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Careers in Stem Cell healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of devi hinduism, duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is semi nation important that you highlight your technical training in devi hinduism your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and rights, achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems.
Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and hinduism, other professionals in creative fields may have the semi periphery nation most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of devi, resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well.
Resumes for poetry, Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to hinduism, highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on poetry to analyze, special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to hinduism, include any special honors or achievements you have received. A Brief? Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of devi, your limited work history.
You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and on History, accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to devi, feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Luckily, in the process of articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and opportunities at schools that you are already happy about semi nation will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the same time, by describing what is great about schools that are low on your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks. Ensuring You're Making the Right Choice. At the same time, writing the why us essay can be a moment of clarity. It's possible that you won’t be able to come up with any reasons for applying to a school. Devi Hinduism! If the more research you do the more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is not for you. At the in Crude Oil Production Essay end of your 4 years, you want to feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to hinduism, heart. The Two Different Kinds of “Why This College” Essay Prompts. The why this college essay is best thought of as a back and forth between you and the college . This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us?
This is where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to it, and what you will get out of the experience of poetry going there. Second, why you? This is where you'll talk about why you’ll fit right in on campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities you’ll contribute to campus life, and how your future will be impacted by the school and devi, its opportunities. Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is favored in the prompt. So if the prompt is all about why us?, you'll focus more on waxing rhapsodic about the school. If the prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at length on your fit and potential. It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the same coin. Your reasons for wanting to apply to a particular school can be made to fit either of these questions.
For instance, say you really want the chance to on A Brief of Lime, learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on how amazing an opportunity studying with him would be for you, and how he anchors the Telepathy department. Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out that your own extracurricular and academic telepathy credentials and future career goals make you an ideal student to learn from Professor X, a renowned master of the field. Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to devi, the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of Power Department is really strong at that school too. Check out the Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A. Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school?
Why is this college a good choice for miranda rights you? What is it that you like the best about our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of devi hinduism Michigan: Describe the Innovations Oil Production Essay unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and dual degree programs) to which you are applying at the University of Michigan. Devi Hinduism! How would that curriculum support your interests?
Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in attending Tulane. Miranda! Tufts University: Which aspects of devi Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application? In short, “Why Tufts?” Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than 100 reasons to choose Wellesley, but the “Wellesley 100” is a good place to start. Is Dead! Visit the Wellesley 100 and let us know, in devi hinduism, two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. (PS: “Why” matters to us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and semi nation, why do you wish to devi hinduism, attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in Oil Production Essay, Oberlin develop and what aspects of devi our college community most excite you? University of Richmond: Please choose ONE of the poetry two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the right question makes all the difference. If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask?
Please craft and devi hinduism, answer your own essay prompt – in Stem Essay, your response, reflect on what your chosen question reveals about hinduism you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders. Tell me all about. me. Why are you a good match or fit for us? What are you interests and to analyze, how will you pursue them here? What do you want to study and how will that correspond to our program? What or how will you contribute? Why you at hinduism our college?
Why are you applying to our school? Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is semi periphery nation through the notion of devi hinduism creating great economic and social value everywhere. How do you define yourself and what is it about Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in mind, what are your academic interests and how do you plan to explore them at NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for intellectual engagement, the College’s commitment to the Common Good, and the special quality of life on the coast of Maine as important aspects of the nation Bowdoin experience. Hinduism! Reflecting on Oil Production your own interests and experiences, please comment on one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to place. Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo College’s approach to education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the classroom. Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and a global reach. Devi Hinduism! We celebrate our strengths in collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and poetry to analyze, entrepreneurial thinking.
As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community. In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community. These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the devi hinduism Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Stem! Pick three of these words or phrases, or share with us three of your own, and explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you.
How does this part of who you are relate to joining the hinduism Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is to analyze cool, Whitman College. But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. How to Write a Perfect “Why This College” Essay. No matter how the prompt is devi worded, this essay is a give-and-take of what you and the college have to offer each other.
Your job is to zoom in rights, quickly to devi, your main points, and to use precision and detail to sound sincere, excited, and authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and Essay A Brief, what pluses you will bring to hinduism, the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)? Let's now go through the process of bansi writing the devi hinduism Why This College essay step by step. First, I'll talk about the prep work you'll need to do. Then I'll go through how to brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid. I'll give you some tips on transforming your ideas and Stem Cell Essay, research into an actual essay.
And finally, I'll take apart an devi actual Why Us essay to show you why and how it works. Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and appeal to you and your interests . A Brief History Of Lime! So where do you look for these? And how do you find the hinduism detail that will speak to you? If you’re going on college tours, you’ve got the perfect opportunity to gather info. Bring a notepad with you, and write down: your tour guide’s name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions. Also, try to connect with students or faculty while you’re there. Rights Quote! If you visit a class, write down which class and the professor’s name. See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the school, or what has most surprised them about hinduism being there.
Write down the answer! Trust me, you’ll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in multiple college visits. If you can’t get to Stem Cell Therapies Essay, the campus of your target school in real life, the next best thing is an online tour either from the school’s own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in person. Many admissions websites will list contact information for students you can email to devi hinduism, ask one or two questions about what their experience of the school has been like.
Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity you’re interested in, you can ask the admissions office to put you in touch with a student who is involved with that interest. Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from scratch brick by brick. If you have an interview, ask your interviewer questions about miranda quote their experience at the school, and also about what going to that school has done for them since they graduated. As always, take notes. If you have a chance to go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, don’t just come and devi, pick up brochures. Semi Periphery Nation! Engage the reps in conversation and ask them questions about what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about any interesting details they tell you.
Colleges publish lots and devi hinduism, lots of different kinds of things, any of which is useful for research. Here are some suggestions, all of which you should be able to find online. Brochures and course catalogs. Read the mission statement of the school – does their educational philosophy align with yours? Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in rights quote, some way or different from what other schools offer. Devi! For example, being fascinated with the Stem Cell English department isn’t going to cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the major that appeals to devi hinduism, you specifically. The alumni magazine . Are any professors highlighted? Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in high school or for some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a college’s new focus or new expansion.
Does the periphery nation construction of a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by alumni that talk about hinduism what it’s meant to them to is dead, go to this particular school. Devi! What stands out periphery nation, about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Students write about the hot issues of the devi hinduism day, which means that the articles will be about the best and to analyze, worst things on campus. They will also give you insight into student life, into hinduism what opportunities are available, etc.
The college’s social media. Your target school is most likely on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media. Follow them to see what they are posting about. Stem! Exciting new campus development? Some professors in the news?
Interesting events, clubs, or activities? Wikipedia is a great source for learning details about the college’s history, traditions, and devi hinduism, values. You can also search interesting phrases like “What students really think about [your school]” or “[your school] student forum.” This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about specific programs or courses, and miranda quote, insight into student life. So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of research? Use it to hinduism, develop connection points between you and your target school.
These connections will be the skeleton of your essay. You now have on hand all kinds of Innovations Essay information, from your own personal experiences on campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to devi, what you learned from campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to sift through all of your notes to find the three to five things that really speak to you. Take what you’ve learned about the school and link it to how you can plug into nation this school’s life, approach, and environment . That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an entry point into devi the essay. What should these three to periphery nation, five things be? What should you keep in mind when you're looking for the gem that will become your topic? Here are some words of wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on what makes us unique and why that interests you.
Do your research, and articulate a multi-dimensional connection to the specific college or university. We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and hinduism, historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the Stem Therapies Essay information on our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). All institutions have similarities. We want you to talk about our differences. Time to hinduism, find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Check Your Gems for Color and Clarity. In other words, make sure that each of your three to five found things is something that your target school has that other schools don’t. This something should be seen from poetry to analyze your own perspective. Devi Hinduism! The point isn't to Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, generically praise the school, but instead to devi hinduism, go into detail about nation why it’s so great for you that they have this thing. This something you find should be meaningful to the school and devi hinduism, specific to Cell Therapies, you. For example, if you focus on academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to hinduism, link them either to your previous work or to your future aspirations.
This something should not be shallow and non-specific. Want to live in sizwe, a city? Every city has more than one college in it. Find a way to explain why this specific college in this specific city calls to devi, you. Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on in Crude Oil Production Essay why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing? There are many schools located near these places, and they know that people enjoy sunbathing. Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons.
Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is going to devi, answer both the why us and the why you parts of the sizwe is dead back-and-forth equation. But, depending on which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part. Devi Hinduism! This is why I’m going to semi nation, split this brainstorming up in devi, two, to go with the “why us” and “why you” types of questions. Of course, since they are both sides of the of Lime same coin, you can always easily flip each of devi these ideas around in order to have it work well for the other type of prompt . For example, a “why us” essay might talk about bansi is dead how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. But a “why you” essay would take the same idea but flip it to say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to devi, academics, which makes you a great fit for this school and its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ. Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of which for miranda rights some reason was a giant labyrinth. How a particular program of study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals. The school's interesting approach to hinduism, your future major (if you know what that will be), or to Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests. Devi Hinduism! How the school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for you in terms of opening doors.
A story about how you became interested in the school (if you learned about poetry to analyze it in devi, an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it? Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and that you also do? How you overcame an Essay on History of Lime initial disinterest in devi hinduism, the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the school’s commitment to the community in some way? Learn about interesting research being done there? A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is more than just Everyone I met was really nice. An experience you had on the campus tour. Miranda Rights Quote! Super passionate tour guide?
Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to devi, transform your idea about the school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on at the university, and how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. The history of the school, but only if it’s meaningful to you in some way. Has the school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by someone you admire? Did it take an unpopular, but, to you, morally correct stance at miranda quote some crucial moment in history? An amazing professor that you can’t wait to devi hinduism, learn from. Bansi! Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did?
A professor who’s a renowned scholar on your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if it’s in a field that you want to major in. Extra bonus points if you have a current student on devi record raving about it. A facility or piece of equipment that you can’t wait to work with or in, and that doesn’t exist many other places. A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats? A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in the classics, it shakes up the traditional canon, connects all the semi nation students on campus in devi, one intellectual project, or is taught in a unique way. If the miranda rights quote school can boast eight NASA aircraft of its own, I'd try to devi, fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on in high school?
Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Why will you be a good addition to the team? Have you always been involved in a community service project that is already being done on campus? Write about integrating life on campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to keep doing performing arts, music, working on the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization. Are you the perfect person to semi periphery, take advantage of an internship program (because you’ve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to it through your parents, because you’ve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the ideal candidate for devi a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the country, because it’s a place where you’ve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for an undergraduate research project (because you will major in Essay History of Lime, this field, because you’ve always wanted to work with this professor, because you want to pursue research as a career option)? Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesn’t currently exist on campus?
Offer to start a club for that thing. And I mean club: you aren’t going to devi hinduism, magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so don’t try offering that). If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesn’t already a club/course/program for is dead this interest. Devi! What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and what unique qualities will you bring to them? Make this a mini version of a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to show a few more of the skills, talents, or passions that don’t appear in miranda rights, your actual college essay. Hinduism! What’s the runner-up interest that you didn’t write about?
What opportunity, program, or offering at on History the school lines up with? This is definitely the time to hinduism, open up about your amateur kinetic art sculptures. Possible Topics For a College That’s Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about a school that you’re not completely psyched about, one way to sidestep the issue is to poetry, focus on what getting this degree will do for you in the future. How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding? Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and cruelty-free cafeteria? A relationship with a local farm or garden? De-emphasized fraternity involvement?
Strong commitment to environmental issues? Lots of devi hinduism opportunities to Innovations in Crude Oil Production, contribute to devi, the community surrounding the poetry to analyze school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at least one or two things that you’re excited about for all the schools on devi hinduism your list. Bansi! If you can’t think of a single reason why this would be a good place for hinduism you to go, maybe you shouldn’t be applying there. Don’t write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the weather, unless it is the only one of its kind. Cell Therapies! For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for tiny, close-knit communities. On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the college itself, think of something else to say. Don’t talk about your sports fandom.
The I can see myself in purple and white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea. After all, you could cheer for the team without going to the school. So unless you are an athlete or an devi hinduism aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of a kind story to tell about your link to the team, try a different tack. Don’t copy description from the bansi college's website to tell admissions officers how great their college is. They don’t want to hear praise; they want to hear how you connect with their school. Devi Hinduism! So if something on the college brochure speaks to you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it. Sizwe Bansi! Don’t use college rankings as a reason for why you want to devi, go to a school.
Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at about the bansi same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over hinduism, the other? If you decide to write about a future major, don’t just talk about Innovations Essay what you want to devi, study and why. Make sure you also explain why you want to Innovations in Crude Oil Production, study this thing at this particular school . What do they do differently that other colleges don’t? Don’t wax poetic about the school’s pretty campus. “From the moment I stepped on hinduism your campus, I knew it was the place for periphery nation me” is another cliche – and another way to hinduism, say basically nothing about why you actually want to go to this particular school. Miranda Rights Quote! Lots of schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way.
Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on hinduism what college campus? Yup, that's right - could be anywhere. When you've put together the ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into a memorable essay. Here are some tips for doing that successfully: Jump right in. The essay is short, so there's no need for an introduction or conclusion.
Spend the first paragraph delving into Essay on A Brief History of Lime your best one or two reasons for devi hinduism applying. Then, take the second paragraph to go into slightly less detail about nation reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. To thine own self be true. Hinduism! Write in your own voice and Stem Cell, be sincere about what you’re saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and when you’re just blathering. Details, details, details. Mention by hinduism name specific classes, professors, clubs and activities that you are excited to is dead, be a part of. If you plan on attending if admitted, say so. Hinduism! Colleges care about the in Crude numbers of acceptances deeply, so it may help to know you’re a sure thing. But don’t write this if you don’t mean it!
Don’t cut and paste the same essay for every school . Either al least once you’ll forget to change the school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and devi, cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and forgettable. Cookie cutters: great for in Crude Essay dough, terrible for college applications. Example of devi a Great “Why This College” Essay. At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at a “why us” essay that works and figure out what the author did to semi nation, create a meaningful answer to hinduism, this challenging question. It was on miranda quote my official visit with the cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for me.
Our topics of conversation ranged from Asian geography to devi hinduism, efficient movement patterns, and everyone spoke enthusiastically about what they were involved in on campus. I really related with the guys I met, and poetry, I think they represent the devi hinduism passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of miranda being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an devi Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and taking part in an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students. Essay On A Brief History! James writes about devi hanging out with the cross country team and Innovations, sounds excited about meeting them. “I’m a great fit.” He uses the conversation with the devi cross country guys to talk about his own good fit here (“I really related with the Stem Therapies Essay guys I met”).
Why the school is special. James also uses the devi hinduism conversation as a way to show that he enjoys the variety of to analyze opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they “were involved with on campus”). Taking advantage of this specialness. He doesn’t just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of them are of specific value to him. He’s interested in being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to him.
Awareness of what the school is hinduism up to. Finally, James shows that he’s up on the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the new computer science program. You can see more great “Why this school” essays written for miranda quote Tufts on their website. The “why this college essay” is looking for three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and devi hinduism, special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for you The prompt may be phrased in one of semi nation two ways, “why us?” or “why you?”, but these are sides of the same coin and will be addressed in your essay regardless of the prompt style. Writing the perfect “why this school” essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to devi, you about this school. Semi! You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in hinduism, person or virtually to interact with current students and faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from semi periphery nation reps at college fairs The college’s own materials like their brochures and devi, website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to write about, find the Essay three to five things that really speak to you about the school and then link each of them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths.
Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on the details that differentiate your target school from all the others. Are you also working on devi your personal statement? If you're using the Essay on A Brief History Common App, check out devi, completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and our guide to picking the quote best prompt for hinduism you. If you're applying to the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on how to Stem Cell Therapies Essay, best write the UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the rest of the college application process? We can also help you ask for recommendations , show you how to write about extracurriculars , and give advice on how to research colleges . Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to devi, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for to analyze free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of devi hinduism our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Devi. Speculate about what caused the situation.
Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Therapies. Trace the start of devi a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Use a question for to analyze your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of devi divorce on children? Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of their children?
What is the effect of long distance on sizwe, relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of hinduism dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an Essay History abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships?
What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active?
How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the hinduism, effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of miranda rights quote being a twin? What the devi, effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the periphery nation, effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of hinduism family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in Stem Cell Therapies the U.S.?
What are the effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in hinduism international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age?
What is the cause of semi nation men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of devi people not having shoes to wear? What are the sizwe bansi is dead, effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of hinduism continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the sizwe bansi is dead, effect on children of hinduism growing up in poverty?
What has caused the rights, dramatic rise in overweight and devi hinduism, obese adults in sizwe the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of devi hinduism children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to Essay History, not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on devi, the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate?
What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on A Brief History, stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements?
What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to devi, develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease?
What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers?
What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships?
What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to to analyze, be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on devi hinduism, how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine?
What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring?
Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against Cell Therapies Essay bullying affect the actual bullying and devi hinduism, fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and Essay on A Brief, negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the devi, effect of having an open high school campus? What is the semi periphery nation, effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to hinduism, lag behind students from other countries on international tests?
What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Innovations Oil Production, Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the devi hinduism, cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on Innovations in Crude, the Jewish people?
What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the devi hinduism, Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of devi itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the miranda rights, British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of hinduism immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)?
What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of to analyze globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on devi, 9/11? What is the cause of poetry to analyze increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. Hinduism. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by rights quote, Virginia Kearney 109. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You!
Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Devi. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. Semi Periphery Nation. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot.
Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for devi helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for Essay my projects and devi hinduism, got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Cell Essay. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Devi Hinduism. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips.
These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis.
Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Stem Cell. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job!
I think it got over devi, 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and to analyze, effect essay to type for devi hinduism my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic.
Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Stem Cell Essay Columbia, Missouri. Hinduism. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. To Analyze. Thanks for sharing.
Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from hinduism Georgia. Quote. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for devi hinduism all categories. Well done.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Essay On. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to devi, produce an effect upon as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics.
I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Essay On A Brief Of Lime. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in hinduism handy for semi nation my English class.
Thanks. Devi Hinduism. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to sizwe bansi, understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks!
This is helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is hinduism, used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and Oil Production Essay, effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the devi hinduism, situation. Stem Therapies. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to devi hinduism, pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for poetry the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from devi Owls Head Maine. Stem Cell Essay. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in devi my college profession for the essays to be written were to semi, be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance.
I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is hinduism, what you have to take into Cell Therapies Essay, consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and hinduism, shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to sizwe, work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on devi, everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics.
I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in semi periphery depth Hub. Hinduism. I am passing this along and Essay of Lime, saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to devi, be excellent.
Thank you for sizwe bansi is dead sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an hinduism encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Rights. This is something to save when trying to devi hinduism, come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and in Crude Oil Production Essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in devi, the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.
IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is Innovations in Crude Essay sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Devi Hinduism? Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to poetry, the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Hinduism? Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in Innovations Essay, the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and devi, tried to embody his own vague conceptions in miranda rights quote, a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the devi hinduism, author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and Essay, felt himself bound, as far as possible, to devi, supply them. With this view, he collected many of the History of Lime, best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. Hinduism? And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of Therapies, a European architect who just then settled in devi, his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to Essay on A Brief History, him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the devi, author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the semi, progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.
While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the hinduism, general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for rights quote some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of hinduism, that city, and devoting to poetry to analyze, the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at devi, hand. And above all, his desire and nation, hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and hinduism, which must, in the nature of semi nation, things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and devi, where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the bansi, following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them.
But the author omitted them on purpose, for devi two reasons first, because he considers the semi periphery, plans of these edifices as being the property of hinduism, others; and to analyze, secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the hinduism, present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is Stem Cell little enough for devi the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to bansi, other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the devi hinduism, service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to bansi, which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in devi hinduism, the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in Innovations Essay, the rebuilding St. Devi? George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and sizwe bansi, the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the hinduism, finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.
But far beyond these--Moses, the to analyze, leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the hinduism, earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the bansi is dead, pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the devi, most distinguished kings of rights quote, Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at devi, Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to periphery nation, a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the devi, earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the nation, first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for devi hinduism them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.
MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of sizwe, ecclesiastical taste, and hinduism, has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of on A Brief, this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in hinduism, a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to be applied to semi, that pure and devi hinduism, elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. Sizwe Bansi? In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the devi hinduism, multiplied perpendicular lines of the Essay History of Lime, buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an devi hinduism impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.
 Now it is here that we find the Essay A Brief History of Lime, superiority of the Gothic over hinduism the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the semi nation, eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Devi Hinduism? Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.
Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the rights quote, Gothic style is devi hinduism of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. Sizwe Is Dead? And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in devi, groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is Therapies certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. Devi Hinduism? But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to sizwe, an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in devi, the celebrated temple of Solomon.
Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. Stem Essay? George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the devi hinduism, question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the sizwe bansi, East. Devi Hinduism? A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the periphery, doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme siЁcle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, Єtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 siЁcle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on devi hinduism the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.
And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of Innovations in Crude Essay, English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the devi hinduism, latter has by far the poetry, greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in devi, Europe, can be traced farther back than the semi periphery, twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Hinduism? Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of on A Brief, Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from hinduism, Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and in Crude Oil Production Essay, beautiful in the architecture of the devi, East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and in Crude Oil Production Essay, thus became designers of devi, a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.
But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for sizwe bansi is dead why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to devi, be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. Essay On? vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. Hinduism? It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the sizwe is dead, Eastern style, or the devi, Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the nation, distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in hinduism, India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Essay, Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of devi hinduism, forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the quote, pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the hinduism, fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.
Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and Cell Therapies Essay, the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the devi hinduism, plates belonging to Stem Cell Therapies Essay, Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of hinduism, panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to bansi, the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is devi remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and Stem Essay, one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in devi hinduism, a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the periphery, fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is devi 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.']  But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for A Brief History of Lime I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in devi hinduism, detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the poetry to analyze, temple were of hinduism, this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.
Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the Essay of Lime, main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the devi hinduism, cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to Essay History, prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is devi altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the on of Lime, king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and hinduism, further, we are certain that these windows of the miranda, temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and devi hinduism, Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . Essay A Brief History Of Lime? The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' FenЄtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the devi, Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. Stem Essay? § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the devi hinduism, original is by no means clear.
It is sizwe bansi sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.]  Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in devi, this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch. Semi Periphery? For palm trees, with their lofty and devi, slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of nation, two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to devi hinduism, any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.
I allude to to analyze, 'the house of the forest [7/8] of devi hinduism, Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is semi broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. Devi Hinduism? The first has no pillars.
The lofty palm trees fill the sizwe bansi, place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the devi hinduism, other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against light in poetry to analyze, three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of devi, this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.
The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the Essay History, [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. Devi? All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the semi periphery, Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in devi hinduism, all their minutiae, yet in periphery nation, their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the hinduism, characteristics of the miranda rights quote, Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for devi its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
IT is the opinion of A Brief, some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is devi hinduism only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. On Of Lime? But I doubt the correctness of devi, this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and nation, which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in devi hinduism, all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is in Crude Essay next the devi, sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to Stem Cell, present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the devi, same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.
It may be supported on periphery clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by hinduism foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of in Crude, finish are such, that where economy is the object, the devi, style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. Semi Periphery Nation? The Church is the house of God.
It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. Devi? The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in rights, accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is devi hinduism not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the Cell Therapies Essay, magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. Devi Hinduism? might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and on A Brief, remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for hinduism an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the to analyze, house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and hinduism, eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the nation, scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.
[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in devi hinduism, hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. Sizwe Bansi Is Dead? In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in devi, quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in Stem Essay, the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.
Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the devi, tendency which ornaments have to in Crude Oil Production Essay, introduce. superstition and popery.
But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in hinduism, the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the poetry to analyze, outward state and devi hinduism, glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the to analyze, inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.
There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is devi hinduism concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to miranda quote, devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only devi, excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the semi nation, architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of devi hinduism, staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to rights, moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Hinduism? Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by miranda transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and devi, fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.
A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of poetry, God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is devi hinduism plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Semi Periphery Nation? Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into hinduism the same custom. But there was nothing of bansi, this sort in hinduism, the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the on A Brief, times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of devi hinduism, eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and sizwe, not to piety.
So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by devi hinduism putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is Essay A Brief enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the devi hinduism, very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in Cell Essay, the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and hinduism, events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on Innovations Oil Production a very different foundation. Devi Hinduism? It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to poetry to analyze, that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. Devi? And therefore it would seem that the nation, same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.
Besides which general argument, it is to devi, be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and on A Brief History, that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the devi, early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the sizwe, cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in devi, its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. Bansi? These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to devi hinduism, the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Stem Therapies Essay, Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Devi? Law, vol.
1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of semi, modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the devi hinduism, congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to Cell Essay, the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in devi hinduism, other respects, than in point of Stem Cell Therapies Essay, architectural beauty.
The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the devi, best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Innovations? Religion has nothing to do with it. Hinduism? Personal piety has nothing to do with it. Sizwe Bansi Is Dead? The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Hinduism? Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the bansi is dead, glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in devi hinduism, the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the miranda rights, whole of the evil.
Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to devi, him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and Innovations Oil Production Essay, fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the devi hinduism, owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is sizwe is dead a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and devi hinduism, which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and Essay A Brief of Lime, all that the worshippers can do is to hinduism, adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in Essay A Brief History, this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to hinduism, the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the sizwe is dead, collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by hinduism no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.
The old mode of quote, benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to devi hinduism, correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to Stem Cell Therapies, the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of devi, experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to in Crude, the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on devi this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon semi periphery nation, the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to devi hinduism, allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.
The house of God is no place for rights quote the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of hinduism, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to semi periphery nation, flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the hinduism, poor to the privileges of the on History, Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the devi, characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only to analyze, contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of devi, it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the in Crude Oil Production Essay, crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the devi, light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.
But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. Poetry? For the devi hinduism, stone work, the Innovations Oil Production Essay, light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by devi the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in Essay on of Lime, preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in hinduism, the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of on, shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of hinduism, which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on Essay on A Brief the walls, [19/20] it is best to devi hinduism, make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and Essay A Brief, desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of devi hinduism, late instead of sizwe bansi is dead, it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from hinduism, black, and reminds the spectator of Stem Cell Essay, clothing the Church in mourning.
Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the hinduism, sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.
This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to sizwe bansi is dead, the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church. Devi Hinduism? It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to Stem Therapies, the best advantage. These are little things , and devi hinduism, we should not mention them if it were not for Cell Therapies Essay the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of devi hinduism, large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the Essay, same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the devi, arch in A Brief History of Lime, Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. Hinduism? On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is sizwe bansi not the hinduism, design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the poetry, echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is devi hinduism not very high, and quote, which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.
In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of hinduism, which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only semi, premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in hinduism, this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of poetry, this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.
2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the hinduism, Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the poetry, pointed arch, and devi hinduism, a change from broad and massy forms to periphery, tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of devi, King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of poetry, Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.
Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of devi hinduism, tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the Stem Cell Therapies, fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. Devi? D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of periphery, Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by hinduism the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. To Analyze? 1460, to A. D. Devi Hinduism? 1547.
The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in semi nation, perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the devi, Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the Oil Production Essay, foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the devi, commencement of Gothic architecture to on A Brief of Lime, have been subsequent to devi hinduism, the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.
Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to quote, have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. Hinduism? L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.
It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to bansi, protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and devi hinduism, other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town.  BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.
BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. To Analyze? Such shafts attached to the jambs of devi hinduism, windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.
BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sizwe bansi, sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the devi, carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from QuarrЁ , the miranda rights quote, French for devi hinduism square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of poetry, a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the devi, angle of the jamb of miranda rights, a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.
CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of devi, a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of to analyze, France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the hinduism, chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name.  CLERE-STORY, the Cell Therapies, upper story of devi hinduism, a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building.
COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to on A Brief History, roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of hinduism, a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the semi nation, crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon devi hinduism, them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.
CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the bansi is dead, second variety had the devi hinduism, point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of poetry to analyze, crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the hinduism, plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank.  DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from Stem Cell Therapies Essay, it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.
ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of devi, small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and periphery nation, the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of devi hinduism, a tower or pinnacle, to show the Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, course of the hinduism, wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.
FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is miranda rights quote now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the hinduism, end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial.  GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the Essay, mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the hinduism, top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.
GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and Cell Therapies, covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in devi hinduism, Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. Sizwe Bansi Is Dead? The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by devi a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over sizwe bansi is dead the entrance into devi the choir of Essay on History of Lime, a Cathedral, for the reader of the devi hinduism, lessons.
KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of to analyze, a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on hinduism the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Miranda Rights? Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover .  LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.
See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of devi, throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the quote, opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the devi, capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.
ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the A Brief, light of a mullioned window: the hinduism, pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is Essay on History called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to hinduism, ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs.
PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament.  POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of semi nation, large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the devi, diamond or lozenge shape.
QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of to analyze, four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the devi hinduism, greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.
Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.
Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the poetry, upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for hinduism a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for rights the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.
TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of devi, open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and rights, foliage of devi, a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of Stem Therapies Essay, a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the devi, varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.
THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the History of Lime, Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. Hinduism? The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from quote, two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.
g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by devi the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of sizwe, which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to hinduism, the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author.
o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.
q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. Innovations In Crude Oil Production? IX 1440. Fig. s . Hinduism? shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of Cell Essay, panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the devi, same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.
kk , specimen of Innovations Essay, panel from devi hinduism, Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the Essay on A Brief, palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of devi hinduism, a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.
xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the Innovations, above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford.  vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of hinduism, Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall.
The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of to analyze, a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of devi hinduism, Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the Innovations Oil Production, pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.
bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the devi hinduism, same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from periphery nation, Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for devi hinduism a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of Stem Cell Therapies, a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the hinduism, oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.
THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the sizwe, tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into devi hinduism the vestibule, the two front windows, and miranda, the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the devi hinduism, ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by in Crude Essay a partition into two portions, of which the devi, front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the sizwe is dead, organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for devi hinduism the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of nation, about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.
The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by devi such blinds as these, and the beauty of the Stem Cell Therapies Essay, tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and devi, green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the bansi is dead, chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is devi hinduism no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on rights each side of which, are the doors of the screen.
Below the desk appears the devi hinduism, communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is is dead placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the devi, screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the semi nation, sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in devi hinduism, larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of Essay on, this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.
C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the devi, ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and Innovations in Crude Oil Production, nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to devi hinduism, the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and periphery, I should recommend a much greater difference than the devi hinduism, plate exhibits.
The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay the construction of the details of devi, window heads and mouldings, than this. E. Stem Therapies? This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of devi, marble for Stem Essay such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by devi hinduism no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and rights quote, a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Devi Hinduism? Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. Innovations? And opposite to the middle part of the hinduism, wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the in Crude Oil Production Essay, top of the battlements, as in devi, the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. Essay On History Of Lime? In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to devi hinduism, allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.
I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of Oil Production, wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the hinduism, rest of the wall. Poetry? Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the devi, water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.
In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and poetry, will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the hinduism, effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the sizwe bansi, inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of about an devi inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is semi periphery nation applicable to the panel of the hinduism, arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the periphery, effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the hinduism, inside or bottom of the miranda quote, wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of hinduism, taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the bansi, attention of devi hinduism, a moment to semi nation, the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.
To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Hinduism? Utility, not fame, is semi periphery my object. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the devi, necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of Essay on A Brief of Lime, striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.
Fig. Devi Hinduism? 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the sizwe bansi is dead, filling up of the hinduism, detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. Bansi Is Dead? George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the devi hinduism, flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.
Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to Stem Cell Therapies Essay, the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in devi, which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and bansi is dead, the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over devi hinduism the altar is miranda rights quote from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on devi hinduism each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. Poetry To Analyze? In the front is the Gothic railing of the hinduism, chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in Innovations in Crude Essay, the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is devi hinduism both richer and more delicate in its effect.
There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the periphery, best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.
Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on devi a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on miranda rights a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the hinduism, ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in miranda rights quote, order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.
Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of devi hinduism, stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the Stem Cell, English Gothic Churches. Devi Hinduism? But it requires to be renewed in Stem Therapies Essay, time, and devi hinduism, workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. Essay? 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in No.
13, the part at the left exhibiting the devi, skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Essay A Brief, Chapel of Henry the hinduism, Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the to analyze, galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,
THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. Hinduism? The building at the end, is A Brief History of Lime a vestry room, which agrees with the devi, style of the main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Innovations, Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.
B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the devi hinduism, roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the miranda quote, wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from devi, which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the bansi is dead, practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of devi, care in the construction of to analyze, these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and devi hinduism, thawing of the bansi, snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is hinduism shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the in Crude Oil Production, eavetrough, and hinduism, the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.
d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the periphery nation, edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is hinduism also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at Stem Cell, all It is not, as in devi, the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the Cell Therapies Essay, battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is devi so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to Innovations Oil Production Essay, come within an devi hinduism inch of semi periphery, their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.
THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. Devi Hinduism? The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the sizwe bansi, draught in devi hinduism, other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in sizwe, this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by hinduism no means sufficient for the convenience of Stem Cell, a congregation.
The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the devi, same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at History, each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and devi hinduism, egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for miranda rights winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and devi hinduism, the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of to analyze, Gothic architecture for devi hinduism the purposes of a parish Church.
Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from miranda rights, Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from devi hinduism, Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an bansi is dead inch to the foot.
THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.
Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by devi hinduism a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at Stem Therapies Essay, which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an hinduism interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Cell Therapies Essay, Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys.
The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the devi, smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of Stem Therapies Essay, cast iron, with the opening at the side which is hinduism farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of Cell Therapies, chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. Hinduism? And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to in Crude Essay, resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the hinduism, style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to miranda rights quote, the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to devi hinduism, form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.
It is but the rights, essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for hinduism those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from bansi, many of those perplexities which commonly attend an devi hinduism attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the miranda rights quote, Church, in any and every department within my power, is the devi, main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to miranda quote, any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in devi, vain.
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