antiquities is south american, not only a crime; it provides significant funding for organisations such as ISIL. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that Britain supports the International Council of Museums updated red list, which classifies endangered archaeological objects and punctuation, works of art to help to prevent their illegal sale and export? The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of american, State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): I am grateful for my right hon. Friend’s interest in this area. 2nd Continental Definition! In an revolutions, effort to citation, remove connections to past civilisations, ISIL is indeed tearing down ancient monuments and selling them on the black market. South American Revolutions! The International Council of Museums, to which she refers, and its red list will help tackle illegal sales, and the Government very much support it. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): As more and more people try to Essays, make the perilous boat journey across the Mediterranean, the dedicated men and women of HMS Bulwark are having to rescue an ever-increasing number of desperate people in very difficult circumstances. Given that about half a million people are now gathering.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1039. in Libya, does the Foreign Secretary think that there is currently sufficient capacity in the EU maritime force to cope with this crisis? Mr Philip Hammond: First, let me join the right hon. American! Gentleman in commitment recognising the american, heroic work that the crew of HMS Bulwark, in particular, are doing. They have just landed another 1,200 migrants, bringing to citation hawking, well over 2,000 the total number of people plucked from the sea by that one single vessel. I think the best criterion by which to judge the answer to his question is the revolutions, number of deaths, and, although we cannot be certain, we believe that since the naval force has been deployed in the Mediterranean the number of migrants’ lives being lost at sea has declined to close to zero. I think that means that the scale of the operation is, for the moment, adequate. T4. [900168] Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Back to Africa. The people of Africa are not the problem; the resources of Africa are not the problem; but so often, the citation hawking, governance of African countries is the problem. With that in mind, does the Minister agree that next year in the Democratic Republic of Congo it is absolutely vital that there is a peaceful transition and the constitution is respected and upheld? Mr Ellwood: My hon.

Friend is south american, absolutely right. Citation! It is south american revolutions, not too dissimilar a situation to the one we find in Burundi, where there is a constitution which should be recognised and should be honoured—and we expect President Kabila to do the same. Until that happens, unfortunately we will have further instability. T3. [900167] Bill Esterson (Sefton Central) (Lab): Does the high commitment hrm, Foreign Secretary agree that leaving the EU will damage our economy, undermine business and have devastating consequences for the living standards of people in this country? Will he remind his own party of those facts? Mr Philip Hammond: What I have no doubt about is that having access to the single market contributes significantly to south american, our economy. But we live in a democracy, and the hon. Gentleman would have to be blind, deaf and poetic, dumb—although perhaps some of his former colleagues were blind, deaf and dumb in the run-up to south american, the general election—[ Interruption. ] He would have to be blind, deaf and dumb not to recognise that there is very considerable concern among the British public about some aspects of our membership of the European Union.

What we have a mandate to do is to sit down with our partners and negotiate to see whether we can deal with some of the hawking, problems that most agitate British public opinion, while retaining the benefits of access to the single market. T7. [900171] Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): Does my hon. Friend agree that since the Arab spring there have been genuine improvements in american north Africa? What does he suggest can be done, however, to further those improvements through bilateral investment? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend is absolutely right: following the Arab spring, we have seen huge advances in that area of Africa—in governance, prosperity and, indeed, stability. I was able to visit the region two weeks. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1040. ago, and I hope to return in November with trade missions, taking British companies to that part of Africa in poetic punctuation order to promote the prosperity agenda. T5. [900169] Louise Haigh (Sheffield, Heeley) (Lab): Yesterday, Nobel peace prize winner Malala Yousafzai called on world leaders to halt the inhuman persecution of south, Burma’s Muslim minority Rohingya people.

It is time for the international community to back up its words with action. Will the Minister unequivocally condemn the Myanmar leadership and on How Affected, tell the south american revolutions, House what steps he has taken to secure equal rights and opportunities for the Rohingya? The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): The hon. Lady will have had an opportunity to take part in 2nd continental definition the Adjournment debate last week, on 4 June, on the whole issue of the Rohingya people and south american revolutions, Rakhine. If she reads the Hansard report, she will see that this Government have been right at the forefront in urging the Government of Burma to treat the citation, Rohingya in the way to which they are entitled. T8. American Revolutions! [900172] Karen Lumley (Redditch) (Con): My right hon.

Friend will be aware of the grave concerns about the political situation in the Maldives and the imprisonment of Essay of Personal Affected, former President Nasheed. Will he update the american, House on the work being done by the international community to ensure that the current Government uphold democracy and the rule of law? Mr Swire: I applaud my hon. By Ismat Essays! Friend’s continuing support for President Nasheed and her interest in the situation in the Maldives. I have raised these concerns several times with the Maldives Government, most recently with Foreign Minister Dunya Maumoon on 28 May. In April, Charles Tannock tabled a resolution on the Maldives in revolutions the European Parliament, and a joint resolution of all seven political groups was overwhelmingly supported by the Chamber. We also continue to commitment, work with our Commonwealth partners through the Secretariat. T6. American Revolutions! [900170] Greg Mulholland (Leeds North West) (LD): I was pleased to Televisions, represent the all-party group on the worldwide abolition of the death penalty to south revolutions, Suriname. Will the ministerial team welcome the fact that Suriname has become the latest country in the world to abolish the death penalty, but does that not contrast with the fact that Saudi Arabia has just advertised for eight executioners? What will the Government do to about Jewish in Different Situations, lobby this supposed ally of the UK? Mr Philip Hammond: I welcome the news from Suriname.

It is a slow process, but progress is being made. South! As I have said many times in the House, Saudi Arabia is an important ally of the high, UK. Our relationship is vital to our domestic national security and gives us access to senior levels of the Saudi Arabian leadership. South! That enables us to make our views known on these issues—and we do. T10. [900174] Julian Knight (Solihull) (Con): Does my right hon. Friend agree with me and poetic, the CBI that the EU should take some lessons from the revolutions, UK and adopt more flexible labour markets? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1041.

Mr Hammond: Yes, absolutely. In fact, labour market policy is by and large a matter for national Governments, but across the EU there is a clear gap in performance between those who have taken difficult steps to achieve radical labour market reform and those who have not. T9. [900173] Paula Sherriff (Dewsbury) (Lab): Will the Minister advise what discussions he has had with the congress, Indian and Pakistani Governments towards realising the aspirations of the Kashmiri people for a plebiscite on self-determination? Mr Swire: Of course, we are more than aware how this plays in constituencies up and down the country. We continue to have these discussions with both the Indian and Pakistani Governments, but ultimately this situation needs to be resolved by those two Governments. Mr Speaker: I call Mr Eric Pickles. Sir Eric Pickles (Brentwood and Ongar) (Con): Given what the south american, Foreign Secretary has said about the importance of the Iran discussions on the nuclear agreement, what is he doing to ensure greater clarity about the baselines, the extent of the inspection regime and the consequences of infringement?

Given that the poetic punctuation, agreement will allow advanced centrifuge, the infringements might arrive a little earlier than anticipated. Mr Speaker: A question worthy of a knight. South Revolutions! I apologise to Sir Eric. Mr Philip Hammond: We are working intensively with our E3+3 partners and Iran to conclude the nuclear agreement that we set out in principle in Lausanne a couple of months ago. It is essential that, as part of the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency can verify all Iran’s nuclear-related commitments, including through access to all relevant locations. We are not going to commitment hrm, do a bad deal with Iran. Proper access is central to the deal we agreed in Lausanne and has to be delivered. Mr David Winnick (Walsall North) (Lab): Having apparently spoken to his own Back Benchers about the EU referendum, will the Foreign Secretary provide any information about the number of likely Tory Eurosceptics the Prime Minister might describe in the same way as John Major described his Eurosceptics, one of whom of south american revolutions, course remains in congress definition the Cabinet? Mr Hammond: My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister would never describe any of his right hon. or hon. South Revolutions! Friends in such terms.

We look forward to Essay of Personal Televisions Affected Filmmaking, a robust debate on american revolutions this issue inside and outside the hrm, House. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): The Burmese Government often give the impression that the Rohingya people are not really Burmese. Will my right hon. Friend the south revolutions, Minister for Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai Asia confirm that the Foreign Office has seen a map from the american, 18th century that confirms very clearly that the Rohingya people were part of Burma at that time and that this has been shared with the Burmese Government? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1042. Mr Swire: My hon. Friend is absolutely right. We have got charts, which we have shared with the Burmese Government, and they show very clearly that there were Muslims, as they were described in the ledger, going right back to the 18th century.

It is absolutely certain, as far as we are concerned, that the Rohingya have been in Rakhine for many, many years. Of course they are mixed in with probably more recent arrivals from Chittagong and hawking, the Chittagong area in Bangladesh, but a significant number of these people have clearly been in Burma for a significant amount of time. Ann Clwyd (Cynon Valley) (Lab): The Saudi blogger, Raif Badawi, is likely to be flogged again this Friday—a brutal flogging. American! The Minister can boast about our special relationship with Saudi Arabia, but really is there not some hypocrisy at the heart of British foreign policy when we continue to sell the largest amount of arms to the Saudi Arabian Government? Mr Philip Hammond: I prefer to focus on the practical steps that now need to be taken. I have raised the issue of Mr Badawi with the most senior levels of the Saudi leadership before. The judicial process has now been completed. Citation Hawking! That is not the end of the story, because, as in many such countries, there is an Executive power of clemency and south revolutions, commutation. We are urgently seeking to make contact with our most senior interlocutors today, to talk to them about how that power will be exercised.

It will be my intention certainly to ensure that nothing happens on Friday, and I hope that nothing happens at about Situations, all. Dr Julian Lewis (New Forest East) (Con): Does the Secretary of State share my relief that the Turkish people have, for the time being at least, called a halt to the creeping Islamisation of south, their country? What assessment has he made of political stability in that important NATO ally? The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): The fact that there was a turnout of 2nd continental, no less than 86% in the Turkish parliamentary election demonstrates the vigour of revolutions, Turkish democracy. We are looking forward to working with the new Government, once they are formed, as there are many important political, economic and strategic interests that the UK and Turkey share.

Ian Austin (Dudley North) (Lab): It is hawking, very important that a nuclear deal with Iran is not made at any price. The P5+1 must stand firm if Iran will not accept any-time inspections of all suspect sites or come clean on south american possible military dimensions of the Chugtai Essays, nuclear programme, as suspected by south, the International Atomic Energy Agency. Should Britain and the P5+1 not engage much more closely with Arab states and Israel, who share concerns about an congress definition, agreement that in a few years would allow Iran to revolutions, greatly expand its nuclear programme? Mr Philip Hammond: Perhaps for the first time, I agree entirely with the hon. Gentleman. Commitment Hrm! The reality is that the alternative to an agreement that will restrict Iran’s development of civil nuclear enrichment capabilities for a period of perhaps 20 years is no deal and a free-for-all. We have got to get this agreement right and we have got to carry the Gulf states and Israel with us, and the meeting at Camp David that the US President.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1043. hosted with the Gulf Co-operation Council countries was part of a process to american, reassure allies in the Gulf of our commitment to their security. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): A year ago, the then Foreign Secretary announced the good news that the British embassy in Tehran would reopen, following its closure in 2011. Given that it is still closed, could we have an update on progress? Mr Hammond: Yes.

I think I have told the House before that there are two issues that we are trying to deal with in order to reopen the embassy. One is congress, around the visa regime and south revolutions, how we deal with Iranian overstayers in punctuation the UK, and the other is south revolutions, around the importation of citation, communications equipment that we need to import, uninspected by the Iranians, in order to be able to safely operate our embassy. South! Until we have resolved those two issues, we really cannot make progress. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, Andy Slaughter. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1044.

Andy Slaughter (Hammersmith) (Lab): Many people, most of all Shaker Aamer’s family, will be pleased that the Prime Minister raised his case again with President Obama this week, but they are dismayed that nothing has happened since the President told the Prime Minister in January that it was a priority. Given that Shaker Aamer was cleared by The Popularity Televisions Affected, six national security agencies in 2009 for release, will that process have to be gone through again? If the Minister does not know the answer to american revolutions, that question, can he seek it from the US authorities, so that Shaker Aamer can be returned to his family in the UK? Mr Hammond: We continue to raise the issue of Shaker Aamer with the United States authorities at every opportunity. As I think the hon. Gentleman knows, it is the United States Defence Secretary who now has the file on his desk, and there has recently been a change in the occupancy of Essay The Popularity Televisions, that position. We continue to press the United States to american, make progress, and to make good the commitment that President Obama made to the Prime Minister last year. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1045. Paul Flynn (Newport West) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. This concerns the deteriorating character of Prime Minister’s Question Time, which is doing so much damage to the reputation of the about Jewish Situations, House and the reputation of politics. Last week the Prime Minister asked the acting Leader of the Opposition four questions, almost more than she asked him.

Just before the end of the last Parliament, he answered a question by raising nine issues none of which was the subject of the question asked. South! Prime Minister’s Question Time is becoming an exchange of crude insults and non-answers. As you know, Mr Speaker, I have written to the Prime Minister suggesting that he depoliticise the situation by 2nd continental definition, convening all the party leaders with the aim of reinventing Question Time by giving it a format that would be dignified, still robust, but acceptable outside. Might it not be a good idea to south revolutions, change the name of Prime Minister’s questions to Prime Minister’s answers, so that at least the Prime Minister would get the point? When he last answered a question from me, he handed the conduct of this matter over to you, suggesting that you take action. Mr Speaker: I am very grateful to the hon. Gentleman for his point of order.

As the House will be aware, my responsibility is to try to keep or, as necessary, restore order. Lihaf, By Ismat! I have no responsibility for the content of either questions or answers. I do not mind saying to the hon. South! Gentleman what he may know in any case: that I have, on a previous occasion, written to the party leaders to Essay about Attitudes, make the case for a cultural change in the manner in which Prime Minister’s questions are conducted, and I received positive replies from them. The start of a Parliament might seem an auspicious time to try to bring about meaningful change, and I think it would be to south revolutions, the advantage of the House if Members were to take account of, and accord weight to, the by Ismat Chugtai, very widespread public disapproval of the way in which the proceedings are conducted. One method of dealing with the south revolutions, matter would be the convening of all-party talks, but that is not for me to do. I would smile on it, but it is not for me to lead. An alternative method might be to ask the punctuation, Procedure Committee of the House, under the excellent chairmanship of the hon. Member for american Broxbourne (Mr Walker), to. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1046.

consider the way in which matters are handled, and to suggest either a continuation of the status quo or reform options. I think that is all that I can reasonably be expected to say on the matter today. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. Mr Speaker: I hope that it is a separate point of order, on an unrelated matter. Ian Lavery: At the end of the last Parliament, Mr Speaker, the fire Minister told the House that firefighters in England who were found to have retired early would not face any financial penalty in relation to their pensions.

Regional fire authorities are now challenging the poetic punctuation, legality of the Minister’s statement, which is leaving our fire and rescue men and women in limbo. Can you advise me, Mr Speaker, on how best to clarify this very, very important issue? Mr Speaker: Before I respond to the hon. Gentleman’s point of order, I must correct myself. I should properly have referred to the hon. Member for Broxbourne as the former Chairman of the Procedure Committee. There are currently no Select Committee Chairmen, although, when the hon. South Revolutions! Gentleman did chair the Procedure Committee, he was a distinguished Chairman. The point of order raised by the hon. Member for 2nd continental congress definition Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) is one of great importance, but it is not a matter for the Chair, and I therefore cannot rule on it.

We will leave it there. [Interruption.] It is always helpful, when one makes a ruling, to south, have the poetic, sedentary support of the hon. Member for Wellingborough (Mr Bone), who is a notable parliamentary specialist himself. Chris Stephens (Glasgow South West) (SNP): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. American Revolutions! My constituent Mr Ali, a political asylum seeker, is facing deportation this evening to Balochistan, an area of political upheaval where political activists have been persecuted. Can the Home Secretary be encouraged to make a statement on such deportations to such unstable regions in the world? Mr Speaker: I congratulate the hon. Gentleman on Essay about in Different Situations his ingenuity; he is newly arrived in this House, but he has already worked out how to american, get his point on the record. I feel confident that his words will be winging their way to the Home Secretary ere long on what is indeed a very important and urgent matter.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1047. Mr Speaker: I must inform the House that I have selected the citation hawking, amendment in the name of south, Mr Alex Salmond. Before I ask the Foreign Secretary to Essay on How Televisions Affected, move the Second Reading of the Bill, the House will not be surprised to hear that some dozens of colleagues are seeking to american, catch my eye and a time limit will have to congress, be imposed. Front Benchers are not constrained by american, it, of course, but the Foreign Secretary and his shadow are nothing if not sensitive to the wishes of the House and I am sure they will want to balance the need to cover the subject thoroughly and take interventions with the interests of other colleagues in having the chance to contribute. The Secretary of high hrm, State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I beg to move, That the south american revolutions, Bill be now read a Second time. This is a simple, but vital, piece of legislation. It has one clear purpose: to deliver on our promise to give the British people the final say on our EU membership in an in/out referendum by the end of 2017.

For those who were present in the last Parliament, today’s debate will be tinged with a sense of deja vu: we have, of course, debated this Bill before. So before I start, I would like to pay tribute to my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). Poetic Punctuation! His European Union (Referendum) Bill in the last Parliament was passed by this House, but sadly was blocked in the other place by the opposition parties. He deserves the revolutions, credit for paving the way for the Bill we are debating today. Let me also pay tribute to my noble Friend Lord Dobbs who sponsored the Wharton Bill in the other place, and to my hon. Friend the Member for Bromley and Chislehurst (Robert Neill) who reintroduced the on How The Popularity Filmmaking, same Bill in the following Session. The commitment on american revolutions the Government side of the Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai, House to american revolutions, giving the British people their say has deep roots. Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Essays, Foreign Secretary give way? Mr Hammond: I am going to make a little progress, bearing in south american mind Mr Speaker’s exhortation.

It is almost four decades ago to citation, the day that I, along with millions of others in Britain, cast my vote in favour of our membership of the European Communities, and like millions of others I believed then that I was voting for an economic community that would bring significant economic benefits to Britain, but without undermining our national sovereignty. I do not remember anyone saying anything about ever-closer union or a single currency. But the institution that the american revolutions, clear majority of the British people voted to join has changed almost beyond recognition in the decades since then. Mr Kenneth Clarke (Rushcliffe) (Con): There must have been some strange juxtapositions in poetic the campaign held in the 1970s, in which I took a very active part. Most of the south revolutions, debates I took part in Lihaf, were about the pooling of sovereignty and the direct applicability of European legislation without parliamentary intervention, which was a very controversial subject, and, besides, ever-closer union was in the treaty to which we were acceding. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1048. Mr Hammond: Call me negligent, but as an revolutions, 18-year-old voter in that election, I did not actually read the treaty before I cast my vote. Treaty after treaty—the Single European Act, Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon—individually and high hrm, collectively have added hugely to the European Union’s powers, often in areas that would have been unthinkable in 1975, and that change has eroded the democratic mandate for our membership to the point where it is wafer-thin and demands to be renewed. Mr MacNeil: Two weeks ago I was in North Uist and met one of my constituents, who is from Germany.

She has lived in North Uist for 25 years and she voted in the Scottish referendum, but she cannot vote in south this referendum. Essay Of Personal Filmmaking! Why were the Scottish Government more generous to and more understanding of her rights as a citizen for 25 years than the south american revolutions, Tory Government? Why is she excluded? Mr Hammond: If the hon. Gentleman can bear to stop wagging his finger and wait a little, I will come to the question of franchise. To many people, not only in the UK, but across Europe, the European Union has come to feel like something that is done to them, not for definition them. Turnout in last year’s European Parliament elections was the lowest ever, dropping to 13% in Slovakia. South American Revolutions! The fragility of the European Union’s democratic legitimacy is felt particularly acutely by the British people. Lihaf, By Ismat Chugtai Essays! Since our referendum in 1975, citizens across Europe from Denmark and Ireland to France and Spain have been asked their views on crucial aspects of their country’s relationships with the EU in more than 30 different national referendums—but not in the UK. We have had referendums on Scottish devolution, Welsh devolution, our electoral system and a regional assembly for the north-east, but an entire generation of american revolutions, British voters has been denied the chance to have a say on our relationship with the European Union. Today we are putting that right.

After fighting and winning the general election as the only major party committed to an in/out referendum, in the face of relentless opposition from the other parties, today we are delivering on our promise to give that generation its say. Mike Gapes (Ilford South) (Lab/Co-op): In the Foreign Secretary’s opening remarks, he referred to the number of changes that have taken place since 1975, when there was last a referendum. Can I take it from what he said that unless the British people have a right to reject all those changes brought about without a referendum he will not be satisfied? Or, can he at least set out today what it is that the Government wish to take back, rather than simply condemning his and all previous Governments since 1975? Mr Hammond: The answer to question No. 1 is poetic, no and the answer to question No. 2 is that the Prime Minister has set out in a series of speeches, articles and interviews, and in the Conservative party manifesto, the revolutions, key areas where we require change to the way that Britain’s relationship with the European Union works if we are to be able to get the consent of the British people to our future membership. Conservative Members have long been clear that the European Union needs to change and that Britain’s relationship with the European Union needs to change. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1049. Unlike the Labour party, we believe that Brussels has too much power and that some of Essay about Jewish Attitudes Situations, those powers need to be brought back to national capitals. In a world whose centre of economic gravity is american revolutions, shifting fast, Europe faces a serious challenge.

If we are to hrm, continue to earn our way in the world and to secure European living standards for south future generations, the EU needs to focus relentlessly on about Jewish in Different jobs, growth and competitiveness. Bluntly, it needs to become far less bureaucratic and south american revolutions, far more competitive. With the European electorate more disenchanted with the by Ismat, EU than ever before and with anti-EU parties on the rise across the continent, it is time to bring Europe back to the people, ensuring that decisions are made as close to them as possible and south american revolutions, giving national Parliaments a greater role in overseeing the European Union. Such issues resonate across all member states. Essay Jewish Attitudes! Change is revolutions, needed for the benefit of all to congress, make the EU fit for south american revolutions the purpose of the 21st century. Sir William Cash (Stone) (Con): I applaud my right hon.

Friend’s opening remarks and the Prime Minister for making certain that we had the Bill. May I ask the Foreign Secretary one question? In the last statement made by the Prime Minister in the previous Parliament, he clearly said that he wanted reform and a fundamental change in our relationship with the EU. The Popularity Affected Filmmaking! Will he explain what the second part of american revolutions, that means in practice and in relation to the debate? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend’s question is germane to the point I am making.

For the good of all 28 countries, there are things that need to be done to reform the way in which the 2nd continental, European Union works to make it more competitive, effective and democratically accountable. South! However, the British people have particular concerns, borne of our history and circumstances. For example, we are not part of the single currency and, so long as there is a Conservative Government, we never will be. We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of high hrm, our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy—[Hon. Members: “We made it!”] The hon. American! Member for high Eltham (Clive Efford) says that Labour made that decision. Is it the position of the Labour party that we will never join the single currency? I have not heard that position being articulated from the Labour Benches. It would be a seminal moment in our parliamentary history if Labour was able to make that commitment today.

We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy that will inevitably be required to make the south revolutions, eurozone a success. So, in answer to the point raised by my hon. Friend the Member for Essay Stone (Sir William Cash), we need to south, agree a framework with our partners that will allow further integration of the eurozone while protecting Britain’s interests and punctuation, those of the other “euro-outs” within the EU. Because we occupy a crowded island with a population that is growing, even before net migration, and south, a welfare system that is more accessible than most and more generous than many in Europe, we are far more sensitive than many member states to the impact of migration from the EU and the distorting effects of easy access to benefits and 2nd continental congress definition, services and of in-work welfare top-ups to south, wages that are already high by comparison with many EU countries. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1050. In the Conservative party manifesto, we therefore committed to negotiate a new settlement for Britain in hawking Europe—a settlement that addresses the concerns of the British people and sets the american revolutions, European Union on a course that will benefit all its people. The Prime Minister has already begun that process by Essay about Jewish, meeting 15 European leaders, and at the European Council in June he will set out formally the key elements of our proposals. Daniel Kawczynski (Shrewsbury and south revolutions, Atcham) (Con): I understand my right hon.

Friend’s point about the pressures of increased numbers coming to work in the United Kingdom, but will he take a moment to pay tribute to the hard-working eastern Europeans from Poland and elsewhere who have come here, worked hard, paid their taxes and contributed to our society? Mr Hammond: I am very happy to do so. I do not think anybody—or at least not very many people—in this country has a problem with those who come here to work hard, pay their dues and make a better life for themselves while contributing to the UK economy. They are the not the focus of our concern. Our focus is on the distorting effect of easy access to citation hawking, our welfare system. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): The Secretary of State said earlier that he thought Brussels had too much power. Will he tell the american revolutions, House which powers affecting the United Kingdom Brussels has too much of? Will he also tell us whether he would consider it a success or a failure if the Prime Minister failed to repatriate those powers? Mr Hammond: I am afraid that the hon. Poetic! Gentleman has just fallen into the obvious trap.

He knows that a negotiation is a negotiation. He asks me to set out american revolutions, a list of powers for 2nd continental definition repatriation, then invites me to say that the Prime Minister would have failed if we did not achieve the repatriation of revolutions, every single one of them. No sensible person with any negotiating experience would approach a complex negotiation in that way. Mr Hammond: I need to make some progress. There are those who will say that this process cannot succeed, that Europe will never change, and that our negotiations will not be successful. Looking at the record of the last Labour Government, I can see why they would say that. Under that Labour Government, there was a one-way transfer of powers from Westminster to Brussels. They gave away ?7 billion of the hard-fought-for British rebate but got absolutely nothing in return. They presided over a massive increase in the EU budget, they signed us up to the eurozone bail-out funds and they failed to deliver on poetic their promise to give the south american revolutions, British people a say before ratifying the Lisbon treaty. Citation Hawking! Labour’s record on Europe was one of dismal failure. In the revolutions, last Parliament, however, we showed what could be done.

We showed that, even in coalition with the Liberal Democrats, change could be achieved by adopting a tough negotiating stance and a laser-like focus on our national interest. Essay On How Of Personal! We cut the EU budget for the first time ever, saving British taxpayers billions of pounds. We took Britain out of the eurozone bail-outs that Labour signed us up to—the first ever return of powers. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1051. from Brussels. We vetoed an EU treaty that would have damaged Britain’s interests, we brought back control of more than 100 police and criminal justice measures and we secured exemptions for the smallest businesses from EU regulation. Our record in the past five years shows that we can deliver change in Europe that is in Britain’s national interest. Steve Brine (Winchester) (Con): The Foreign Secretary is south revolutions, taking a lot of noise and advice from those on 2nd continental congress the Labour Benches, but many of my colleagues and I remember sitting here, Friday after Friday, while they bitterly opposed the European Union (Referendum) Bill introduced by my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). I presume that my right hon. Friend welcomes the american, sinner who repents today, but as he takes all that advice will he just remember that if we had taken the advice of Labour, Scottish National party and Liberal Democrat Members, Britain would now be languishing in the euro?

Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is Essay The Popularity of Personal Affected Filmmaking, absolutely right. South Revolutions! When the Essay Jewish Attitudes in Different, electorate considers the stated positions of the parties, I would advise them to look not only at the positions they hold today but at the depth of the roots that sustain those positions. Paul Farrelly (Newcastle-under-Lyme) (Lab): Does the Foreign Secretary believe that, when the south american, Prime Minister completes these unspecified negotiations and decides to Lihaf, by Ismat, campaign for a yes in the referendum, my next-door neighbour the hon. Member for south revolutions Stone (Sir William Cash) and his allies who held the high hrm, Major Government hostage will ever be satisfied? Mr Hammond: I will let my hon. Friend the Member for Stone speak for himself in the course of the debate. Revolutions! I am sure, however, that he will await—with a healthily sceptical approach—the return of the Prime Minister from Brussels with that package, and that he will consider it carefully and analytically, safe in the knowledge that underpinning this whole process is an absolute commitment to allow the British people to have the final say on this issue in an in/out referendum. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and hrm, North Essex) (Con): None of the concessions that the american, Prime Minister has so far obtained from the European Union, including the veto of the fiscal union treaty, has fundamentally changed our relationship with the EU.

How does he intend fundamentally to change that relationship? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is right, of course. I have already mentioned an area in which we need fundamental change in the way in which the European Union operates. It is now a Union with a eurozone of 19 member states at its core, and those states will integrate more closely together. There needs to be an explicit recognition that those who are not part of poetic punctuation, that core do not need to pursue ever-closer union. There needs to be an explicit protection of the interests of those non-eurozone members as the EU goes forward. South! That is an example of an area in which we need specific structural change to the way in which the European Union operates. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1052. Mr Hammond: I must make some progress. Of course, negotiating with 27 member states will not be easy and it will not happen overnight, but we expect to be able to Attitudes Situations, negotiate a new deal that will address the concerns of the British people about Britain’s relationship with Europe, which we will put to them in the promised referendum.

The Bill provides the mechanism to do that. It sets in stone our commitment to hold the referendum before the end of 2017. Of course, if the south revolutions, process is poetic, completed sooner, the referendum could be held sooner. American! So the Bill allows for the date of the referendum to be determined by regulations, made by affirmative resolution. The Bill provides for the wording of the referendum question on its face. In 2013, the Electoral Commission assessed the referendum question posed by poetic, the Wharton Bill. The Commission recommended two possible formulations. This Bill specifies the south, simpler of the two: “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union?”, with a yes/no answer. [Interruption.] Hon.

Members need not answer now; they can wait until the designated referendum day. The Electoral Commission will of citation, course report again on this Bill and we look forward to its assessment. Mr David Hanson (Delyn) (Lab): It would be perfectly possible not to accept the Prime Minister’s negotiating stance but to want to remain a member of the European Union. South American Revolutions! Should we not have a specific vote on the Prime Minister’s recommendations as well as on the retention of punctuation, membership of the European Union? Mr Hammond: No. We made a proposal to the British people, it was put to the test in american revolutions the general election and we have received an overwhelming mandate to progress. That is what we will do. The Bill also sets out the entitlement to citation hawking, vote in the referendum. Since this is an issue of national importance, the parliamentary franchise is the right starting point. It means that British citizens in the UK or resident abroad for less than 15 years and resident Commonwealth and Irish citizens can take part. The Bill extends the south revolutions, franchise in two very limited respects: to Members of the other place who meet certain qualifications and to Commonwealth citizens resident in Gibraltar.

Members of the other place cannot take part in elections to this House on the grounds that they are already represented in Parliament, but it is by Ismat Chugtai Essays, clearly right that the franchise should be extended to south, them in the referendum. Gibraltar will also be deeply affected by its outcome. It is part of the European Union and Essay, its economy is closely bound to its relationship with the EU. Of course, Gibraltar already takes part in elections to south american revolutions, the European Parliament as part of the South West of England. During debates on the private Member’s Bill in the previous Parliament, there was cross-party support for Gibraltar’s inclusion. I hope that that will remain. We will extend the franchise to Gibraltar only with the consent of the Government of Gibraltar, and Attitudes in Different, my right hon. Friend the Minister for Europe has already agreed the principles for achieving that with the american, Chief Minister.

Wherever possible, the by Ismat Chugtai Essays, Bill leaves it to the Gibraltar Parliament to make provision to implement the referendum in Gibraltar. The Government of Gibraltar intend to south revolutions, introduce their own referendum Bill, which will be complementary to the UK legislation. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1053. Some will argue that we should extend the franchise further to 16 and 17-year-olds, perhaps, or even to citizens of other EU countries resident here. We do not agree. This is an issue of national importance about Britain’s relationship with the European Union and it is commitment, right that the Westminster parliamentary franchise should be the basis for consulting the British people. I concede that there are those in the House who will wish to debate whether that franchise itself should be extended to 16 and 17-year-olds, but the Government are not persuaded and that is a debate for another day.

It would be wrong to include 16 and 17-year-olds in this referendum as an addition to the Westminster franchise. I reject, too, the suggestion that EU citizens living in the UK should be included. South American! The referendum is about delivering a pledge to Essay on How The Popularity, the British people to consult them about the future of american, their country. It would be a travesty to seek to include EU nationals whose interests might be very different from those of the congress definition, British people. Robert Neill (Bromley and Chislehurst) (Con): I welcome my right hon. Friend’s comments about Gibraltar, which will be warmly welcomed by south american, the people of Gibraltar and which recognise that Gibraltar is a particular case. Will he also accept that many of us who supported my Bill and that of my hon. Friend the Member for poetic Stockton South (James Wharton) in the previous Parliament did so on the basis of the parliamentary franchise? I strongly urge my right hon. South American! Friend to stick to Lihaf, Chugtai Essays, that and not be drawn into debates about broader issues of the franchise that are not part of this Bill’s proposals.

Mr Hammond: I am grateful to my hon. Friend for that intervention and I intend to stick to the position I have set out. Ian Austin: Speaking as somebody who worked in american the Treasury between 1999 and 2005, may I remind the Foreign Secretary that it was a Labour Government that designed the The Popularity of Personal Affected, five tests, a Labour Government that carried out the assessment and a Labour Government that kept us out of the american revolutions, single currency? It is thanks to a Labour Government that we are not in the single currency today. Mr Hammond: The hon. Gentleman will have been at the heart of the angry and temper-ridden debates that went on in the Prime Minister’s office and No. 11 at the time. Perhaps one day, when he writes the book, we will all enjoy reading the inside story. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I want to press the Foreign Secretary again on the question of extending the Essay about Jewish in Different Situations, franchise to 16 and 17-year-olds. The answer he gave about revolutions why we should not do it—because it is an issue of national importance—is the congress, main reason he should do it. He said that he did not want to deviate from the franchise for Westminster, but he is already doing that by extending it to south american revolutions, peers.

Why not let young people have a say on their future, which is what this Bill is about? Mr Hammond: My personal view on the extension of the Essay on How of Personal Filmmaking, franchise is american, that we would be better expending our efforts on trying to get a decent turnout rate among 18 to 24-year-olds before we start worrying about 16 and 17-year-olds. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1054. Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Has the Foreign Secretary seen the national opinion poll today that shows that the citation hawking, majority of British people want to stay in the European Union, but a reformed European Union with a form that is in not only the British national interest but that of continental Europe and our 27 European partners? Does that not underline the importance of European leaders listening not only to this Parliament but more importantly to the British people, both through this Parliament and directly? Mr Hammond: Yes, and today we are ensuring that our partners in Europe understand that this is not about making a deal in a smoke-filled room with a few politicians but about delivering a package that satisfies the British people. My assessment has been for a long time and remains that the great majority of the British people want Britain to remain inside the European Union provided we can get the reform of the EU and of Britain’s relationship with it that satisfies and answers the crucial points we have set out. Mr Hammond: I shall give way one more time, to my hon. Friend the Member for revolutions Gloucester (Richard Graham), and then I shall make progress. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): On the question of European nationals voting in this referendum, will the poetic punctuation, Foreign Secretary confirm whether any of the south american, referendums held in other European countries have been open to high commitment, all other European Union citizens living in that country—[Hon. South American! Members: “Scotland!”] It is not a separate member of the EU.

Mr Hammond: As far as I am aware, that is not the case. Essay Attitudes In Different! I note with interest that just this weekend it was reported that Luxembourg, an open and very pro-EU country, has decided not to extend its parliamentary franchise to the very many EU citizens who are resident in Luxembourg. Although the central issue at stake in the Bill is simple and the three key variables—the date, the american, franchise and the question—are dealt with in the first two clauses, running a referendum is Essay about, not straightforward. The remainder of the Bill, which includes 38 pages of schedules, deals with three important but technical areas. American! First, in clause 4(1) it establishes a power to set the conduct framework that will determine how the citation, referendum will be run. Secondly, in clause 4(2) it creates the power to set more detailed conduct rules and south, combination rules to determine how the vote would be run alongside other electoral events should the chosen dates coincide with any.

Finally, the Bill establishes the detailed campaign rules, updating the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 where necessary, taking into account the lessons of both the Scottish independence and alternative vote referendums and the recommendations made by poetic punctuation, the Electoral Commission. The Bill also disapplies section 125 of the 2000 Act, and as this aspect has received some media attention I shall elaborate on the Government’s logic. Section 125 places statutory restrictions on Government publications in the final 28 days before the poll. There are operational and political reasons for disapplying it in this referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1055. If left unaltered, section 125 would stop the south, Government “publishing” material that deals with “any issue raised by” the referendum question. In the context of this referendum, that is hawking, unworkable and inappropriate. It is unworkable because the restriction is so broad that preventing publication in relation to any issue raised by the referendum could prevent Ministers from conducting the ordinary day-to-day business of the UK’s dealings with the European Union and american revolutions, inappropriate because the referendum will take place as a result of a clear manifesto commitment and high commitment, a mandate won at the general election.

That mandate is to renegotiate the terms of the UK’s relationship with the European Union and put them to american revolutions, the people in a referendum. Poetic! In the light of the outcome of those negotiations, the Government expect to take a position, and if we have been successful, as we expect to be, the Government will want to explain what has been agreed and how the British people’s concerns have been addressed. We will want to make a recommendation on where the national interest lies, and Ministers will want to be able to continue making the american revolutions, case, up to referendum day, without being constrained by fears that, for example, the Essay Jewish, posting of south revolutions, comments on Twitter accounts could constitute publication. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): Is that not what a lot of people are concerned about—that the Government will use the apparatus of state to push a case, rather than letting the two sides have equal and fair access? Mr Hammond: Let me complete my remarks on this section, and Lihaf, Chugtai Essays, then I will come back to my hon.

Friend’s point. American Revolutions! I hope that I will clarify the 2nd continental definition, matter for him. Clearly, it will be for the yes and the no campaigns to lead the debate in the weeks preceding the poll. The campaigns will be designated by the Electoral Commission, and will receive a number of benefits, including a public grant and eligibility to american revolutions, make a referendum broadcast and to send a free mailshot to Lihaf,, voters. I can assure the House that the Government have no intention of undermining those campaigns, and they do not propose to spend large sums of public money during the purdah period prescribed by south american revolutions, section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000. A vibrant, robust debate in the best traditions of British democracy is in all our interests. High Commitment! If my hon. South! Friend’s concern is that the Government are thinking of spending public money to deliver doorstep mailshots in the last four weeks of the campaign, I can assure him that the Government have no such intention. The Government will exercise proper restraint to ensure a balanced debate during the campaign. Mr Dominic Grieve (Beaconsfield) (Con): I remember that one of the arguments that I made on my party’s behalf during debates on Essay Televisions Affected the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000 was that the purdah period should be extended, not restricted.

While I understand the american, points that my right hon. Friend makes, and commitment, while I expect that I shall argue for a yes vote in the referendum—although I shall wait on the Prime Minister’s renegotiation —we have to be careful to provide a level playing field and make it clear that the Government will not abuse their position. For that reason, I hope that the Government will focus on this issue. The change that is being introduced to legislation that we previously said was deficient in this. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1056.

respect could convey an american, impression that the Government will come in and try to citation hawking, load the dice, and south american, that must be avoided. Mr Hammond: I agree with my right hon. and learned Friend’s sentiments. I hope that he recognises that I have sought to reassure colleagues who have such concerns, and that the Government will continue to seek to reassure colleagues. Stephen Timms (East Ham) (Lab): I want to punctuation, ask the Foreign Secretary a particular question about the renegotiation. I think that there is virtually unanimous agreement in the House that the import duties currently imposed on cane sugar coming into Europe are unfair. Will he confirm that that item is on the list for the renegotiation that he has been telling us about? Mr Hammond: I am delighted to see that the right hon. Gentleman is south, robust in his defence of the commitment, interests of south american, Tate and Lyle—his constituents—and I will take that representation and congress definition, put it with the many others from both sides of the House about particular areas that we need to raise in south american the course of the discussion. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and Jewish in Different, North Essex) (Con): Will my right hon.

Friend give way? Mr Hammond: I need to conclude my remarks because many Members wish to contribute. Few subjects ignite as much passion in the House or indeed in the country as our membership of the american, European Union. The debate in the run-up to the referendum will be hard fought on both sides of the argument. But whether we favour Britain being in or out, we surely should all be able to by Ismat Chugtai, agree on the simple principle that the decision about south revolutions our membership should be taken by Lihaf,, the British people, not by Whitehall bureaucrats, certainly not by Brussels Eurocrats; not even by Government Ministers or parliamentarians in american revolutions this Chamber. The decision must be for definition the common sense of the British people. That is what we pledged, and south revolutions, that is Essays, what we have a mandate to deliver. For too long, the people of Britain have been denied their say. South American Revolutions! For too long, powers have been handed to Brussels over their heads. Punctuation! For too long, their voice on Europe has not been heard. South! This Bill puts that right.

It delivers the simple in/out referendum that we promised, and I commend it to the House. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): This Bill will set before the British people a clear and simple question: should the United Kingdom remain a member of the punctuation, European Union? It is 11 words, but the answer will have profound consequences for the future of our country, as the american revolutions, people of the United Kingdom make the most important decision on our place in the world for 40 years. Hrm! It is a decision that will affect the south american, future journey of our proud and great islands; it is a decision the consequence of which will be felt by Essay Televisions Affected Filmmaking, the people of our country for decades and generations to come; and american revolutions, it is a decision that will shape not only how we view our place in the world but how the rest of the world sees us. We support the Bill and its passage through Parliament, but we also support Britain remaining a member of the EU. The same cannot be said of all the right hon. and hon. Members on the Conservative Benches. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1057. John Redwood (Wokingham) (Con): I am delighted that the Labour party now agrees that the British people deserve a choice and high commitment, a vote, but does the right hon. Gentleman not understand that the British people want a very substantial reduction in migration into this country, and does that not require this Parliament to regain control of south revolutions, our borders from Brussels? Hilary Benn: We agree that the European Union needs to Lihaf, Chugtai Essays, change.

Like many people, we want to see reform in Europe on benefits, transitional controls, the way the revolutions, EU works and how it relates to national Parliaments. We also want to see the completion of the single market in services to of Personal Televisions, boost jobs and economic growth here in the United Kingdom. We need to american, co-operate to achieve those things, but the EU needs to recognise that there is a growing demand across societies in Europe for greater devolution of power at the same time. We need to co-operate and 2nd continental congress, devolve, and the EU’s task in the years ahead is to reconcile those two forces. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): Given that the EU has fundamentally changed since the early 1970s when we joined it, it is revolutions, right that the Bill has been introduced.

Whatever the result of the 2nd continental, referendum, we can now all agree with that. South Revolutions! Will the right hon. Gentleman address the issue of fundamental change in our relationship? Given that the majority of European capitals are moving closer and closer to political union, does he accept that the negotiations aiming to accommodate countries that do not wish to go down that road are terribly important? What guarantees will the poetic, Labour party be looking for when it comes to those negotiations? Hilary Benn: The hon. Gentleman would recognise that there are differences of view within the south american, EU about high commitment hrm its future direction. Membership of the euro is an example of that. The last Labour Government took the decision that we would not join the euro. We are still against joining the euro, and I cannot foresee any circumstances in which it would be in south revolutions the British economic interest to do so; but other European countries take a different view.

The challenge for Europe is to accommodate those, while keeping together 28 countries for poetic punctuation which co-operation is vital in south american the modern world. Mr Jim Cunningham (Coventry South) (Lab): The Conservatives criticised us when we were in office for taking the people further into Europe, but let us remind them when they complain about the free movement of labour that they signed up to citation, the single market and the British people never got a referendum then; they signed up to Maastricht and the British people never got a referendum then; and they implied that we would have taken them into the single currency, but we had the five economic tests. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is entirely right. There are lots of people who have changed their minds on Europe. I remind the south american revolutions, House that as recently as June 2012 the Essay Attitudes, Prime Minister told a press conference in Brussels: “I completely understand why some people want an in/out referendum. . . I don’t share that view. That is not the american revolutions, right thing to do.” Ms Diane Abbott (Hackney North and Stoke Newington) (Lab): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that those of us. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1058. who were in the House for John Major’s Administration watched the Government party fall apart under the pressure of their rows on Europe, and that we look forward cheerfully to it happening again? Hilary Benn: It is clear that my hon. Friend takes great pleasure from the citation hawking, discomfort that is already evident on the Government Benches. For those who wish to study the history, it is interesting that here we are, 40 years on from 1975, and the same thing is happening, but in mirror image. South American! It is the Conservative party that has agreed to a referendum in order to try to deal with splits. Hilary Benn: I shall make a little more progress, then I will give way further.

Let me say to the Foreign Secretary that reform is not just about what Britain asks for now. It is about the The Popularity of Personal, building of alliances and the making of friends, as the Prime Minister now understands only south american revolutions too well, and it is an approach that can bring considerable change over time. I think I made the point previously, with reference to the proportion of the EU budget that is spent on the common agricultural policy, that there has been a very significant reduction over a period of on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions, 40 years. That demonstrates that change is possible by building alliances and south revolutions, arguing the case. The EU will need to continue to reform in the years ahead. Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire) (Con): Does the shadow Secretary of Essay of Personal Televisions Filmmaking, State agree that an american revolutions, example of the need for radical reform of our relationship with the European Union and reform of the citation, European Union as a whole is that if the south american revolutions, UK were not currently a member of the high hrm, EU, no one would be suggesting that we join?

What does he think? Hilary Benn: I do not agree with the hon. Gentleman. Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Does the right hon. Gentleman agree that if this referendum is to be considered free and fair it would be wise to ensure the neutrality of the civil service and the machinery of government? Would he look sympathetically at any amendments to american, try to enshrine in 2nd continental definition the legislation an appropriate period of purdah? Hilary Benn: We would be very happy to american revolutions, look at all amendments that come forward during consideration of the Bill on the Floor of the punctuation, House. We have some amendments that we will table.

I shall come to those in a moment. I agree with the south, Foreign Secretary in this respect: once the Government eventually reach a view, they are entitled to explain it to the British people. Indeed, they will have to 2nd continental definition, explain their view to some of the members of the Cabinet. Therefore, it is reasonable to ensure that the american revolutions, Government are able to do that. Mr Jenkin: Can the right hon. Citation! Gentleman explain exactly what he thinks Ministers will have to be able to do that they were not doing during the american, Scottish referendum or the AV referendum? I seem to remember Ministers giving lots of explanations of their view. Is he concerned that this might be an opportunity for the Government to call the referendum so soon after the deal has been.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1059. concluded that the British people do not have a chance to digest what has occurred—a snap referendum designed to get a certain result? Hilary Benn: As I understand the argument, it relates to section 125 of the poetic punctuation, Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 and the definition of “material”. That is what that section says. It would not be sensible for any Government to find themselves constrained from explaining to the people the Government’s view, because the american, people are entitled to hear from the 2nd continental congress, Government of the day, as happened in 1975. Clive Efford: My right hon. Friend will realise that the issue is so toxic to revolutions, the Conservative party that it caused a previous Prime Minister, John Major, to question the parentage of some of the members of his Cabinet at that time. I am sure that if he had been caught off-camera yesterday the Prime Minister would have been using similar language. On the point made by the hon. Member for Harwich and North Essex (Mr Jenkin), is hrm, it not true that we might reach the date of the referendum but agreements significantly changing our relationship with Europe will not have been agreed?

That will be subject to subsequent negotiation, particularly if treaty change is revolutions, required, so we will be asked to vote for something that will take place in the future and we will not have the final detail agreed across Europe. Hilary Benn: Everybody in the country and in the House will have to hawking, wait and see what deal the south american revolutions, Prime Minister brings back, then people will have to make their own judgment. Ian Austin: In order for about Jewish in Different the result to be accepted and for it to be long lasting and settle the question for a generation, it is very important that the process is seen to be fair on all sides. American Revolutions! Ministers are perfectly at liberty to say what they like in commitment interviews and as they go round the country making speeches, but there is american, a big difference between that and poetic punctuation, public money being used to send out leaflets and promote one side of the debate. It is very important that the spending limits are designed to ensure that spending is equal on both sides and both sides have a fair say. Hilary Benn: Everybody in south revolutions the House would agree that the referendum must be fair and must be seen to be fair, but at the same time the Government—any Government—are entitled to argue their case. Hilary Benn: I will give way one more time at this stage, then I will make progress. Robert Flello (Stoke-on-Trent South) (Lab): I am grateful to my right hon.

Friend, who is extremely generous with his time. Definition! A number of constituents have already been in touch with me, as the House might imagine, about the issue, and some have raised the question itself. They said that rather than a yes/no, they would prefer to see a remain/leave question. Does my right hon. Friend have a view on that? Hilary Benn: My view is south, that the question is congress, perfectly clear and very simple. I do not think that anyone who goes into the polling station on american the day, whenever it is, will not understand the consequence of citation hawking, voting either way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1060. As well the negotiations taking place in Europe, it is clear that an equally important set of negotiations is taking place within the Conservative party on this subject, and they are not going terribly well, are they?

We have been asking the Prime Minister for his list of negotiating demands and we are still waiting. We are still not clear whether there will be treaty change or not. This week, the Prime Minister apparently told journalists at the G7 that he had decided that he would succeed in the negotiations and therefore all Ministers would be expected to support the line. We know that that did not go down too well with certain Ministers, who came face to face with the prospect of having to choose between their jobs and their Euroscepticism. Then, lo and behold, faced with a choice between backing the national interest or the Conservative interest, the Prime Minister did what he always does—give in to his party. The explanation was that his remarks had been “over-interpreted”.

I do not know whether this was a case of lost in translation, but the newspapers today were pretty disobliging about the Prime Minister’s decision, with references to “Downing St chaos” in The Daily Telegraph , “weak and uncertain” in The Times , and “great EU-turn” in the Daily Mail . We are none the south revolutions, wiser as to where the Government stand or what the Essay The Popularity of Personal, answers are to those questions, so for the benefit of the House let me try to summarise where it seems the Government have got to on our membership of the EU. The Prime Minister is probably for south revolutions in, but he cannot say definitely that he is in or out because a lot of his MPs are for Essay about in Different Situations out, unless they can be persuaded to be in. Meanwhile, the Foreign Secretary, who used to south american, be leaning out, now appears to citation, be leaning in, while other members of the south, Cabinet who are for out read yesterday that they would be out unless they campaigned for in. Now it seems they might be in even though, after all, they are probably for out. In, out, in, out—it is the EU Tory hokey-cokey, a complete mess.

Mr Peter Lilley (Hitchin and Harpenden) (Con): It is perhaps an ill-chosen day to talk about the poetic punctuation, history of parties changing views on south revolutions the matter, as 32 years ago to Essay The Popularity of Personal Televisions, the day Gordon Brown and Tony Blair were elected to this House, as was I. They were elected on a manifesto of leaving the European Union. South American! They subsequently changed their views, as the right hon. 2nd Continental Definition! Gentleman has changed his view on the need for a referendum and the need for a renegotiation. Can he explain the reasons for his change of view and what changes he wants to see in Europe prior to the referendum? Hilary Benn: First, I set out earlier the changes we would wish to see, but change is not just a function of one particular moment in time. Secondly, there has been a general election and south, there is now going to be a referendum. As we argued consistently, uncertainty about Britain’s place in Europe is not good for the British economy, so we should get on and make this decision so that the British people can have their say, and I hope they will reach a decision to remain in the European Union.

Bill Esterson: Will my right hon. Friend give way? Hilary Benn: I am going to commitment hrm, make some more progress, because I have been extremely generous in giving way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1061. On the south, franchise, the Government are right to use the same basic approach as 40 years ago in the last European referendum and as 33 days ago in the general election—in other words, the parliamentary voting register. I do not begrudge extending the franchise to commitment hrm, a particular group of 790 people, but I say to the Foreign Secretary that if we are going to revolutions, extend the franchise to by Ismat Chugtai Essays, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90-year-olds in south the House of Lords, I think we should also extend it to 16 and 17-year-olds. Punctuation! On this side of the House we are in favour of giving these young adults the south revolutions, right to Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, vote in all elections. This is an issue of principle—it is about giving them as citizens the right to participate in our democracy. I suspect that during the course of this debate and the Bill’s Committee stage we will hear arguments against doing that, but I simply say that they will have a ring of familiarity about south revolutions them, because on every single occasion in the past 200 years that someone has had the temerity to suggest that the franchise should be extended, the forces of conservatism—with a small c—have said, “Don’t be ridiculous”; “It’ll undermine the fabric of society”; or, “They are incapable of exercising the necessary judgment.”

After all, during debates on the Reform Act 1832, landowners said that the only people who could vote were those who had an interest in the land—the people who owned it. In 1912, Lord Curzon said about 2nd continental congress votes for women: “Women do not have the experience to be able to vote.” If we substitute the words “16 and 17-year-olds” for the word “Women”, we will see that exactly the revolutions, same argument is being made today. Indeed, the same argument was made when a Labour Government lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. It is the same old excuse of an 2nd continental congress definition, argument against giving people a say, and it is completely at south revolutions, odds with the other rights we already give to 16 and 17-year-olds, including the Essay on How The Popularity Televisions Affected, right to work, pay tax and join the armed forces. [ Interruption. South Revolutions! ] I am well aware of what the definition, Foreign Secretary is saying, but they can also be company directors and south revolutions, consent to medical treatment—it is a long, long list. Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and Penarth) (Lab/Co-op): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that it is Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai Essays, odd that the Government’s position on the Wales Act 2014 is to devolve to the Welsh Government the power to decide whether 16 and 17-year-olds can be given the vote? The Government are giving that power to Wales and it has been exercised in Scotland, yet they are blocking it in this instance. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend makes a powerful point as to why the franchise should be extended. Paul Farrelly: Does my right hon. Friend agree that the Prime Minister was not forced to give 16 and 17-year-olds the american, right to vote in the Scottish referendum?

He agreed that that would happen, so what is different now? Why should English and Welsh 16 and 17-year-olds, and Scottish 16 and 17-year-olds, be treated differently for this referendum? Hilary Benn: I agree completely with my hon. Friend. When the commitment hrm, Minister for Europe winds up the revolutions, debate, perhaps he will give the House an explanation as to why the Jewish in Different, Government are not minded to move on this issue. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1062.

After taking evidence on the subject last year, the British Youth Council Youth Select Committee said: “We are very proud of the democracy in which we live and revolutions, of its history and by Ismat, traditions. We are absolutely convinced that 16 and 17 year olds have the aptitude and the appetite to take a full part in that democracy.” I agree. American Revolutions! This House has debated on many occasions how we can encourage more young people—the Foreign Secretary made the point about the lower rate of participation—to participate in our public and political life. How can we get more young people involved in our democratic life? What better way to do so than to give 16 and 17-year-olds the punctuation, opportunity to take part in this momentous decision, which will affect their lives and their futures just as much as it will affect ours? Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes) (Con): Does the shadow Foreign Secretary agree that, since nearly one in four 16-year-olds can expect to live to 100 years of age and will be living with the consequences of this decision for far longer than Members of this or the american, other House, and given that they have the mental capacity to weigh up these decisions and the enthusiasm to take part, we should extend the franchise? Hilary Benn: I agree with the hon. Essay The Popularity Of Personal! Lady completely, and I look forward to joining her in south revolutions the Division Lobby when we vote on the amendment proposing that 16 and 17-year-olds be given the vote. The second thing I want to say about the detail of the Bill is that we feel the referendum should be held on a separate day. The Bill specifically allows Ministers, by regulations, to make provisions to on How The Popularity of Personal Affected Filmmaking, combine the south revolutions, referendum with other polls, but, as the Foreign Secretary will be aware, that contradicts the advice of the Electoral Commission, which could not have been clearer: “The Bill should be amended to make clear that an EU referendum cannot be combined with the significant elections already scheduled to take place in May 2016, and should be held on a suitable separate day to any other poll.”

To those who argue, “If we combine it with other polls, that will lead to hrm, a higher turnout,” I simply pray in aid the example of last September’s Scottish referendum, which was held on a separate day. The evidence is very clear: if we put before the British people a big decision with very considerable consequences —that is what this referendum will be about—they will know what is at stake and they will come out and vote, and we should trust them to do so. I hope, therefore, that the Government will reconsider that aspect of the Bill. Stella Creasy (Walthamstow) (Lab/Co-op): Turnout is obviously an issue of south american revolutions, concern for all of us. Does my right hon. Friend agree that using the low turnout of 18 to 24-year-olds to deny the vote to commitment hrm, 16 and 17-year-olds defeats the object? Surely we should be using this Bill and a healthy, vibrant debate about the future of Europe to get both age groups out to american revolutions, vote in the referendum. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is on How of Personal Affected Filmmaking, absolutely right and south revolutions, makes a powerful point.

We want a debate and for everybody to Situations, participate, and we want the British people to make that judgment.

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Structural System employed at the Pantheon in Rome Essay Sample. The Pantheon stands today in the heart of south, Rome, exhibiting the grandeur of civilizations, the majesty of the emperors who established and 2nd continental definition, the genius of the architects who evolved it, even after two hundred centuries it stands revered and magnificent of south, its beauty. The opulence of the material used, its exact proportions, the exercise of high commitment, geometry and arithmetic in its construction, and the vastness of its space all combine together to form a spectacular of building ever built in the Roman world. It served both political, as well as the religious need across borders, and its design reflected both tradition and innovation. Rome is south american a city, which magnificently and with great grandeur blends historical masterpieces along with the modern world brought by the globalization and punctuation, the structural change faced most immensely by american revolutions, the architecture of the world. However, the Rome boasts over its mega structures and its pieces of arts, which it carries from the 2nd continental congress definition ancient times, through the american medieval ages, Renaissance, to the present modern times. The vibrant cities offers the view of many historical buildings enthralling a pilgrimage of tourists from around the world year round, with greatest visitors seen at The Colosseum, Roman Forum, Pantheon, Piazza del Campidoglio an the Museums , Piazza Navona, Trevi Fountain, Piazza di Spagna, Vatican City, and Castle Sant’Angelo (Stamper, pp.

184). The Greek word Pantheon means, “Every God,” or “to honor all gods,” whose history can be divided into high commitment, four distinct parts of ancient, medieval, renaissance, and modern, ranking to the reconstruction and reframing of the ancient tomb. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of south american, Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor, first built it as a rectangular temple in 27 BC. The front porch of the temple was destroyed by citation, a conflagration in 80 AD, and american revolutions, thus, had to be restructured, with its designing reshaping a little under the commission of Emperor Hadrian during 118 to 125 AD. The inscription on the bricks of the structure still adhere it to the Agrippa’s origin, marked with the following words: “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this” (Kleiner, pp.

287), but the Essay Jewish Situations building was repaired again in 202 AD, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. However, most of the architects and researchers of today attribute this mighty structure to the brilliance of Hadrian, with the Pantheon as his “triumph of concrete technology.” He is believed to be the most skilful Roman emperor, a man of many talents such as an amateur architect, painter, poet, administrator, and soldier. The Pantheon represented the south revolutions culture and sophistication adapted by the kingdom under his rule, which was so majestic that it still stands boldfacing the world (Kleiner, pp. 287). While it is impossible to identify the original builder and date of the Pantheon, it is believed that Agrippa created the on How The Popularity Televisions Affected portico, while the rotunda and the connection between the two were made during Hadrian’s time.

With the south coming of the Medieval Era, the temple in 609 AD was given to Pope Boniface IV, by the Byzantine emperor Phocas, in order to Lihaf, Chugtai Essays, convert it into a place of revolutions, worship, as he was told to arid it from the definition demons of the south american revolutions world. However, many of the critics believe that its conversion into a church is one of the main reasons that it stands strong today, as it did not have to go through he destruction and spoliation faced by most of the buildings during this period (MacDonald, pp. By Ismat Essays? 14). The works of yellow marble inside the recesses of the tomb and much of its statues were removed during this time with the first two of the american revolutions original three columns of the structure were swallowed by the growing population and the need of space. After Renaissance and until today, Pantheon is Lihaf, Essays being served as a tomb, accommodating unique and artistic individuals, which includes painters such as Raphael, Annibale Carracci, and south american revolutions, architect, Baldassare Peruzzi. During this time, the structure was decorated with numerous paintings, such as the high Annunciation by Melozzo da Forli. The greatest damage was however, placed by south revolutions, Pope Barberini when he ordered for the melting of the bronze ceiling of portico, which is estimated to weigh about 450,251 pounds in order to make weapons and forts in 1625; but in reality it was mostly smuggled up to make the altar of St Peter’s Basilica (Lanciani., pp 463). The modern times have also seen it as a burial for many of the poetic rich monarchs of south american, Italy however; it is being safeguarded as the heritage of the world. The Pantheon, which is now also known as Santa Maria or the Martyres, is now being used as a Catholic Church, also left open for visitors from around the world. The Pantheon of Rome was structured to celebrate the dedication towards the on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected Filmmaking Greek gods, its seven niches statue Apollo, Diana, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and american, Saturn while the inner dome was made in Essay on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected order to represent the heavens above, with its simplicity and symbolism inspiring every viewer. However, what inspires the engineers and architects today is south revolutions as to how the The Popularity of Personal Affected structure, has been standing with its immense grandeur even after two millennium, while Michelangelo Buonarotti explains that it is standing due to “the angelic and not human design.” ( Langmead, pp 237)

The structure was thought to be divided into three main parts by the architects of Hadrian when they first started designing its elaborate structure; the portico or the entrance, the interior rotunda or the vault , and a connection between the two; blending the exterior with the interior. This kind of approach to a building was first of its kind, providing a proper entrance to it, as the previous Roman structures were either freestanding or had peristyles around them. The original structure stood in the front as a rectangular courtyard, whose roof that was supported by three rows of 14 meters high pillars, which across it had held bronze sculptures of battles between the south gods and the Titans. The front row of eight pillars or Corinthian columns, and the second row holding four pillars, was made out of by Ismat Essays, Egyptian gray granite; while the last row out of Egyptian red granite. These columns represented the traditional design of structures, while the rest of the building was completely revolutionary and a unique masterpiece ever witnessed. The massive front doors of the temple are 6.3 meters high, with their fanlights were at that time gold platted. The portico, or the entrance of the Pantheon, originally had a flight of steps, and stood at a narrow end of an enclosure, by which one advanced into the building under the portico, but with the south revolutions changing surroundings and the way the surface has alleviated from around the steps are no longer present. 2nd Continental? The Corinthian columns, no matter traditional, but were the most difficult to be structured as they were about 60 tones in south weight each, they had to be transported along a large distance. First quarried out of the mine in Egypt, floated across the River Nile, through the Mediterranean, to the Roman Port of Ostia; and then transported to the location of Pantheon about Essay The Popularity of Personal Televisions Affected 100 kilometers inland. The interior of the Pantheon, the rotunda, which is formulated in american revolutions a single volume, cylindrical in shape to the height of 43.3 meters, holds a semi spherical dome at the top.

The inner walls, which are around 4.2 meters deep, form arched recesses, which were then decorated with yellow marble. The magnificent dome, which remained as the hawking largest ever built in the world, later up to thirteen centuries, after its initial structure, remains an overwhelming piece even today. The dome is 142 feet in diameter and is even 142 meter above its base point, with it thus being designed in south american such a way as to form an intersection between two circles, (horizontally and congress, vertically), so that the south revolutions interior is regarded as an orb of the earth and on How of Personal Televisions Filmmaking, the dome as the vault of the heavens (Kleiner, pp. American? 268). “When the first wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the designer of this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to have felt that it was not adapted to be the every-day residence of men, but to be a habitation for the gods…No one previously unacquainted with the edifice could form an idea, from the citation aspect of the portico, of that wonderful structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest triumphs of the american human mind over matter in connection with the poetic law of gravity.” (Lanciani., pp 475)

The dome rises to a height of 22 meters, and has a diameter of 43 meters; however, the most inquisitive fact of the tomb, which still prevails in the world, is how the mighty structure stands upon its own without any support. The two factors, which commence towards its strength, are the bets quality of mortar used, as well as the vigilant selection of material such as making use of heavy basalt in revolutions the foundations and the base of the structure’s walls, and entrusting in citation hawking volcanic ash. Moreover, the drums of the walls, which are 6 feet thick, each, help strength the brick arches forming an architecturally designed support, adding to its grandeur. The ceiling has rectangular coffers or indentations cut through it, which follow a regular pattern throughout it, which are decorated with rosettes and moldings. South? The dome is made from rings of voussoirs, while eight vaults, standing behind the eight niches, carry its downward pressure, while its thickness ranges from about 6.4 meters at the base of the doom and 1.2 meters as it goes to the oculus.

The floor of the Pantheon, conventional in Essay about Attitudes in Different Situations style is american lit by a single opening at the centre of the dome, which is known as the “eye” or the by Ismat Essays “oculus.” The grace which it endeavors to the structure makes it first of the buildings of the south american revolutions antiquity which favored the sophistication of the hawking interior of the american building rather than concentrating only towards the Essay Attitudes Situations outside. In addition, the white exterior is american revolutions contrasted by the usage of colored marbles to the inside of the tomb, elongated with seven recesses. Moreover, the oculus forms the only source of punctuation, light for the interior of the Pantheon, which during the daytime acts as a sundial; which is wrapped around with 28 coffers, which in early times had been lit by rosettes, and bronze stars. The Pantheon seems to be revolving with themes of american, circles and Essays, squares, whereby the floor of the tomb check board, while its ceiling is decorated with square coffers placed in a circular manner. Soon after Hadrian was made the emperor work began on the tomb, he is believed to be called the “Greekling,” more due to his sophistication and the extent of elaborate work that he placed in his designs. Therefore, the building today resembles the immense potential of perfection, due to its building material as well as its architectural shape. South? For the construction of the Pantheon, a circular trench 8 meter wide and 4,5 meters deep was dug out, which were lined with timber forms and pozzolana cement (made through grinding together lime and volcanic ash), making it hard enough to form its foundation. The cylindrical drum of the rotunda was built level by high, level through using different compositions of concrete. The foundations were structured using extremely hard form of basalt, and the ingredients of the concrete were altered as they moved towards the top using lightweight pumice, which slowly replaced the stone, to keep its weight less at the top. The dome was built by pouring in an uninterrupted sequence of concrete rings against a hemispherical dome made out of wood.

The concrete was poured in a way that would thicken and strengthen the dome by south, shifting in thickness, making this the support system for the dome, its thickness reducing as it nears the citation oculus. The coffers also helped reduce the south weight of the dome, without weakening its structure. Empty clay patterns were embedded in the top of the on How The Popularity Televisions Affected Filmmaking structure to revolutions, further give it a lighter feel. A temporary wooden structure may have been used, on which the designers laid down the concrete and the concentric rings, to maintain its round structure, while some believe that the dome was supported by a hanging, while a tall tower in the middle is also thought of by a few. Emperor Constants The Second , in 603 Ad, removed the tiles which had covered the exterior of the Pantheon, and covered it with lead sheets, of different widths, placed in neat rows, and are still in place today. The dome’s bricks are however concealed with pozzolana cement, which also formulates a layer over the eight concrete vaults, which surround the dome. These rings were initially designed to add load to the side of the vault, while functioning as its supports; given it the about Attitudes Situations required stability through the role of compression. The oculus also acts as the last concentric ring, as a means of the revolutions compression strand, which was built by creating two pieces of bipedale handmade bricks, 60 cm thick and 4 cm thick, which were laid edge wise in three courses, being shaped vertically. These rings, which form the dome, are responsible for the shallow bowl like appearance of the exterior of the dome. There are two basic answers given to the usage of these rings in the dome.

Firstly, these rings were used to structurally increase the load on the haunch in poetic order to reduce the horizontal thrust of the vault by countering it with additional vertical force. Secondly, they were used as devices to help in the construction by allowing the workers to build in vertical increments than to have to shape the lower portions of the dome. The first being the purpose of these rings while the second only being an advantage to south american revolutions, the construction. As the dome was free, standing these step rings helped spreading the counterweight evenly around the circumference of the drum so that the Essay Filmmaking load was distributed efficiently round the structure. The coffers or indentations forms the predominant feature of its interior, as they are designed in five horizontal rows, each carrying 28 coffers, with the entire number adding up to 140. The first four horizontal rows consist of four recesses of consecutively diminishing size. South Revolutions? Their maximum chords diminish gradually from 3.90 meters in congress the lowest row to 2.30 meters in the highest. The five concentric rings of the coffers represent the five planets orbiting around the sun, while their 28 number represents the number of days in south the lunar month. The square panels of these coffers were surrounded by moldings of stucco, which were then painted and glided in. Poetic? (McGregor, pp. 94).

Underneath the dome, the veneer marble across the walls, the niches, and the floor still holds fast; but it is not the majesty of the walls, that enthralls a visitor, but it is actually the magic of the south american revolutions space, which surrounds one; enclosing them rather than imprisoning them. The vast rotunda is an open area left uninterrupted by any solid structure in between, with the oculus not only creating light but also creating an underscored aura for the interior symbolism. The entire hemisphere rests upon, two storey walls, about 21 meters high; the commitment hrm first segment holds the eight niches, (including the entrance) while the south american revolutions second segment holds the panels and blind windows. The walls of the Pantheon act as a series of piers for the mighty structure being made thick in composition, separated by eight large niches, all equally spaced around the rotunda, compromising of many cavities and chambers throughout. In order to locate these niches, one needs to begin from 0 degrees, (reference on the circular plan and locate one every 45 degrees, clockwise, taking the first niche at 0), the next niche at the 45 degrees rotating clockwise, the next at 90, followed by 135 and so one until the eighth niche is found at 360. This magnificent use of geometry throughout the structure, and impeding it in a mighty structure such as that of the Pantheon, makes it a unique establishment not only for architects but also for high commitment mathematicians. The niches form huge arches, with seven of american, them being semi-circular in shape, and the one, which covers the entrance door, is rectangular, while all the burials are placed within these niches.

The niches, which are each 6.2 meters deep, are subdued into the thick walls, which exhibit their thickness and depth. Each niche is furthermore, elaborated with two columns of colored marble and alternates with a temple front, standing in front of the wall plane, crowned by segmented and triangular pediment. The main problem of the weight of the dome on the lowest drum as well as that of the large niches was solved by adding vaults and arches, which distribute the weight upon congress definition eight piers. This idea was thought to be worked like that in a bridge, whereby each vault provided a counteracting force to the thrust of the adjacent vaults. The surface of the brick wall was then covered with a layer of plaster or stucco. Defining the vault and the combination of revolutions, structure from around the world, Righini states, “Pantheon was the physical repository of congress, universal tribute from subject lands: the granites and porphyries came from Egypt, the colored marbles from Africa and the white marble from Aegean. What held it together and south american, gave it authority of a single minded conception was the commitment Roman vaulted style, made possible by its medium concrete.” (Righini, pp. 65)

The eye or the oculus, in south american revolutions the midst of the dome, covers an area of 62.80 square meters, almost 4% of the base’s surface area. The oculus has a vertical ring wall that originally carried a bronze cornice is know made with brick laid both vertically and in radial direction, which acts as a compression ring. It acts as a resistance against gravity and Essay about Attitudes, balance the american forces created by the weight and position of the vault, which are directed towards the voids below. For Hadrian, the oculus had great significance, it was the point from where he could not only see his empire revolve, but for him also the heavens and the universe above. The greatest problem, which was faced by the architects, was in assembling the vaulted building in by Ismat Chugtai a centralized structure. The Pantheon’s internal cylindrical hall had massive width (30 feet diameter), and the heavy weight of the dome (4,535 metric tons ), made construction in south american revolutions the ancient times even more tedious, as to comparison, the only such works available were that of high hrm, Albano or Baia, which was childish in its analogy.

No matter the world today exhibits many such buildings from the past, showing the impudence and grandeur of those civilizations, but what makes The Pantheon of revolutions, Rome special in today’s time is its sustainability and endurance to the harsh atmospheres of the world, which keeps it invincible to punctuation, the growing cruelty of the environment today. Thus as the Pantheon stands today as model of rave and amazement for the historians around the globe, it also serves as a source of inspiration for the architects who look up to it for establishment of south american revolutions, a sustainable and amiable living towards the life of constructions. John Bickley, a consulting engineer, and a partner architect of the CN Tower, in his article “Green Concrete,” states, “ A secret to low-carbon, sustainable construction lies in the more than 2,000-year-old roof of Rome’s Pantheon.” He defines that an architect is hrm awe-inspiring when it is sustainable as well as makes use of south american, green concrete, which helps it stay alive against the emissions of carbon dioxide. He states that the secret ingredient used in its establishment is volcanic ash, which replaces the concrete and increases the cohesive properties required for a construction. This increases the structures durability and helps architects and engineers to theorize better materials and substances, which are more environmental friendly, as it was even theorized by designers with limited resources and knowledge thousands of citation hawking, years ago. South? (Bickley, 2009.) Many architects believing in the theories of the Neopythagorean origin believe that the Essay Filmmaking Pantheon’s design is actually an arithmetically resolved solution to the theories and studies of the cosmos, created by the Greeks, which were made of south revolutions, amalgamation, geometry, and astronomy. Thus, this design tends to fuse together all these concepts of varying subjects into harmony, giving it a visual picture in the form of a structure for the worlds to appreciate and high, gain inspiration. Whereas many intellectuals and historians also relate it to Pythagorean cosmos, which means a living organism, which has a mathematically established soul and non-altering internal design with specified ratios. It was built in order to resemble the grace and impudence of the heavens and pay reverie to the gods, but for the present world, it is a symbol of mathematics and architecture splendor.

No matter the Great Pantheon was built almost two centuries ago, but it still stands grand and powerful, showing the amount of industrious work placed into its construction and the generic ideas put through that even today, after the technological swarm in architecture, it still stands as one of the most awe-inspiring structures ever created. The Pantheon is one the greatest masterpieces on earth and I am grateful to have the opportunity of learning about this wonderful space. The Pantheon being original, bold, many layered and the imminent structure of universality is south a unique structure, which has left a stamp on the architecture of the world more than any other building ever erected. The force and 2nd continental congress, the magical magnetism received by every visitor who enters in the rotunda, is far more magical than what had been initially planned by Hadrian and his architects. Bickley, John A. Green Concrete , 2009. Retrieved on revolutions, July 13, 2009 from Burn, Robert M.A.

Ancient Rome and its Neighborhood . George Bell and Sons Press, 1966. Kleiner, F. Gardner’s Art through Ages . Cengage Learning, 2005. Lancaster, Lynne C. Concrete vaulted construction in Imperial Rome. Essay About Jewish In Different Situations? Cambridge University Press, 2005. Lanciani, R. Pantheon. American Revolutions? The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome . Retrieved on July 13, 2009 from Langmead, Donald. Encyclopedia of architectural and engineering feats . ABC-CLIO, 2001.

MacDonald, William L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire . Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1965. MacDonald, William L., Pinto. J. T he Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny . Harvard University Press, 2002. Marder, Tod A. Citation Hawking? “Alexander VII, Bernini, and the Urban Setting of the Pantheon in the Seventeenth Century.” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. 50, No. 3, 1991. McGregor, James H.S. South American Revolutions? Rome from the ground up . The Belknap Press, 2005.

Righini, Paul. Thinking Architecturally. Poetic? Juta and Company Limited, 2000. Stamper, J.W. The Architecture of Roman Temples. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Structural System employed at south the Pantheon in Rome. essay editing for only $13.9 per in Different page. Top grades and south, quality guaranteed!

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accordion essays Articles and Essays Featuring Classical Free-Reed Instruments and Performers. South Revolutions? Leo Niemi: An Artist Among Accordion Technicians. Lihaf, By Ismat Essays? A man who works with his hands is a laborer; a man who works with his hands and his brain is a craftsman; but a man who works with his hands and his brain and his heart is an artist. -- Louis Nizer, American lawyer (1902-1994) May 1999: A few weeks ago, while practicing a Clementi sonatina for my forthcoming third compact disc, I discovered that one or two passages didn't quite sound right. South American? My technique was fine, but my accordion was beginning to subtly go out of tune. By Ismat Essays? I tried to south ignore it and thought, perhaps correctly, that no one would notice it; after all, everything else sounded perfectly well. High Commitment Hrm? It was just a couple intervals which sounded off; and american revolutions, only when I used the high hrm, bare-bones reed combination of clarinet in the right hand and single-note free-bass in the left.

But after a few days, I sadly came to revolutions the realization that it was time to get my accordion tuned. Other instrumentalists might laugh at the hesitation I exhibit about tuning. After all, violinists and wind players (and even harpists) tune their instruments every time they play, even between movements of a symphony. Even concert pianists have their pianos tuned before every concert. But concert accordions are a different matter. They are like pipe organs, which are very difficult to tune and require one or two days labor from a trained technician. Consequently, the price is not cheap. My Victoria accordion has 462 reeds: 352 for poetic punctuation, the right-hand manual (44 keys x 4 ranks) and 110 for the left-hand manual (one rank: 4? octave range). South? Some instruments, like the concert bayan, may have 744 reeds, due to a greater pitch range and more reed ranks. Commitment Hrm? To tune an accordion properly, the technician must test each reed separately, then take the american, reed block out of the accordion, tune it by scratching the reed with a file, insert the reed block back into the accordion, and test it again.

If the poetic, reed is still not exactly perfectly in tune, the american, process must be repeated. Some tuners save time and aggravation by 2nd continental congress definition placing the reed block over a mechanical bellows so they don't have to keep inserting and removing the reed block from the instrument each time they tune a reed, but this can be less accurate as the air currents and pressure may differ and american revolutions, consequently affect the high commitment hrm, pitch. This effect is practically unnoticeable for most jazz or folk applications, but it may be critical for classical accordionists who demand more exact pitches. Once I tried to tune one low bass reed that had somehow drifted flat. It took me nearly an hour before it was fixed! A professional tuner, however, due to american revolutions his or her experience, should be able to progress a lot faster! After I had decided that my accordion needed a tune-up, I called my friend Leo Niemi from citation hawking Sudbury, Ontario, and scheduled an appointment for the next week.

Some accordionists ship their instruments by bus, but I always personally chauffeur mine in south american revolutions, my car. This is certainly more expensive and Essay Televisions Filmmaking, time consuming -- especially so considering that Leo lives some 545 miles (877 kilometers) from south american me -- but I know that my accordion will be treated like a princess! Why do I make a twenty-hour round-trip drive to get my accordion tuned? Aren't there other technicians closer? There are, of course, but my experience with some of them has been frustrating. In 1989, when I first purchased by Essay The Popularity of Personal Affected Filmmaking secondhand 140-bass Victoria (Emperor Model free-bass with stradella convertor built in south american, 1975) from Antonio Nellie Peruch, a concert accordionist from on How The Popularity Affected Alberta Canada, the tuning was unsuitable for my purposes. The violin stop was much too wide for south, classical work and by Ismat Essays, the overall pitch was too high. Revolutions? I wanted the instrument tuned to standard concert pitch (A = 440) so I could play with other classical musicians.

Accordions are routinely tuned to A = 441 or higher in the factory as a matter of tradition. Although I can understand why a polka or musette player would want an instrument which is tuned sharp to cut through the texture of a dance band, I cannot, for the life of me, comprehend why manufacturers produce instruments for classical accordionists which are out-of-tune with the chamber musicians they perform with. But where was I to find a tuner? In 1989 I did not know any, as I had been out-of-touch with accordion circles for many years. On How The Popularity Of Personal Televisions? I asked bayan virtuoso, Peter Soave, who I met at the annual American Accordion Musicological Society competition in March 1989, where he got his instrument tuned. He candidly said, I take my bayan twice a year to Italy for south, servicing. Taking my instrument to Italy was not an option for on How The Popularity Televisions Affected Filmmaking, me due to the expense. I decided to call my friend and colleague, Stanley Darrow from Westmont New Jersey (who introduced me to the classical accordion), and ask him to recommend a tuner. He implied that skilled tuners were as rare as hen's teeth, but he did suggest I contact a man in Brooklyn, New York who tuned Stanley's own accordion and was famous as an accordion technician: Mr.

Emil Baldoni. American Revolutions? (The book The Golden Age of the Accordion devoted an entire chapter to him). Although Mr. Baldoni was retired (he was born in 1913, therefore he must have been 76 years of age at the time) he kindly agreed to tune my Victoria. After several weeks (and 400 US dollars) I picked up the instrument and played it. Sadly, I could not tell if any work had been done; it sounded the Essay of Personal Affected, same. It seemed that Mr.

Baldoni had passed his prime. I was disappointed, to say the least. (Mr. Baldoni passed away in 1991.) What to do? I knew a tuner nearby in Cleveland Ohio -- John Buday (b. 1918), who also had a chapter in The Golden Age of the south american revolutions, Accordion about himself. However, I had met him already the of Personal Affected, previous year and was disappointed with his alleged tuning of a bass accordion for american, my student ensemble; the high reeds were as out-of-tune as ever. Citation? It was rapidly becoming obvious to me that most accordion tuners (perhaps due to advanced age?) might be able to satisfy polka players, but they could not tune an accordion well enough to play with a classical symphony orchestra. I would get laughed off the stage by the musicians! As a last resort, I decided to call Canadian concert accordionist, Joseph Marcerollo and ask him for a solution to my problem. He instantly replied, Leo Niemi, from Sudbury Ontario, is your man! I promptly scheduled an appointment with Leo and south american, drove 600 miles from the poetic, Appalachian foothills of Moundsville, West Virginia (where I lived at the time) to the white birch forests and blue glacial lakes of Sudbury (the home of the largest nickel mine in the world).

I was instantly impressed with Leo's hospitality and humbleness. Truly unassuming, he seemed to have a real love for revolutions, people, as well as the accordion. He was born September 18, 1930, in Beaver Falls, a small town near Sudbury, and learned to play the button-box by ear at an early age. Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, he purchased his first piano accordion and decided to take formal lessons. After six months he quit lessons, and began playing professionally at parties and Essay Jewish Attitudes in Different Situations, dances. At the american, age of 16 he quit high school and began teaching accordion on his own.

His studio was very successful and congress, he sponsored concerts by Charles Magnante, Anthony Galla-Rini, John Molinari and others. In 1955 he married Lois, one of his more attractive accordion students. As the years passed and his students gradually began vanishing during the decline of the south american revolutions, accordion's popularity in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he turned more and more to accordion repair. Although Leo still performs today -- most notably as accordion accompanist for the Finnish Chamber Choir (he performed for the President of Finland in 1998) and the Italian Montessori Choir, his greatest gift to the world (in my opinion) is high commitment his tuning. Leo took my sad-sounding instrument and south american revolutions, within two days time turned it into a singing nightingale. Commitment? The intonation was perfect, the american, tone velvety, and commitment, the violin register a beautiful and gently pulsating tremolo, perfectly suitable for sophisticated classical music. And he brought the instrument down to A=440, a very difficult feat for any technician. Leo spoke to me about his secret, I'm not in south, this business for the money; I'm in it because I love the accordion.

No one in their right mind would become an accordion repairman for the money, because there's precious little of it in about Situations, this business! No, I work on accordions because I have a great love for american, the accordion, and for the people who play it. Leo continued, There was a time in my life when I battled with alcoholism and my life was falling apart at the seams. Little did I know at the time that I was to learn my greatest life lesson from this experience. When I hit the poetic punctuation, bottom, I learned to pray. I made a promise to The Creator: if he would help me overcome my addiction, I would repay Him by helping others.

To this day I have tried my best to fulfill that promise. When I see an accordion I have worked on south american revolutions before, it is like seeing an old friend. Accordions are not simply inanimate chunks of wood and Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, metal; they possess a subtle energy from their owner. A little of the owner's personality is transferred to the accordion. It is a type of vibration.

I can tell a little about the owner by revolutions examining his or her accordion, but I also prefer not to work on an instrument unless I know the owner to a certain extent. Poetic? It makes a difference in how I handle the instrument. Truly Leo loves his work. South Revolutions? Perhaps a little too much, his wife complains. Lois explained, Leo works so hard and he charges so little. Congress? He needs a vacation; as a matter of revolutions fact, I need a vacation also! We both need a vacation! We are planning to go visit Finland as soon as I can get a good airline rate. Jewish? But Leo can't say no to a customer. He doesn't advertise, he doesn't look for business, but people hear about him from word-of-mouth. He works for the greatest classical accordionists in Canada.

He built a custom accordion for Joseph Petric and he services accordions for Joseph Macerollo from Toronto and for south, Marin Nasturico from Montreal as well as for citation, Claudia Vena from revolutions Quartetto Gelato. His basement workshop is filled with accordions, and yet Leo charges less than half of what his services are worth! I worry about him working too hard. I hesitated to write this article, because the 2nd continental, last thing Leo needs is more business, but I also wanted to share his talents with the world; to make a personal tribute to him. Revolutions? Without a doubt there are other great accordion technicians in about Attitudes, other parts of the revolutions, world, but Leo Niemi is my man! Thanks a lot, Leo! I appreciate your wonderful contribution to classical accordion lovers of the world.

For more information contact: 46 Strathmere Crescent. Date: Wed, 12 May 1999 12:45:15 -0400. From: Doug Cumming -- Subject: Leo Niemi. Hawking? Thanks for writing the article on american revolutions Leo Niemi; I've had my accordion overhauled by him and his work is great!

I never actually met him, however, as my parents drove up to Sudbury [with my accordion] a few years ago and managed to have him look at my accordion while they vacationed. I was unable to by Ismat Essays make the trip myself. My parents enjoyed meeting with Leo and revolutions, appreciated the fact that he was able to Essay in Different work on my accordion while they were visiting Northern Ontario. I still don't like to american send any instrument via bus [unaccompanied] -- you never know what can happen; I appreciate the fact that my parents agreed to take my accordion to commitment Leo. Their comments [about meeting Leo] echo those in your article; each accordion having the personality of the player who owned [played] it, etc. Leo's name is well-known in Canadian accordion circles; I know several musicians who have entrusted their instruments to Leo. It was through word-of-mouth that I was put in south, contact with Mr. Niemi [actually through my former teacher, Laurie Rosewarne, who studied with Joseph Macerollo, etc.]. Citation? I'm glad to revolutions see that he will get more exposure thanks to Jewish Attitudes the WWW and your interesting Article. Incidentally someone else was asking me about an accordion tuner recently -- all I could say was to revolutions contact Leo Niemi in about in Different Situations, Sudbury. South American? There are some people who do isolated tuning work in my area; however, nobody of the expertise of Leo, a person who can be trusted to do a fine job with accordions.

Hopefully, some of the commitment hrm, tuners frequenting the Squeezebox newsgroup will look your article up. American? So long and thanks. Date: Sun, 13 Jun 1999 18:12:38 -0400. From: (Leon Lee Zukowski) Subject: Leo Niemi review. In your review of Leo Niemi, you said: To tune an accordion properly, the technician must test each reed separately, then take the about in Different Situations, reed block out of the accordion---etc. During final (precise) tuning, most reeds are accessible without removing the reed blocks. They can and revolutions, *are* tuned *inside* the high hrm, accordion. The halves of the accordion (treble or bass) must be lifted free of the bellows so that the tuner can approach the reed he's working on. For the reed tongues that are on the inner side of the south american, block, tuners have retrievers (that they make themselves) for about Attitudes, tuning those reeds without removing the block. In cassotto accordions and/or bayans,those blocks are an exception. Otherwise, it is only the small, high-pitched reeds that may require block removal in most accordions.

The above process is american necessary to fine-tune the hrm, intervals. On a lighter note---and in reference to yours about faster tuning by Pros: It was before WWII that I tuned chromatic pitch pipes. Each contained the 13 reeds of one inclusive octave. South American? I was alloted 60 seconds to Lihaf, Chugtai tune each pitch pipe, i.e., 60 per hour. American Revolutions? 480 (times 13 reeds each) was my required quota per Essay The Popularity Televisions 8-hour day! But that's another story.

Date: Sun, 30 Oct 2005. South American? To: Henry Doktorski. Subject: Hello Again! Thanks so much for the information that I got from The Popularity of Personal Televisions Filmmaking your web-site, especially about the accordionist/repairman/tuner, Leo Niemi. As I'm sure you're aware, my accordion is an early model Hohner Gola. American Revolutions? It was in very rough shape when I purchased it, but I was able to see it's potential.

An accordion craftsman in Winnipeg, Wasyl Honcharenko, worked on it. He did a great job of commitment hrm putting it back in shape! Unfortunately he has since passed away. Now, however, it needed tuning. South American Revolutions? When I saw Leo's name on your web-site, and knowing that you are a perfectionist when it comes to tuning an instrument, I took my accordion to him. He couldn't work on it immediately as he had a number of rush jobs and he was also not feeling all that well. As I was not in a hurry, the time factor was not important. When I finally got my accordion back from congress him, I was amazed at the fabulous tuning job he did! What a great sound it has now!

And I also must say, Leo and Lois are great people! They treated us very well during our visit to Sudbury. I'm very happy with my accordion now, and south american revolutions, it's all thanks to you Henry for your referral!

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fadak resume prophet Adherence to the Book of south revolutions, Allah and the Itrah of the Lihaf, by Ismat Essays, Greatest Prophet (S.A.W.) Dr. South Revolutions. Ahmad Al-Hashimi, Chairman. Ihsan Muslim Heritage Society. 138 Yorkland Street, Unit 173.

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4S 1J1 Canada. It was one Thursday, when our Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah was on punctuation his deathbed. Despite the fact that he had appointed a vicegerent at the Ju’afah on his return from his farewell pilgrimage, he wanted to put that appointment in south american revolutions, writing. Objecting to the Prophet’s request for a parchment and ink, Omar claimed that the punctuation, Book of Allah (the Quran) is a sufficient guide to south american revolutions, lead the Muslims through their socio-political-religious life after the Essay on How The Popularity of Personal Affected Filmmaking, demise of the Prophet. The Prophet’s plan was to ascertain that there is a smooth transfer of power after him. Omar’s claim created heated argument not only among those who were present then, but also throughout the south american revolutions, centuries that followed.

That claim was a manifestation of Chugtai Essays, his political aspiration that showed itself more clearly right after the Prophet’s death. No sage human being would like to south, see quarrelling persons at his deathbed. Being at the brink of his death, the Prophet became extremely angry and did forgo the writing of poetic punctuation, what he had wanted to dictate. He died in south revolutions, mysterious circumstances at the age 63, in the year 11 A.H. Abbas, the Prophet’s cousin, who had witnessed that unnecessary argument, called it the Thursday calamity. It was truly a calamity because it created a schism in the young Muslim nation. Glimpses at Imamate and Khilafate were the topics which I have addressed in high commitment hrm, a recent article ( Revolutions. In this one, I would like to examine the validity of the Khilafate school of thought which has attempted to substitute the Sunnah for the Itrah.

Sunnah is the Prophet’s sayings and approvals, whereas the Itrah constitutes the Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai, 12 Imams whom he assigned before his death: Imam Ali, Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain and the nine Imams from Al-Hussain’s progeny. The 9th of them is the Imam of our time – Muhammad bin Hasan Al-Askari, who was born in american revolutions, 255 A.H. in Samaraa, Iraq. All Muslims agree that Allah (SWT) took upon Himself the protection of the Quran from any alteration. The 1.5+ billion Muslims all over the world have the same sacred book. It is exactly the same book which was compiled in Essay Attitudes Situations, the Prophet’s time, memorized by many close and early companions, and as mentioned above referred to by Omar at the Prophet’s deathbed. The Quran states that the Prophet does not utter a word out of american, his desire. Citation. He was guided by south Allah; he was infallible; and even he distinguished the text of the Quran that was revealed to him directly (via the arch angel Gabriel) from the revelations before him.

He also made a clear distinction between what was revealed (i.e. the Quran) and what were his words of wisdom, approvals, and disapprovals, i.e. the Sunnah. The body of the latter knowledge was later called the Science of Hadith. When the Prophet quoted a revelation sent to one of the Prophets before him, that Prophetic saying was recorded as a Hadith Qudsi. This science examines the text of the Essay Jewish in Different, Prophetic sayings as well as the chain of narrators. The Prophet advised the Muslim scholars to present whatever is being attributed to him to the Quran. If there is no contradiction, a Muslim scholar can take it. Revolutions. Otherwise, he is advised to hit it against the wall – indicating to on How Affected Filmmaking, a flat rejection of any fabricated Hadith. The hypocrites fabricated vary many such sayings. Companions with weak memories narrated the american, same Prophetic saying in different forms. A few even claimed that they had forgotten some crucially important segments of certain sayings.

Others used their own words to Chugtai Essays, report what they had heard the Prophet was saying. Because the Quran is a silent book, the school of the general Muslim population always attempts to invoke it in american revolutions, order to support the Hadith. Categorizing the Hadith into Saheeh, Hasin, and Dhaeef (i.e. authentic, acceptable, and weak, respectively), depending on the credibility of the narrators could not serve the Muslims in high, any way. Interestingly, sometimes even if a Hadith is being narrated by only one companion, it is being accepted as a saheeh. South American Revolutions. Based on the guideline provided by the Prophet himself, the Hadith sometimes contradicted the on How Filmmaking, Quran and need to be flatly rejected. Example, Abu Bakr’s claim that he had heard the Prophet saying: “We the american revolutions, folk of the Prophets do not inherit; whatever we leave behind goes for charity.” Upon hearing this fabricated Hadith, Fatimah quoted the Quran in the Masjid which still carries her father’s name at Madinah: “Solomon inherited David,” but to no avail to have Abu Bakr revoke his confiscation order regarding her (inherited) property in Fadak! Some historic records state that Fatimah eventually succeeded to obtain a written ownership certificate for Fadak from Abu Bakr only to face insurmountable objection from Omar.

Leaving Omar’s attack on Fatimah’s house which caused the miscarriage of her unborn child Mohsin to the historians to verify (or deny), any Muslim has the right to know Fatimah’s cause of death. She died in her late teens. No reported sickness. As the only living child for the Prophet, she followed him six months after his demise. [Some historians even puts it shorter – 75 days]. On How Affected Filmmaking. Just before her death, she left with her husband a will. South. In it she declared to be buried at night.

No known remarks should be left on 2nd continental congress definition her tomb, just to remain as an unknown solider. In more than one occasion, she made her anger at the two sheikhs known. American. All this happened within 6 months after the Prophet’s departure. History books even record the name of a thug by the name Qunfoth (translated skunk) who attacked Fatimah’s house – which was actually the Prophet’s. He was Omar’s cousin and known for his cruelty. Omar suggested his name to Abu Bakr to citation, attack the Prophet’s house, to force Imam Ali to give his allegiance to south revolutions, the “elected” Kalif.

Even worse are the unfounded accusations against Imam Ali that he was (emotionally) abusing his wife Fatimah, by hinting to high commitment, marry Abu Jahl’s daughter on her – that angered the american revolutions, Prophet (in his life time) to an extent to ask Imam Ali to divorce his daughter first! Imam Ali – doubly wronged. During these trying six months, Imam Ali refused to give his allegiance to the first “elected” Kahlif. Many Muslims question how it comes such a hero as Imam Ali who fought in all Islam’s early battlefields would remain silent in such circumstances, while his wife was being wronged, her inherited property in Fadak confiscated, … etc. All this was in addition to denying him a direct succession to the Prophet. The Imams after Imam Ali provided a Quranic answer to this inquiry any researcher can refer to Essay on How Televisions Affected, in all authentic references. Here, I provide two remarks which I have concluded by american thoroughly analysing the historic records that addresses Imam Ali’s stance in that harsh period.

First, he knew well the difference between courage and recklessness. By confronting Omar, who had fled the battle theatre at Ohod among others, Imam Ali would end up being portrayed as a reckless person who cares only about his personal interests. His record at Al-Ahzab battle proves otherwise when he finished the pagan general Amr bin Wid Al-Ameri. Secondly, he recognized that the tactics he needed for his (future) political battle were different from definition those he used in the past battlefields. He remained a hero both at south american revolutions, war and at peace. He was not afraid of the death at all. Thirdly, the about in Different, Prophet had foretold him how (and where) he will be martyred. He also had told him about the unfolding fact that his daughter Fatimah will be the first person who will join him after departing this fleeting life. In brief, the south american, Imam chose to endure all those injustices precipitated in a challenge that unexpectedly came from two of the 2nd continental congress, Prophet’s (close) companions and an economic sanctions imposed on his wife by depriving her from owning the Fadak farmland she had inherited. Therefore, the american revolutions, conjectures some historians make that he spent six months beside his “weak” wife and studied the Quran thoroughly are absolutely baseless.

Other companions such as Salam, Meqdad, Ammar and Abu Thar were standing on Imam Ali’s side. All Muslim scholars only narrate that the Prophet had testified about Abu Thar’s extreme truthfulness. Unfortunately, when it comes to weighing a fabricated Hadith, Abu Thar is totally forgotten! Not only this. The apathetic Muslims paid little attention to Othman’s unjust decision by poetic exiling the elder Abu Thar to the harsh desert of Ar-Rabathah simply because he had openly opposed him. It is revolutions, being recorded that Abu Thar’s final words, addressing his beloved Creator, were thus: “Tighten your (last) grip around my neck; surely, you know I adore meeting You!” Interestingly, history records that Abu Thar was delayed for three travelling days (because he rode a weak camel he owned) to be with the Prophet’s caravan in Tabook expedition. After the death of The Popularity Televisions Affected Filmmaking, his camel, he hurried to reach the caravan. American Revolutions. When the high, Prophet saw him exhausted and thirsty, he praised him thus: “Abu Thar walks by himself; he dies by american himself; and he will be resurrected by himself.” A second prophecy came true. Unlike the majority of the companions who were either with the ruling party or kept silent, Abu Thar paid the price for speaking out for justice.

As one of the early Muslims, he was known for his truthfulness. Being truthful, trustworthy were titles the Prophet enjoyed even before receiving his mission. The Prophet took the Shahadah of citation hawking, Abu Thar only 5 years after receiving his mission in Mecca; and, sent him to propagate Islam among his tribe. Later he joined the Prophet in Madinah. The Prophet’s prophecies did not come true only in Fatimah’s and Abu Thar’s cases, but also in Ammar’s and Salman’s destinies. Researchers can find Salman’s testimony about such prophecies, just before dying in Al-Madaen, Iraq. South Revolutions. Imam Ali had appointed him as a governor there.

Miraculously, the Imam moved from Madinah to Al-Madaen and high hrm personally buried Salam. To shun the fallacy that Shiah Islam is the fabrication of the (Safawi) Iranians, I only refer the reader to the interpreters of the Quran who narrated the Prophet’s praise for Salman in the shade of more than one verse. Plus, “Salman is from us the south revolutions, household (of the Prophet), is Essay in Different Situations, a very famous Hadith quoted by very many Muslim scholars throughout history. To Ammar the Propht said, “the transgressing party will kill you.” This statement was made in the first year of Hijrah, while the Prophet and the companions were building the Masjid. The Prophet was impressed when he saw everybody was moving one brick except Ammar carried two each time. Once again, the Prophet’s prophecy came true more than three decades later when Ammar attained martyrdom in the battle of Siffeen – the two ranks. With that said, any impartial Muslim scholar should trace the ramification of violating the Prophetic saying when he showed the status of his daughter: “Fatimah is a piece from me; whoever annoys her, he surely annoys me; and, whoever annoys me, he certainly annoys Allah.” Not only Ali’s wife and children suffered cruel treatment, the history books attempt to smear the american, image of his father too. Personality assassination is the word for Essay Attitudes in Different Situations, such attempt. Abu Talib was being portrayed as a disbeliever. South American Revolutions. Ahadith were fabricated for describing his place in the Hellfire!

But because of the prominent status of his cousin Muhammad in the Hereafter, the latter will go for the rescue of his uncle, as the Essay on How The Popularity Televisions, majority of Muslims writers contend. Unfortunately, the majority of Muslims forget that Abu Talib was from Al-Ahnaaf, i.e. those who followed the religion of Prophet Ibrahim, before Prophet Muhammad’s birth. [So was Fatimah bint Assad, Imam Ali’s mother; whom the Prophet considered as his own mother – to the extent that he personally buried her when she died]. Abu Talib sponsored his orphan nephew (6 yr) right after the american, death of his father Abdul Mittalib. He nurtured not only Ali, but also Jaffar – who led the first seventy immigrants who fled Quraish’s persecution to Abyssinia and later got martyred in the Mo’tah battle against the Roman army in Syria. Hiding his faith from the thugs of commitment hrm, Quraish, he asked his son Jaffar to be the left wing, with Ali being the south american revolutions, right one, of Muhammad in the first ever congregational prayer.

When Quraish boycotted the Hashimites and poetic punctuation imposed economic sanctions on american revolutions them, Muhammad, his wife Khadijah, his uncle Abu Talib and many others lived for three years on a parcel of land (Shieb Abi Talib) on the suburbs of Essay about Attitudes Situations, Mecca that belonged to Abu Talib. American. It was in such harsh circumstances the Essay about Attitudes in Different, Prophet of south, Islam lost his wife and his uncle Abu Talib in the same year – the year of sorrow as he named it. After it, he could not tolerate living in Mecca because he lost his main supporter. Upon Allah’s instruction, he migrated to Madinah 1428 years ago. In brief, researchers with taste in Arabic poetry will find some compositions made by citation Abu Talib in which he expressed his believe in the new massage brought by his nephew. South American. Such historic facts were overshadowed by fabrications made by the adversaries to Essay Attitudes in Different Situations, Ali and Muhammad. [Even The documentary “The Messenger” portrayed Abu Talib as a disbeliever, whereas his eldest son Jaffar spoke to the just Christian ruler of Abyssinia as he headed the Muslim immigrants to south american, that country]. Such a gross wrongs must end. Who were the Prophet’s genuine vicegerents? Immaterial if a reversion happened after the Prophet’s death or not, it is incumbent on every Muslim to Televisions, recognize the genuine figures who truly represented the Quran, the Prophet of Allah, and the religion of south, Islam. Were they the Jewish Attitudes Situations, Khalifs or the rightful Imams? When a researcher examines the books of history, (s)he will learn that in the first political speech Abu Bakr gave in the Madinah Masjid, he declared: “I have been made as a wali (i.e. political authority) upon you; and, I am not the best amongst you!” In another statement, he said: “dismiss me!” Such statements are sometimes being made because of the humility of spiritual figures.

In this case, Abu Bakr stated it right after winning the american, “elected” post in a fierce political campaign against the Ansar camp at the Saqifah (of Bani Saedah). The political issue Abu Bakr made for his party (the contesting Muhajireen) that they deserved the post of the Prophet’s vicegerent more than the Ansar. While Imam Ali was busy with washing and burying the Prophet’s body, Abu Bakr won the election at the Saqifah by the coordinated help of Omar. Both did not comply with the repeated orders of the Prophet to join the army of Osamah bin Zaid (18), under the pretext that the Prophet was ill. This stance even agonized the Prophet more just before his death. Poetic. His repeated and american revolutions direct reminders to join the said army fell on deaf ears.

Interestingly, when the aging father of Abu Bakr later heard that the Muslims who emerged from the Saqifah did not act upon the Prophet’s appointment at Ghadeer and “elected” his son because of his age (i.e. seniority amongst the Muhajireen), he jokingly commented that if the age had been the sole determining factor, he deserved the Khilafah more than his son. Essay On How Of Personal Televisions Affected. Abu Bakr’s father was blind at the time, but obviously he was with a sense of humour. Before the american revolutions, end of his 3-yr reign which also marked his death, Abu Bakr appointed Omar. So, the appointment was accepted when it came from a companion – but was rejected from the Prophet! This appointment exposed the close political collaboration between the two chiefs. Omar’s real power was behind the scenes.

To cover up the above blatant contradiction, the two had to resort to more fabrications to overshadow the Essay The Popularity of Personal, stature of the Prophet’s appointee – Imam Ali. By disobeying the Prophet, any Muslim is in a clear violation to south american revolutions, a fundamental Quranic injunction: “fear Allah and be the truthful.” In the Peak of Eloquence, Imam Ali depicts this collaboration between the two Shaikhs as grasping the four nipples of a she-camel. He also exposes Omar’s plan to shore up support for Othman, to succeed him as a third Kalif. In a word, Imam Ali resented the fact that Omar challenged the Prophet’s appointment, accepted Abu Bakr’s de facto nomination, and set the stage for Essay on How of Personal Televisions Filmmaking, the coming of Othman. All this occurred because Omar was of the opinion that the Hashimites can not keep both the Prophethood and the Imamte in their household. South. He openly expressed this opinion to the Prophet’s uncle Abbas; and, according to some narrators to the Prophet’s daughter – Fatimah, right after the Prophet’s death.

Imam Ali and the Politically-Shrewd Omar. The same way the Meccian chiefs forced Prophet Muhammad to definition, migrate to Madinah, Omar forced his appointed vicegerent to american revolutions, temporary forgo his uncontested right in Imamate and pay allegiance to Abu Bakr – who seized the political power in a unique opportunity after speaking on behalf of a group of contesting Muhajireen while the appointed Imam and other close companions were absent. Omar was an individual with a very aggressive personality. Before becoming a Muslim, he gave his sister and his brother in commitment hrm, law bloody noses simply for south revolutions, embracing Islam. According to on How Televisions, his profession, he was then an adamant enemy of the revolutions, Prophet. After becoming a Muslim, his harsh and domineering personality did not change too much. He offended not only the Prophet and his household, but also several close companions. At the Saqifah, he revealed his sword right after giving his hand in allegiance to Essay Jewish Situations, Abu Bakr in revolutions, order to enforce him as the by Ismat Chugtai Essays, “elected” Khalif. During Omar’s 12-yr reign, he did not treat Imam Ali like any other Prophet’s companion.

The books of history are full with very many consultations he had in the legislative, judiciary, and executive jurisdictions with Imam Ali. A late Iraqi historian and theologian (Najmu Al-Deen Al-Askari) counted 115 occasions in south revolutions, which Omar badly needed Imam Ali’s advice. His dependency on the Imam was desperate to such an extent that he used to say: “May Allah does not leave me alive for The Popularity of Personal Televisions, a difficult situation (Mu’adhilah) in which Abu Al-Hasan is absent.” Despite this testimony, while being on his deathbed Omar appointed six candidates so that one of them would be eventually elected. He introduced the consultation process at american, a time in definition, which his own political power reached him via appointment. Although he suggested a “Consultative Assembly” of six, he was not sure if it will work. Still he did not abandon the use of the south, sword in building consensus.

He instructed the members while supporting the camp of Abdul Rahman bin Awf, just in the case of not reaching a decision. Knowing that this companion was more inclined to Othman, Omar actually gave him a veto power over Imam Ali – the Prophet’s appointee. What makes the whole “new” election process a sham, is that he instructed: if any member of the Assembly objects to bin Awf’s final decision, such member(s) must be killed! This revealed that how free was the citation, election process. According to the general Muslim population, all these members were told by the Prophet that they will enter Paradise. Through the deliberations to select the third Kalif, Abdul Rahman bin Awf initially offered the position to Imam Ali but he attached two conditions: (1) to follow the Book of Allah and (2) to adhere to the policy of the two sheikhs – Abu Bakr and Omar. As for the first condition, any impartial researcher will find that the Imam (in comparison to bin Awf) was a highly-esteemed authority in Quran. Thus, the silent book of Allah once again was being used against the talking one. Imam Ali declined to accept the second condition. Consequently, Abdul Rahman bin Afw left Imam Ali’s hand empty and put his hand in Othan’s, publicizing his allegiance.

Martyr Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr, who wrote Fadak in History and enriched the Islamic literacy with his novel writings, narrated this historic event with agonised voice in one of his lectures. By this time, Omar appointed Mu’aawiyah to be his governor on Sham (present Syria, Jordan, and Palestine combined). South American Revolutions. The latter consolidated his powerbase there. Lihaf, By Ismat. An era of american, monarchy accompanied with repression that left very many ugly marks in history ensued. From the descendents of hawking, Mu’aawiyah who later came to power, only Omar bin Abdul Aziz was truthful enough and attempted to undo some of the injustice done earlier by, for example, returning Fadak to its legitimate heirs – the Hashimites. During his very short reign, the Muslims enjoyed some economic prosperity. For that reason, the majority of the historians confer on him as the fifth and the last “rightly guided” Kalif. The Khilafat school loses counting, while narrating a Hadith that the rightly-guided Kalifs are twelve. Imam Ali and south revolutions Othman. Othman was a pro-Umayyah (Mu’aawiyah’s clan) to the bone.

Marwan was the son of Al-Hakam who belonged to this tribe, too. As one of the by Ismat Essays, contemporaries of american, Mu’aawiyah’s father (Abu Sofyan), Al-Hakam was such shallow in Essay on How Televisions, spirituality and low in moral conducts that the Prophet expelled him from Madinah. The “elected” Prophet’s vicegerent (Othman) brought Marwan back so near and south american revolutions made him his sole confidant, favouring tribal over spiritual considerations. Of course, he kept Mu’aawiyah in the same post Omar gave him. The rationale behind this appointment, or actually reinstatement, could have been 10+ years of administrative experience. The corruption during a decade-long Othman’s reign reached to poetic, its apex. Resentment from the misconducts of all Othman’s governors became prevalent. Othman failed to south american, use his authority to dismiss anybody.

Delegations from citation Egypt, Iraq, and south american revolutions many other places came to poetic punctuation, Madinah to voice their respective constituents’ grievances. This was not to any avail, but only fell on the deaf ears of south, Marwan - the Kalif’s chief political advisor. The commotion was so loud that even Imam Ali’s advice to the ruling Kalif went unnoticed. The only thing the Imam could do was to send his two sons (Hasan and Hussain) to provide personal protection for Othman against citation hawking the rage of the provincial delegations. How Marwan attempted to south american, trick the Egyptian delegation to silence the most populous province of the time is 2nd continental definition, a good reading in the books of history. But, the trickery did not work this time.

Discovering there was no good faith in their negotiations with the south revolutions, palace of Othman, the angry envoys returned to Madinah and turned to a mob that killed Othman. His bloody shirt fell as a bogus political tool in the hands of Mu’aawiyah to the extent to become a lasting adage! The Muslims unanimously elected Imam Ali. The Muslims masses came in magnitudes to Imam Ali and elected him as a Khalif. His policy was totally different from his predecessors. It was a continuation of the punctuation, policy of the Muslim state initially established by the Prophet (in Al-Madinah). The first thing the Imam did was to transfer his capital for Madinah to Kufa. There were two reasons for such a transfer: (1) to be closer to Damascus, where Mu’aawiyah established his powerbase. (2) the inhabitants of Iraq have comparatively been more civilized than the wandering Arabs in south american, the desert.

The land of Mesopotamia hosted the oldest civilizations in the human history. It’s people have unquenchable thirst for high commitment hrm, possessing knowledge. They could provide a better alternative for transferring the acquired knowledge from one generation to another and to the rest of the revolutions, world. Punctuation. The Quran speaks to this fact also when finding alternative if the (wandering) Arabs revert from american revolutions Islam. Despite the legitimacy of Imam Ali’s reign, his government was marred by a series of Essay on How of Personal Affected, wars against those who broke their oath (Talhah and Zubair supported by Aeshah), those who were unjust (Mu’awiyyah who trenched himself in Sham since the days of american, Omar), and those who rebelled (the Kharijites of An-Nahrawan). It was agonizing for the Imam too much to see himself in such circumstances – to be a war-time Imam. None of his appeals worked with the two male leaders in Basra to commitment hrm, avoid the south revolutions, battle of the Camel. Not even the high commitment hrm, Prophet’s warning to his wife Aeshah that: “the dogs of south american revolutions, Al-Hawab (near Basra) will bark at you,” which was actually another fulfilled prophecy, has stopped her from waging a bloody battle while sitting on the back of her camel. Against Mu’awiyyah, the Imam fought the battle of commitment hrm, Siffeen. His commander in american, chief, Malik Al-Ashtar, was very close to bring Mu’awiyyah as a captive, when the latter brought Amr bin Al-Ass on board by offering him the governorship of commitment, Egypt if he turned the tides of that battle.

In his childhood, Amr was known to be the son of south revolutions, his mother An-Nabighah – an high infamous, unchaste woman in Arabia. Five men disputed his fatherhood. Eventually, he Al-Ass won the case. Al-Ass was the same person who taunted the Prophet that he was a cut-off person, i.e. had no male progeny. In the shortest surah of the Quran, Allah refuted him by prophesizing that he is south american, indeed the cut-off one and the Prophet will be having abundant offspring through his daughter Fatimah (Refer to surat Al-Kawthar). Thus, Amr devised a tricky plot and Essay of Personal ordered to place copies of the Quran on the swords’ tips and call for the immediate stoppage of bloodletting. This trick worked to buy out time for south, his master, after protecting his own self from the about Jewish in Different Situations, sword of Imam Ali by becoming nude in south american, the battlefield. The Imam had to turn his face from him.

So, the truce was imposed on Imam Ali in this battle. When the two sides discussed the selection of arbitrators for negotiations, once Abu Musa Al-Ash’aari was imposed on the Imam instead of his choice – the Commander in Chief, Malik bin Al-Ashtar. The same army officers who had coerced the Imam to accept Al-Ash’aari as the chief negotiator, later rebelled against Imam Ali. He fought them in by Ismat Essays, An-Naheawan after they created instability and attacked innocent civilians as a provocation to the Imam’s government. Mu’awiyyah could later bribe one of these misguided individuals to assassinate Imam Ali on the 19th of Ramadhan 40 A.H. while he was prostrating during the dawn prayer in Masjid Al-Kufa. In brief, the 4.5 years of Imam Ali’s reign was spent in wars. Instead of revolutions, using his capacities for the advancement of the Muslims, he had to use them to hawking, eliminate the corrupt elements planted during 25 years. South American Revolutions. Mu’awiyyah fomented social strife, poisoned Malik Al-Ashtar while he was on Essay about Attitudes Situations his way to resume the governorship of Egypt, collaborated in south american, the said assassination of 2nd continental congress definition, Imam Ali and bribed Imam Hassan’s wife to poison her husband. His propagandists cursed Imam Ali from the pulpits. South American Revolutions. All this lead some late researchers to conclude that the on How of Personal Affected Filmmaking, Imam lacked any diplomatic skills. He stated that if it had not been the piety, he would have been the trickiest in the entire Arab nation.

Mu’awiyyah’s appointment of his drunken and pampered son Yazid has precipitated to south american revolutions, the tragedy of Karbala – where Imam Hussain and 72 of his companions were slaughtered on the 10th of Muharram 61 A.H. Like the Jewish Attitudes in Different Situations, Kalifs before him, Yazid undeservingly carried the south revolutions, title “Commander of the believers!” This title is commitment hrm, given to him even now in the history books of a few “Muslim” countries. An impartial researcher also finds that the majority of historians absorb any criticism against Mu’awiyyah and Yazid as defence line from revolutions criticising any Kalif before them. These historians also attempt to portray the relations between the companions of the Prophet as being perfect, without touching any of the clashes discussed above. About Jewish Attitudes Situations. They quote the Quran’s saying: “that nation has passed away before you. It’s people will find the south, result of what they did. And, you will find the result of your deeds.” If any of the historians of that era ever attempted to come up with any explanation for those internal wars, they conveniently threw the blame on a fictitious personality named Abdullah bin Sabaa (a Yamani Jew who converted to Islam to destruct Islam from within. Interpretation of the laws by Caliphs.

All Muslims agree that the Glorious Quran is a constitution for hawking, the socio-political life of the Muslims. Upon his migration from Mecca to Madina, the Prophet established the first Muslim state. Throughout his life, the Prophet not only revolutions prepared his vicegerent to high hrm, facilitate the smooth transfer of power after his departure, but also consulted his companions and delegated to them the running of their own day-to-day affairs. “Their affairs can be run through the american revolutions, consultation amongst themselves,” the Quran declares. No other place in poetic, the entire Quran does Allah speak about the “Consultative Assembly: Ahlul Al-Halli wa Al-Aqd” form of revolutions, governance that the two early Kalifs initially promoted. Later, Abu Bakr appointed Omar for filling the vacancy he left behind. Or Omar filled it by de facto, better known in these days by acclamation. So, Omar interpreted the above verse to confer a constitutional paint to the rules of Abu Bakr and Othman. His own reign naturally becomes unconstitutional because it was not in conformity with a collective decision reached by any consultative assembly. Unlike Abu Bakr who rule for three short years, Omar’s reign lasted for 12 years. During this relatively long epoch, he had to (re) interpret other verses in the Quran. Leaving several examples for those who consider Omar as the most prominent “legislator” at the front history of Lihaf, Essays, Islam, I only cite here the Quranic law which regulates the revolutions, temporary marriage.

Despite the testimony of a number of close companions that this kind of marriage was absolutely legal during the hawking, time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and half of the american, reign of Omar, the second Kalif made it illegal by a stroke of a pen. The avoidance of raising any objection to any such rulings by Omar has put the majority of the Muslims in a real predicament. On the one hand, they read the Quran that the religious laws were made easy for them; and, on the other hand, they find the law which sanctions temporary marriage nullified. Although Islam makes permanent marriage easy for Muslims, many Muslims males and females usually face difficulties to enter in permanent relations – specially at early age, war times, or when their societies pass through economic recession or depression. The said law regulating temporary marriage finds wide application in such circumstance. Its nullification has led the Lihaf, Essays, majority of american, Muslims to resort to fornication and indecent acts. Yet, some Muslim scholars give Omar the right to abrogate the Creator’s law. It has been only citation hawking recently in Arabian Peninsula where the revolutions, “Mesyar” marriage was considered Islamic by prominent sheikhs. Overlooking other kinds of marriages which were innovated for convenience or out of necessity, this kind of Lihaf, Chugtai, marriage is actually a re-packaging of the same original temporary marriage. Though in a hard way, these sheikhs realized the truthfulness of this saying which is attributed to Imam Ali: “if it was not Omar’s prohibition, the only few would have committed adultry.”

Alteration of the Islamic rules. For brevity, I will adhere to the two aspects discussed above. As a matter of fact, these two rules which shape the form of Islamic government and regulate the affairs between the two genders in a Muslim society have remained to be the main source of debate ever since the south american, dawn of Islamic history. The use of sheer political power to change a number of Islamic rulings in the early history of Islam is both unprecedented and well documented. The scholars who were in agreement with Abu Bakr and Omar were ready to find justification.

They resorted to interpret the Quran, sometimes fabricate Ahadith, or mostly narrate stories on how just Abu Bakr and Omar were. The books of Islamic history are full with such narrations, which were transmitted from one generation to hrm, another uncontested. Again for the benefit of the space, I quote only two examples here. Regarding the first Kalif, one reads that he was a very charitable person. South. He used to citation hawking, go out of his way, using the darkness of the night to go to the house of a handicapped, blind widow to help her out in performing the house chores – washing dishes, dusting, and american milking her she-sheep. He used to do all above secretly in order to harvest the greatest reward from Allah. Above story would have been more believable, had Abu Bakr treated Fatimah (the daughter of the Prophet) fairly in public – i.e. the on How of Personal Affected, Masjid of her father. With respect to Omar’s piety, a researcher finds that the american revolutions, second Kalif objected to bending the neck by some Muslims while praying, claiming that the citation hawking, humbleness ought to be only in the heart. In other words, no need to show outward humility to your Creator when you pray.

Once again, the narration was more fitting to south american, a man who had abjured the world and turned to a monk. It can hardly apply to a person who considered “the ends justify the means.” He gave personal opinions towards which both the Essay about Situations, sacred book and the holy Prophet have stipulated certain rules. The Muslims all along the history have had a hard choice to make between what Allah and His apostle said, on the one hand, and revolutions what Abu Bakr and high hrm Omar (as a great legislator) have said, and the following Kalifs, on the other. Obeying people in authority even if they are in south, violation with some basic Islamic tenets became customary. While the Essay Situations, Quran declares that all the messengers were sent with the american revolutions, books and the tools of measure so that mankind establish justice in their life, we see that clear violations were committed by individuals who seized power or simply inherited it. Seemingly, the Muslims did not learn any lessons from the past nations. Essay Attitudes. The Quran makes it clear that the south american revolutions, chiefs of those nations always sided with the Pharaohs of the day. The Pharaoh claimed Lordship, denying even the existence of commitment hrm, Allah. In his story there are two lessons: one for the scholars, whereas the other for south american revolutions, the laymen in any society.

A scholar, such as Bal’aam bin Ba’aoraa, despite his vast knowledge of the hrm, Old Testament, he deserted Moses and sided with the Pharaoh when the two clashed. The Quran portrays him like a donkey carrying voluminous books. The pertinent verses have being recited from the chapter of Jumu’ah every week throughout the Muslim world. Searching throughout Islam’s history, an impartial researcher will find that the majority of the Muslim scholars are like this one in south, Bani Israel. The result was to misguide the Muslim masses, not only in the days of the Prophet (as the hypocrites attempted to do) but also afterwards. The Prophet stressed the fact that the status of Ali towards him was similar to that of Aron towards Moses. While departing his people for forty nights to receive the revelation on the Mount of Sinai, Moses came back to congress definition, see them rebelled against south american revolutions his brother and high commitment resorted to the worship of an south american revolutions idol – a golden calf. 2nd Continental Definition. As prophesized by Prophet Muhammad, the Muslims will follow the footsteps of the Israelites. This is exactly what happened when the majority of the Muslims became complacent when the reversion took place right after the south, Prophet’s departure. Not only Imam Ali suffered from the plots against his authority, but also the other Imams whom Allah has chosen and the Prophet introduced.

The Muslims tend to definition, forget that Allah did not leave the selection of His envoys to american revolutions, the whims of the people. High Commitment Hrm. In the chapter of Houd in revolutions, the Quran, Allah chronologically cites the biographies of several other prominent prophets who came before Prophet Muhammad and how they suffered at the hand of their peoples. Hawking. The universal objection against all those prophets came from the chiefs of their nations. In the language of the Quran, the american revolutions, chiefs are the ones who are most visible and vocal in their belying of their sent prophets. High Hrm. For prophet Muhammad, it was a consolation that all other prophets before him were accused as being magicians or madmen. With its high standard in south, Arabic literature, the Quran refuted the accusation of being a magician set against prophet Muhammad by the chiefs of Quraish and pagan Arabs. However, the wrong notion of believing that the prophet was like the others before him were nothing but madmen lingered with many who followed Prophet Muhammad. This notion surfaced in the thinking of Omar when he objected the provision of punctuation, a parchment and ink for the prophet to enable him to dictate a written will. For ordinary Muslims, the revolutions, Quran recommends to leave written wills before their death. Even if the chiefs of Muhammad’s companions have treated him as an 2nd continental ordinary Muslim, they should have stopped Omar from american revolutions imposing his will against the prophet’s final will. Poetic Punctuation. The danger of such imposition is two fold.

One, on a personal level, there was a blatant violation of revolutions, personal liberties of the Prophet Muhammad and his right to inherit Fadak farmland to his only Essay about Attitudes in Different living daughter Fatimah. Secondly, and most importantly, the matter of leadership, succession, and power transfer for the young Muslim state could have been done in a way that was in harmony with Quranic injunctions not the whims of south, two chiefs. Omar’s claim that the Prophet was hallucinating at his deathbed was in a direct contradiction with the Quran. By this claim he fulfilled his political aspiration, but he left a legacy which overshadowed the one left by Essay Jewish Attitudes Situations the Prophet in an unprecedented way. South Revolutions. Omar was not alone in laying the foundation of this trend.

His daughter Hafsah, who was one of the Prophet’s wives, her best friend Aeshah, her father, Khalid bin Al-Waleed and many others were sharing the high commitment hrm, same views. To shore up support to these views, they resorted to Abu Hurairah – that is why you see this person narrated 78% of the south revolutions, Prophetic sayings, whereas all other Prophet’s companions (Imam Ali included) narrated the rest. Sayyid A. H. Sharaf ul-Deen reported these figures and added that this narrator accompanied the Prophet only for two years. In brief, what is 2nd continental, called Sunnah today was the Sunnah of Omar and Abu Bakr. This may have coincided with that of the Prophet’s in certain aspects, but it clearly deviated from it in many others. The Prophet’s vicegerents who were, like Muhammad bin Abdullah, a mercy for this young nation were totally denied their basic rights. South American Revolutions. Fatimah’s grievances against the two sheikhs were buried with her miscarriage child Muhsin. The injustices inflected on all the Imams from Ali and Fatimah’s progeny followed the ones that caused her death – only six months after the Prophet’s demise. Those Muslims who adhered to the Prophet’s advice regarding the Itrah are the ones who truly followed his authentic Sunnah.

The so-called Sunnah of the poetic punctuation, Prophet in the wide segment of literature became polluted with very many socio-political factors over the centuries that render it unreliable to lead any Muslim to the straight path. The Quran remains the south american revolutions, sole source of of Personal Televisions Affected, guidance. Allah has vowed to american revolutions, keep its text immune from any alteration. About In Different Situations. Because it is a silent book, those who have polluted the Hadith tend to use the Quran to shore up necessary support for their fabrications. South. As a mere claim, “the Book of Allah suffices us,” proved to be nothing but a political slogan that was articulated on Attitudes in Different the ears of the Prophet just before his death. Reversion of the majority of the american, Muslims right after the demise of the Prophet was not only a Quranic prophecy but also a historic reality. The seemingly rich legacy left behind in the from of Sunnah by the lawmakers (and policy makers) add nothing but confusion for the successive generations, in all areas of personal, familial, spiritual and mundane ones. A Muslim cannot simultaneously believe in the Quran as a Constitution and citation give the right to any of the Prophet’s companions to make Constitutional amendments as they wish.

What a Muslim badly needs is to follow whom Allah has prepared to preach His universal message of Islam. This trend can be discovered by knowing a Quranic fact resembled in the always few who adhered to the genuine paths of all the great prophets: Noah, Ibrahim, Moses and Jesus. Prophet Muhammad is no exception, especially in the matter of a designated vicegerent who fills for his absence. Key to not only the religion of Islam but all other revealed faiths is the implementation of justice. Revolutions. When there is oppression, there is no justice. Both the Quran and poetic punctuation authentic Sunnah tell how abhorred the Creator was with the Israelites who persecuted their prophets and their progenies.

Again, the Muslims followed the same old path of the past nations. The chief among the prophet’s companions acted against his will. All those who usurped the south revolutions, power after him from his appointed vicegerents committed gross injustices. The case of Essay The Popularity Televisions Affected Filmmaking, Fatimah stands by itself. South. The oppression of her progeny continued and definition resulted in the occultation of the revolutions, 12th Imam – Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-Askari. The Itrah are these Imams after the prophet; and, they are the chosen ones. They are infallible and the second weighty trust the Prophet left behind along with the Quran for the guidance of the Muslims.

This guidance (to the straight path as the Quran puts it) is unattainable without a conscientious adherence to both the Essay Jewish in Different, Book of Allah and the Itrah.

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2007: KFC, Brand Revitalisation: Case Study. A powerful combination of product development and american revolutions inspired marketing that was true to the brand restored KFC’s fortunes on the high street. A fresh business strategy, rigorously implemented through all aspects of marketing, transformed the 2nd continental congress KFC brand from sharp decline to category-beating growth. The strategy was based on the courageous decision to buck the american trend among fast food outlets to congress, talk about south american revolutions, their ‘healthy’ options and instead stress the great product taste. This was accompanied by cleverly-timed new product development to reach both key target audiences of Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai Essays young people and families at the same time. KFC Corporation, based in Louisville, Kentucky, is the world’s most popular chicken restaurant chain. It operates more than 5,200 restaurants in the US and over american revolutions, 15,000 around the world. It is part of Yum Brands!, which had revenues of just under $11 billion in 2009. KFC reached Britain in 1965 (before either McDonald’s or Burger King).

It now has over hrm, 700 stores. But by 2005 KFC had lost its way, with a lacklustre reputation on the high street and slumping sales. So in-depth research was carried out to find a way to revitalise the south brand’s fortunes. A new strategy based on taste not only set the brand apart from its competitors but it brought back both families and young people. A cycle of new product development carried out over citation hawking, the year also increased both frequency of visits and expenditure. By April of 2006 the brand grew steadily for the first time in three years, peaking at 30% year-on-year (YOY) growth. Communication boosted the south american brand’s popularity to the point that the in Different average spend rose by south over 60p per ticket throughout the year. Headed in the wrong direction. By the end of 2005, KFC was in trouble.

It had become a dinosaur on the high street. The brand remained as famous as ever, but now felt out of citation hawking date and favour. KFC no longer seemed to have a role for consumers in south american, modern Britain. Hawking! Sales were. in freefall, suffering ongoing and serious decline. Market penetration was also falling (as well as average ticket value).This poor performance was a result of a number of challenges facing both the category and the brand itself (Figures 1 and 2). 1. Revolutions! Category challenges. The nation’s attitudes to food changed significantly over Essay on How The Popularity Televisions Affected Filmmaking, 2005. The ‘health agenda’ that had been brewing for a few years, reached critical mass. Jamie Oliver launched ‘school dinners’ (See Chapter 10) and south american Gillian McKeith became a household name among a host of Essay Attitudes in Different food and diet-related programming. As a result, quick-service restaurant (QSR) brands became public enemy number one.

This, combined with the south revolutions relentless coverage and hype about 2nd continental, obesity in the media, had a significant impact on revolutions consumers’ dietary aspirations. For example, according to a 2006 study by TNS and the Food Standards Agency (FSA), by about Attitudes in Different the end of 2005 67% of people believed they should eat fewer fatty foods, 64% fewer sugary foods and 58% less salt. Moreover, new competitors were challenging the category, offering healthier alternatives. Service stations, supermarkets, chemists and coffee shops were all selling ready-to-eat food significantly fragmenting the market. Branded sandwiches such as Subway and Prêt-a-Manger were stealing market share from KFC as they increased their number of south american revolutions stores and gained market penetration. Essay Jewish In Different! McDonald’s and Burger King followed suit by attempting to become health-focused in response to public pressure. 2. Brand challenges.

There was an abyss between how the brand projected itself and customers’ experiences. Recent advertising had given the brand a much-needed injection of credibility, youth and energy. However, while the advertising portrayed this appealing and sexy image, the reality was tired stores and underwhelming products. The other challenge was new product development (NPD), an important element in this market. There were two key audiences for these quick-service restaurants: ‘families’ and ‘teens and young adults’. Revolutions! These groups accounted for 89% of KFC’s sales. In 2005 KFC’s NPD was aimed at the youth market, with snacking items developed to increase their frequency of visits. The problem was that KFC then became the place for snacks (with low ticket prices and margins), not a meal destination. Attitudes! Attempts were also made to create healthier food with a range of non-fried chicken, salads and a response to new competitors with sub sandwiches. American Revolutions! As well as confusing consumers about what the brand stood for, these innovations were either failing or cannibalising regular sales. Meanwhile, families were leaving the brand.

Despite eating more meals together they weren’t choosing KFC (an FSA food trends study in 2006 showed 57% of people ate one meal a day with all family members compared to commitment hrm, 52% in 2004) and sales among families were suffering accordingly. Families did not feel the brand was for them any more an image reinforced by poor service and stores frequented by ‘youths’. This was particularly damaging for sales because families’ average spend was almost three times that of revolutions young adults. Learning from in-depth research. A new direction was badly needed. In the Lihaf, by Ismat Essays face of media pressure for healthy living and against american revolutions fast food, what would motivate people to return to KFC? An in-depth qualitative study was launched to improve the 2nd continental congress understanding of consumer attitudes and inform brand repositioning. Fast food tastes good . The obesity debate gave consumers a new awareness that ‘fast food was not healthy’. However, this didn’t mean total abstinence from their favourite food.

While still seeking ‘better for you’ cues, they didn’t want fast food to be ‘good for you’. Consumers choose fast food because it tastes good, not because it’s healthy. As one said, “You’ve decided to go to McDonald’s. South! Why would you buy chopped-up apple?” KFC tastes especially good . Definition! There’s something especially compelling about the south american taste of KFC: “You can’t make it yourself and competitors can’t get close”. KFC’s singular taste unified all consumers. Once the desire for poetic punctuation, KFC lodged in consumers’ minds, there was nothing else that would satisfy the urge. American! The thought of the taste quickly turned to a craving that had to be satisfied. What the KFC taste means to each audience . For families, KFC’s strength was the product itself. The media’s food obsession had made parents particularly aware of the authenticity of their food (in light of bad publicity surrounding products like Turkey Twizzlers ). As well as seeking an economic way to feed hungry mouths, they wanted the reassurance of ‘real food’.

KFC was the high only high street fast food outlet that served freshly-prepared whole chicken, not reformed or reconstituted chicken products. Revolutions! This authenticity was seen to 2nd continental congress definition, be a crucial benefit. Teens and youths also craved the taste of KFC. They were seen as impulsive eaters who ate whenever they were hungry. They followed their cravings and weren’t brand loyal, but constantly looking for variation and new tastes. Although their mealtimes were less formally defined than families, they were frequent purchasers of meals on the go. lf they got the urge for KFC, they followed it. Devising a ground-breaking new strategy. The brand platform chosen for all communications was ‘That chicken urge can only be satisfied with the irresistible, indescribable taste of KFC’. This was indeed a radical step doing the exact opposite of competitors and in the face of popularly-accepted consumer trends. While competitors attempted to embrace healthy eating trends, KFC repositioned itself around the fact that its product tasted delicious (Figure 3). In other words, KFC became proud of its chicken again, reminding people about the heart of its brand and simultaneously connecting with what consumers sought from the fast food market.

The big challenge, however, was to take a single brand message and south american revolutions make it compelling for both audiences. So all marketing activities proudly put food at their heart. The brand’s endline was changed to become: ‘You’ve got great taste.’ Families were identified as the primary audience for reviving the brand, with mothers as the key decision-makers at Lihaf, by Ismat Chugtai Essays, dinner, deciding whether to american revolutions, take the night off or treat the on How The Popularity of Personal Televisions family. Products, messages and media were all aimed at them. Youths became the secondary target, with separate products and communications developed specifically for south american, them. Nor was there any repeat of the on How Televisions Filmmaking previous mistakes where NPD sought to introduce healthy salads or ‘sub’ sandwiches. The year was instead divided into eight promotional periods in each of which one family and one youth product were promoted (Figure 4). As well as generating news, these products also encouraged current consumers to increase both their frequency and ticket price per south, visit, with new ‘layers’ of products avoiding cannibalisation of existing products.

Four new meals were introduced which either made mothers’ lives easier, or offered greater variety or better quality for Jewish Situations, the family. For younger consumers there were five new products offering variations of taste. The introduction of individual box meals also raised spend among this value-conscious group. New products were not only rigorously tested in american, both qualitative and 2nd continental congress definition quantitative research, but were also trialled in test regions supported by above-the-line and in-store communications. Only after a sufficiently good test performance were they added to south, the national calendar. Given the strategy of constantly giving both targets new reasons to buy KFC, the challenge was to on How Televisions Filmmaking, support all promotions with communications without significantly increasing the south revolutions media budget. Advertising followed the NPD strategy by using media to ensure each group was targeted as effectively as possible.

In all channels the core message was irresistible taste. To target mothers, prime-time TV was used in high hrm, the run-up to the evening meal. Commercials used insightful truths about everyday family life to illustrate the relevance of new products and KFC began to feel like a mainstream, accessible, family brand again. South American Revolutions! The youth target was more likely to be out and about. Above-the-line spend was transferred from TV to posters within close proximity of stores.

The product was made the hero of the ads, with appealing food photography in order to spark that unique KFC craving. 2. Jewish Attitudes In Different Situations! In-store communications. All messages were also carried through to the in-store environment which simplified the customer’s journey to purchase and south american revolutions reinforced new purchase behaviour. Commitment Hrm! There was a distinct synergy of communications. In order to inform customers about provenance and nutritional details, a number of actions were taken. For example, the website was updated to south american revolutions, contain all such information, and in-store leaflets about the food’s sourcing were produced. This was to citation, provide reassurance, not to claim the food was ‘healthy’. 4. American! In-store experience. The new pride and energy in the brand was also reflected in the stores and citation customer experience.

Staff training was focused on teamwork and south american revolutions education in new products. In addition, 30% of the estate was refurbished, with a tangible impact on sales. Revolutionising brand performance. The results were dramatic. KFC demonstrated immediate growth as the new marketing plan was implemented. Sales rapidly improved. By April the brand was experiencing sustained growth for the first time since 2003, peaking at 30% year-on-year growth. Despite losses in the first quarter the commitment hrm year ended in significant growth (Figure 5). The brand’s increased penetration was a key factor behind the sales growth: shifting from a low of 31% in December 2005 to revolutions, 49% a year later.

This would be a significant change in fortunes for any brand, but was unprecedented, given the adverse factors this category had faced. Ticket price, which had been in continued decline, also rose steadily, partly as a consequence of the citation hawking increased number of family meals but also because the american brand was now able to sell products at a price premium based on the new positioning of superior taste. The average spend rose by hawking over 60p per ticket over 2006. Standing out from the competitive crowd. While other fast food brands continued to lose share of total eating occasions. KFC defied this trend, demonstrating continued growth at american, the expense of its competitors such as McDonald’s and Burger King. Perceptions of the KFC brand increased compared with its two major competitors. Essay The Popularity Of Personal Filmmaking! This measure combined perceptions of ‘value’, ‘experience’ and ‘food’ for each brand. Revolutions! KFC went from being considered the Essay Situations same or worse than these competitors to south american revolutions, being superior in every area. Significantly, KFC’s food was its leading brand strength. As well as a superior image, KFC also found a new salience among consumers.

While awareness of its competitors declined, KFC reached an all-time high level of brand awareness. The communications strategy was clearly reaping its rewards. However, KFC didn’t simply ‘purchase’ these improvements. The brand’s advertising spend increased only marginally between 2005-6, while it continued to be consistently outspent by McDonald’s. KFC’s proud new tone of voice was reflected in poetic punctuation, consumer attitudes.

While other brands were losing their fans, KFC retained its popularity. By the third quarter of 2006, the gap between KFC and McDonald’s was at an all-time low (Figure 6). The greatest success was among the new core target audience. KFC’s penetration and frequency among families improved radically, restoring KFC’s penetration to over 50% (a 20% change). This clearly demonstrated the fundamental role the south american marketing strategy played in Attitudes in Different Situations, the brand’s revival. 2017 Marketing Society.

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