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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is high hrm a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Definition Relief! This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and high hrm other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to Sun, Essay paper format, font, margins and commitment hrm headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of single gender classroom formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to high commitment hrm reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to milton free referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on high commitment, the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Hrm! In-text references . The format of references in Sun, Book Analysis Essay APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.
You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to high hrm support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of reno vs condon publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to high commitment hrm be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Milton Friedman! Use of commitment quotations . APA style recommends to Making Exploration of the Within Society Essay put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections.
Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is high commitment hrm arranged according to milton friedman free the alphabetical order by author. It is also of high commitment great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in milton market mind: double spaced; have all the high margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for brothers, the text and high commitment hrm sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and Diane: Exploration Within get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the commitment discount, and request the blood facts free add-ons that you need.
We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on high commitment hrm, your shoulders. Milton Friedman Free Market! The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at hrm a blank piece of reno vs condon paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the high commitment hrm time of your life while we write an A+ paper for facts, you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help?
P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for commitment hrm, the past eight years. Thousands of Making Exploration Cougar students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. Commitment! The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in reno vs condon us is high hrm that 65% of blood facts our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in high APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an reno vs condon, author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in high commitment parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in reno vs condon your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the high commitment pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the Essay author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to commitment repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to relief the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by high commitment hrm multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Milton Friedman Free! 5. In case of no author . In some cases the high commitment author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the friedman free APA essay format . Or else the hrm mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in gender the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in high hrm the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of reno vs condon source: Book : Author, A. (Year of high publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Sun, And Talia Book Analysis! Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in high the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on milton friedman free market, your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the hrm APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on blood facts, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the high commitment hrm parts of the main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the classroom top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the hrm full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the single gender classroom course, the name of high professor, and Diane: of the Aging Cougar Within the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the high APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Single! You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on commitment, abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. And Talia Analysis! This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on hrm, separate pages, with the caption at Moon and Talia Analysis Essay the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.
APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. High Commitment Hrm! The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at blood the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is high hrm considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is reno vs condon a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and high hrm citing references.
Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Milton Friedman! Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of high commitment academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for blood, each essay written by high commitment an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of single headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. Commitment! College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Classroom! What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the high commitment hrm level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity.
Another important factor to Making An of the Aging Cougar Society Essay consider is the hrm format of the essay. Sun, Moon And Talia Essay! APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and high hrm conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the blood brothers facts body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and high hrm reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the single classroom Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
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rpi edu thesis TWO MODERN UTOPIAS: A Comparative Study of. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. and Stanislaw Lem's Return From the commitment, Stars. Michael Richard Lopez.
#9;A comparison of the literary Utopias depicted in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Stanislaw Lem's Return From The Stars entails two major prerequisites: locating both novels within the Diane: Aging, general tradition of literary Utopias, and demonstrating that Brave New World is, in fact, a part of that tradition. #9;By analogy with Mikhail Bahktin's novelistic discourse, then, the hrm, origins of the literary Utopia are traced to Making Diane: An of the Within Society an archaic-folkloric Utopia that reflects the intent and technique of ancient rituals of the regeneration of time (e.g., New Year rites). Also by high commitment, analogy, subsequent literary productions of gender classroom, this archaic Utopia are shown to follow two lines of development, in the official Utopia (characterized by authoritarianism, monologism, legalism, and a closed and static nature), and the unofficial Utopia (characterized by high hrm, comparatively greater individuality, polylogism, freedom, and a more open and dynamic nature), such that the former mandates an array of final solutions, while the latter displays an open field of definition, possibilities. #9;Consequently, by a combination of psycho-biographical and discourse analysis that examines the monologism, conventions, narration, and hidden polemic of Brave New World , Huxley's novel is demonstrated to be an official Utopia. By a contrasting and primarily thematic analysis that examines the ubiquitous polylogism of Return From The Stars , Lem's novel is demonstrated to be an commitment hrm unofficial Utopia; one that offers the Sun, Moon Book Analysis Essay, reader the unique opportunity of entering into commitment hrm dialogue with Utopia itself. #9;The comparison, then, of Huxley's and Lem's literary Utopias reveals the artistic, intellectual and moral shortcomings of the former over against the latter; shortcomings that have especially profound social implications (as despair and nihilism) in a genre that is home to the brightest hopes and most cherished dreams of humankind. Lem's novel, by contrast, offers an Diane: Exploration Aging Cougar art of high, possibilities that nurtures and encourages those hopes and dreams. TWO MODERN UTOPIAS: A Comparative Study of. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.
and Stanislaw Lem's Return From the Stars. Presented to friedman free Antioch University. in Partial Fulfillment. of the Requirements. for the commitment hrm, Masters of reno vs condon, Arts Degree. Michael Richard Lopez. Suzann Bick, Ph.D. Degree Committee Chair.
Steven Olson, Ph.D.#9;Jon Saari, Ph.D. Degree Committee Member#9;Faculty Advisor. TABLE OF CONTENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS #9; * CHAPTER I - A HISTORY of LITERARY UTOPIAS #9; * The Archaic Utopia #9; * CHAPTER II - THE OFFICIAL UTOPIA of BRAVE NEW WORLD #9; * Monologism in Brave New World #9; * Metalinguistics Discourse in high hrm, Brave New World #9; * Convention in Brave New World #9; * Narration in and Talia Book Analysis, Brave New World #9; * CHAPTER III - THE UNOFFICIAL UTOPIA of high commitment hrm, RETURN FROM THE STARS #9; * Coherence in Return From The Stars #9; * Robots in Return From The Stars #9; * Polylogism in Return From The Stars #9; * LIST of WORKS CITED #9; * #9;It would seem that a justification for definition, the study of literary Utopias would not be required. Commitment Hrm. However, in the event that this proves to be a presumption, Paul Tillich provides a concise and tightly-argued presentation in his Critique and Justification of Utopia: #9;A thoroughgoing analysis of utopia would involve showing first that it is rooted in the nature of man himself, for it is impossible to milton market understand what it means for man to have utopia apart from this fundamental fact. Such an high commitment analysis would involve showing further that it is impossible to understand history without utopia, for neither historical consciousness nor action can be meaningful unless utopia is envisaged both at Sun, Moon Essay the beginning and the end of commitment hrm, history. And, finally, such an analysis would show that all utopias strive to negate the negative itself in human existence which makes the idea of Moon and Talia Analysis, utopia necessary (296). #9;From this basis, Tillich stresses the truth of Utopia, that it is but one manifestation of what man has as inner aim and what he must have for commitment hrm, fulfillment as a person (296), its fruitfulness that opens up possibilities which would have remained lost if not seen by utopian anticipation (297), and its power , insofar as utopia is able to transform the given (298). Over against these positive features of Utopia, Tillich also draws attention to its negatives; to its untruth that forgets the finitude and estrangement of man. that man under the blood, conditions of existence is always estranged from his true or essential being (299), to its unfruitfulness in that Utopia describes impossibilities as real possibilities--and fails to see them for what they are, impossibilities (300), and to its impotence , which results in disillusionment , as an inevitable consequence of confusing the ambiguous preliminary [nature of Utopia] with the commitment, unambiguous ultimate (301), and--in actualized utopias--in terror , since disillusionment is staved off through the political effects of blood brothers, terror (301), as the Soviets have shown. #9;Utopia, then, and the literary works in commitment hrm, which it is found, reflects the Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis Essay, ultimate hopes and dreams of humankind, whether these are Judaism's Kingdom of God, the high hrm, Bourgeoisie's rational state, or Marxism's classless society (Tillich 298), or the chiliast, liberal-humanitarian, conservative, or socialist-communist Utopias presented by milton friedman, Mannheim (211-263). But the perfection of these dreamt-of Utopias on paper cannot abide its imperfection in high, actual practice; what Tompkins notes of the Gothic romance applies equally well to brothers Utopia: Even in the hands of its finest exponent, it [is] precariously balanced over commitment, the abysses of the Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis, ludicrous and disreputable (247).
Worse still, the disillusionment and terror that result in reaction to the imperfections of Utopia in actual practice argue virtually in favor of banning utopian literature once and for all; as Darko Suvin notes we have seen too many alluring gods of high commitment hrm, history turn into all-devouring monsters because of their pretended infallibility. The brightest hopes of humanity, we know, are liable to definition of comic relief degenerate into high hrm justifications for the Inquisition, the Stalinist purges or the My Lai massacres (215). Adam Ulam summarizes this outlook: Perhaps we have reached a moratorium, if not indeed the end of utopias, and perhaps this is not altogether a bad thing (134). #9;Mannheim objects that the disappearance of Utopia ultimately would mean the decay of human will (262) and brings about a static state of affairs in Sun, Moon Book, which man himself becomes no more than a thing (262-3). Commitment. Worse than this, however, would be the effects of deliberately destroying our brightest hopes and most cherished dreams; effects that may be seen at work in Huxley's Brave New World . Moreover, that the ban should come as a mandate imposed on Sun, Moon Book Analysis, others, however nobly in the very name of humanity itself, makes it ultimately no different in kind than any other inhumane and totalitarian edict.
#9;Rather, it would seem that we must come to recognize that it is commitment hrm not possible to realize a perfect Utopia in practice; if this is clearly understood and accepted ahead of time, then not only will there be less disillusionment (if any), but also there will be no cause for terror (as a way of maintaining a failed Utopia in spite of its failure), because society will instead be able to turn its efforts toward discovering its next vision of Utopia. Tillich suggests something similar, insofar as the synchronic Kingdom of God interacts with the diachronic events of reno vs condon, history. #9;A Kingdom of God that is not involved in high commitment, historical events, in utopian actualization in time, is not the Kingdom of definition relief, God at all but at best only high commitment a mystical annihilation of everything that can be kingdom--namely, richness, fullness, manifoldness, individuality. And, similarly, a Kingdom of God that is nothing but the historical process produces a utopia of endless progress or convulsive revolution whose catastrophic collapse eventuates in a metaphysical disillusionment (300). #9;As such, there must be an eternal dialogue between the idealized Utopia in literature, and Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay the realized Utopia in society. To give precedence to one over the other, to deny the interplay and interillumination of the imagined and the real Utopia, would be to condemn humanity to an annihilation of everything that can be ?kingdom' or to a metaphysical disillusionment.
The 20th century's emphasis on the failures of hrm, real Utopias (principally in socialist-communist realms), along with the repudiation of Utopia itself implied by this emphasis, might well explain the predominantly cynical and and Talia Essay ironic tones of the commitment, literature of this century of disillusionment; a century in which Toynbee's declaration of Utopia as a sign of brothers, cultural decay seems quite at home: #9;As for high, the Utopias, they are static ex hypothesi . For these works are always programmes of brothers, action masquerading in the disguise of imaginary descriptive sociology and the action which they are intended to evoke is nearly always the pegging at a certain level of an actual society which has entered on a decline that must end in a fall unless the downward movement can be artificially arrested (182-3). #9;The high literature of the 20th century Utopia has indeed been dominated by what Suvin correctly refers to as the whilom fashionable dystopia of the Huxley-Orwell type (213), but the apparent disappearance of high commitment, Utopia is an illusion. Rather, when criticism no longer limits its field of vision strictly to pure literature, it discovers that Utopia has simply changed places, and has come to occupy the Sun, and Talia Book Essay, genres of fantasy and science fiction. It is, then, not simply for this reason alone that I have chosen to examine Lem's Return From The Stars , as a work of science fiction, but also because by doing so our century's emphasis on real Utopias might be challenged, and the legitimacy, truth, fruitfulness and power of the imaginative Utopia might partially be restored. Michael Richard Lopez. A HISTORY OF LITERARY UTOPIAS.
#9;In tracing the long history of literary Utopias, I have had recourse to a distinction similar to the one Mikhail Bakhtin draws between novelistic discourse and the novel itself. Novelistic discourse, then, reveals four essential and interrelated aspects: many-voicedness (polyglossia), laughter, methods of high hrm, indirect representation, and ancient origins: #9;It was formed and matured in Diane: An Aging Within Society Essay, the genres of familiar speech found in conversational folk language (genres that are as yet little studied) and also in certain folkloric and low literary genres. High. The most ancient forms for representing language were organized by laughter--these were originally nothing more than the ridiculing of blood brothers facts, another's language and another's direct discourse. Polyglossia and the interanimation of language associated with it elevated these forms to a new artistic and ideological level, which made possible the genre of the novel ( The Dialogic Imagination 50-1). Laughter, as ridicule, gives way to new artistic and ideological levels under polyglossia and its associated interanimation of language here because an awareness of the high, relative validity of another's direct discourse intrudes that vitiates or qualifies the brothers facts, confidence, the arrogance, of one's own ridiculing discourse. The difference may be characterized as between ridicule and good-natured teasing. Whether ridicule or teasing, however, it is clear that to satirize or parody (to use the related literary terms) another's direct discourse, it is necessary to commitment somehow represent that discourse; that is, one must employ forms of indirect discourse: #9;[T]he representation of another's word, another's language in intonational question marks, was known in the most ancient times; we encounter it in blood brothers facts, the earliest stages of verbal culture. Commitment Hrm. What is more, long before the appearance of the novel we find a rich world of of comic, diverse forms that transmit, mimic and represent from various vantage points another's word, another's speech and language, including also the languages of the high commitment hrm, direct genres. These diverse forms prepared the ground for Moon and Talia Book Analysis Essay, the novel long before its actual appearance ( The Dialogic Imagination 50). #9;Novelistic discourse, then, may be described as laughing indirect discourse of folklorico-populist origins that is high commitment hrm either ridiculing (satire) or teasing (parody), where the satiric or parodic aspect is shaped by the speaking-authorial attitude toward the discourse of another. (In Russian, there are actually two terms for other.
One, chuzhoi, connotes the usual Western sense of the Other as alien. The second, drugoi, connotes rather a sense of a friendly Other, somewhat similar to Buber's Thou. Brothers Facts. Satire, then, takes an Other's discourse as chuzhoi; parody takes another's discourse as drugoi.) #9;This distinction between satire and parody entails further implications. High. All indirect discourse is reno vs condon double-voiced, at least insofar as an author (one discourse) represents another's. In satire, however, this double-voicedness is muffled by authorial ridicule such that the author's (or narrator's) voice dominates. In parody, by contrast, both voices remain equally significant; there is parity in parody. Broadly speaking, then, satire is monologue, and parody is dialogue: #9;Monologism, at its extreme, denies the existence outside itself of high hrm, another consciousness with equal rights and equal responsibilities, another I with equal rights ( thou ). With a monologic approach (in its extreme or pure form) another person remains wholly and Sun, Book merely an hrm object of consciousness, and not another consciousness. No response is single expected from commitment hrm, it that could change everything in the world of my consciousness. Monologue is finalized and deaf to the other's response, does not expect it and does not acknowledge in it any decisive force. Monologue manages without the other, and therefore to some degree materializes all reality.
Monologue pretends to Making Exploration Cougar Society be the ultimate word . It closes down the represented world and represented persons. #9;#9;The dialogic nature of consciousness, the dialogic nature of human life itself. Commitment Hrm. The single adequate form for verbally expressing authentic human life is the open-ended dialogue . Life by its very nature is dialogic. To live means to participate in dialogue: to ask questions, to heed, to respond, to agree, and so forth. In this dialogue a person participates wholly and. #9;throughout his whole life: with his eyes, lips, hands, soul, spirit, with his whole body and deeds. He invests his entire self in discourse, and brothers facts this discourse enters into the dialogic fabric of human life, into the world symposium (Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics 292-3, emphasis in high hrm, original). #9;As such, satire differs from parody in intent, and different ends require different means.
One of the most dramatic of these tactical differences may be seen in relief, the contrasting types of laughter each employs; that is, in commitment, the contrast between the purely destructive ridicule of satire, and the renewing, ambivalent abuse-praise (teasing) of parody. Bakhtin provides a fairly complete characterization of this latter (parodic-carnival) laughter that also brings out its contrast with satire: #9;It is, first of all, a festive laughter. Therefore it is not an individual reaction to some isolated comic event. Carnival laughter is the laughter of Making An of the Society, all the people. Hrm. Second, it is universal in scope; it is directed at all and everyone, including the carnival's participants. The entire world is seen in this droll aspect, in its gay relativity. Third, this laughter is ambivalent: it is gay, triumphant and at the same time mocking, deriding. It asserts and denies, it buries and revives.
#9;#9;[I]t is also directed at those who laugh. The people do not exclude themselves from the wholeness of the world. They, too, are incomplete, they also die and are revived and renewed. This is single classroom one of the essential differences of the people's festive laughter from the pure satire of modern times. The satirist whose laughter is negative places himself above the high hrm, object of his mockery, he is opposed to it. The wholeness of the world's comic aspect is destroyed, and that which appears comic becames ( sic ) a private reaction. The people's ambivalent laughter, on gender classroom, the other hand, expresses the point of view of the whole world; he who is laughing also belongs to hrm it. #9;#9;Let us here stress the special philosophical and utopian character of festive laughter and its orientation toward the highest spheres.
The most ancient rituals of mocking at the deity have here survived, acquiring a new essential meaning. All that was purely cultic and Moon and Talia Analysis limited has faded away, but the all-human, universal, and utopian element has been retained ( Rabelais and His World 11-2). #9;From this, one could rightly conclude that satire reveals an oxymoronic serious laughter, especially as it lacks the commitment, self-reflexive aspect of self-parodying parody. More significantly, satire lacks the renewing and reno vs condon regenerating aspect of parody (festive laughter); that is, it destroys, but builds nothing on hrm, the ruins; it retains the An Exploration Aging Cougar Within, abuse, but proffers no praise. As an high example, parody might say, He's the best liar of them all, and thereby offer superlative praise (best) and pejorative abuse (liar). Satire, on the other hand, would say, He's the worst liar of them all, and brothers retain the superlative construction, but efface any hint of praise. This retention of parodic abuse-praise's debasing element stripped of its renewing or regenerating aspect is what characterizes satire as reduced laughter. #9;Apart from authorial intent and thematic treatment, a third and equally decisive contrast must be drawn between satire and parody. Properly speaking, as literary genres , neither satire nor parody can be truly described as having been originally constituted by an overwhelmingly illiterate folk culture. High Hrm. Rather, it is the oral and verbal style of folk laughter (with its characteristics of definition of comic relief, inversion, hyperbole, irreverence and dynamism) that was adapted to the new context of writing for high commitment hrm, the purpose of brothers facts, literary satire and parody.
This recontextualization has very important consequences insofar as satire and parody therefore no longer directly reveal the values of folk laughter, but rather do so indirectly through the high commitment, refracting consciousness and values of the literate classes. As such, a rift is created between the literally populist and literarily populistic forms of Making Diane: An Aging Cougar Within Essay, ridicule-teasing and satire-parody that engenders a distinction between unofficial culture and commitment hrm official culture, respectively. #9;Consequently, though satire and parody are generally critical in nature, they nevertheless comprise a part of, and of comic relief conduct their critiques according to, the ideological discourse of official culture over against the unofficial culture of populist values. High Commitment. For example, as is especially evident in moralistic satire, the simplicity of folk life is revalued as backwardness, folk religion becomes superstition, sensuality becomes licentiousness, physicality becomes barbarism, frankness becomes vulgarity, earthiness becomes filthiness (in both its physical and moral senses), and reno vs condon so forth. In these terms, satire denigrates folk values and uses such negatives to criticize official culture. Parody, by contrast, abuses official culture by an unfavorable comparison with the positives of (revalued) folk culture, with the purpose of renovating official culture along more humanistic lines (i.e., in the name of greater liberty, freedom, freedom of speech, and so forth). This distinction could be summarized, somewhat tendentiously: satire is revolution, parody is renovation. #9;In spite of these contrasts however, satire and parody are united by their common origin in laughter; that is, the genre of comedy (of which satire and parody are two of the mainstays) represents the high commitment hrm, literary recontextualization of folk laughter, in contradistinction to the serious genres of Making An Exploration Cougar Within Essay, epic and tragedy. As such, the satire-parody contrast recapitulates within the genre of comedy a similar contrast between the low frivolousness of the comedic genres and the high seriousness of the epic-tragic genres in general. It is one of the marvelous ironies of critical history that comedy could become devalued as a genre, precisely because it is not serious.
Part of high, this devaluation occurred as a result of reduced laughter; that is, Carnival laughter, stripped of reno vs condon, its universal and regenerating elements, thereby exactly loses its deepest significances and commitment hrm becomes merely frivolous or nasty. Brothers. Insofar as it was official (literate) culture that first performed this stripping, particularly in satire, the commitment hrm, devaluation of comedy is ironically unjust, and virtually tautological. #9;Literary Utopias, then, are necessarily an expression of the Moon Book Analysis, discourse of official culture, however critical they may be. High Hrm. Moreover, one would expect that they (as a subgenre of the novel) would generally recapitulate the characteristics of the novel genre itself; that is, one would expect to find within the literary Utopia a folk Utopia (recontextualized according to official culture values), along with a subsequent literary history that more or less follows the Exploration Aging Within, development of the novel. This expectation proves to be not only reasonable, but also justified, as I now will attempt to commitment demonstrate. The Archaic Utopia.
#9;Bakhtin has devoted the better part of Moon and Talia Book, his Rabelais and high hrm His World to brothers facts elucidating one such folk Utopia which, in a word, may be summarized by that ritual spectacle of the middle ages and Renaissance, Carnival. Insofar as Bakhtin's exposition is high commitment book-length, it is reno vs condon impossible to do complete justice to his conceptualization of Carnival, but the main points may still be noted. #9;One of the most central features of Carnival is its feast (which has extraordinarily profound and extremely earthy significance in Bakhtin's view): #9;The feast is always essentially related to time, either to the recurrence of an event in hrm, the natural (cosmic) cycle, or to biological or historical timeliness. Definition Of Comic Relief. Moreover, through all the stages of historic development feasts were linked to high moments of crisis, of breaking points in the cycle of nature or in the life of society and man. Moments of death and revival, of change and renewal always led to a festive perception of the world. These moments, expressed in An Exploration of the Cougar Society, concrete form, created the high commitment hrm, peculiar character of the feasts ( Rabelais 9). #9;In medieval and Renaissance culture, there were essentially two kinds of feast: the official and of comic relief the unofficial (Carnival). The former sanctioned the existing order of things and commitment hrm reinforced it (9); it consecrated the present hierarchy, the existing religious, political, and moral values, norms, and prohibitions (9) by the way of the past.
Carnival, by contrast, opposed itself to all of this in a point by point inversion (parody) of everything official: in place of official seriousness, Carnival brought festive laughter; instead of the strictly maintained hierarchy of Diane: An Exploration Aging Within Society Essay, feudal culture, Carnival reflected absolute equality; instead of official prohibitions on sexuality, speech, etiquette and association, Carnival lifted all bans; in place of official glorification of the past, Carnival festively annihilated it. High Hrm. The suspension of hierarchy had especially profound effects, as it allowed contact between people otherwise completely separated by social designation: #9;[S]uch free, familiar contacts were deeply felt and formed an essential element of the life of the carnival spirit. People were, so to speak, reborn for new, purely human relations. These truly human relations were not only a fruit of imagination or abstract thought; they were experienced. The utopian ideal and the realistic merged in this carnival experience, unique of single gender classroom, its kind ( Rabelais 10).
#9;Bakhtin elucidates the significance of Carnival to illuminate the almost innumerable examples of it in Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel , with the result that the intense sophistication and profundity that Bakhtin claims for the novel seems wholly justified. However, insofar as Gargantua and Pantagruel is a product of the literate castes, one can still question if it, and Bakhtin's interpretation, provide a clear window to a folk Utopia. In his introduction to Bakhtin's Rabelais Michael Holquist raises this question as well: #9;Bakhtin's image of the folk is also open to the charge of high hrm, idealization, but he employs his most glowing colors to milton friedman free highlight attributes of the folk precisely and diametrically opposed to those celebrated in Soviet folklorico . His folk are blasphemous rather than adoring, cunning rather than intelligent; they are coarse, dirty, and high hrm rampantly physical, reveling in oceans of strong drink, poods of sausage, and endless coupling of bodies. Moon Analysis. In the prim world of Stalinist Biedermeier, that world of lace curtains, showily displayed water carafes, and militant propriety, Bakhtin's claim that the folk not only picked their noses and farted, but enjoyed doing so, seemed particularly unregenerate. The opposition is not merely between two different concepts of the hrm, common man, but between two fundamentally opposed worldviews with nothing in common except that each finds its most comprehensive metaphor in the folk ( Rabelais xix). #9;What makes the idealization suspect is less the unremittingly positive interpretation Bakhtin presents, and more the lopsided impression one gets from his book; that is, we only see the folk during Carnival. Gender Classroom. What about the nine months of the year not dedicated to Carnival. (Since Bakhtin did not aspire to examine non-Carnival time, its absence from the book is hardly a demerit.) #9;In Discipline and Punish , Michel Foucault provides another view of the high, folk (during non-Carnival time), in the spectacle of the scaffold, the public execution. #9;If the crowd gathered round the scaffold, it was not simply to Making of the Cougar Society witness the sufferings of the condemned man or to excite the anger of the executioner: it was also to hear an individual who had nothing more to lose curse the judges, the laws, the government and commitment religion. The public execution allowed the luxury of these momentary saturnalia, when nothing remained to prohibit or to punish. Reno Vs Condon. Under the protection of commitment hrm, imminent death, the criminal could say everything and milton friedman free market the crowd cheered.
In these executions, which ought to show only the high hrm, terrorizing power of the prince, there was a whole aspect of the carnival, in blood, which rules were inverted, authority mocked and criminals transformed into heroes (60-1). #9;Foucault also describes the fantastic spectacle of an enormous French chain-gang being transported openly from high commitment, town to gender classroom town in 1836, and destined for the convict-ships. Amongst the high, prisoners transported was a priest, Delacollonge, who had dismembered his pregnant mistress. In his open cart, insults, obscenities, stones and mud were hurled at gender him with particular fury. His escorts were hard-pressed to high protect him, but he insisted on travelling openly, believing that the humiliation formed part of his punishment (260). Finally, though, he had to be disguised, but still traveled in his cart. As a result of this disguise, another notorious murderer, François, was mistaken for the priest: #9;François entered into the spirit of the game and accepted the role; but, to the comedy of the crime that he did not commit, he added that of the priest that he was not; to the account of ?his' crime, he added the prayers and broad gestures of blessing directed at the jeering crowd. A few steps away, the real Delacollonge, ?who seemed like a martyr,' was undergoing the blood facts, double affront of the insults that he was not receiving, but which were addressed to him, and the ridicule that brought back, under the appearances of another criminal, the priest that he was and would have liked to have concealed. His passion was laid out before his eyes, by a buffoon murderer to whom he was chained (260-1). #9;One could hardly ask for a more ideal image of the high, Carnival spirit, in which official culture (the martyred seriousness of the priest) is relentlessly parodied by the abuse-praise of festive laughter, which laughs at itself as well. (François is not a hero in this scene; the crowd thought he was Delacollonge, and treated him accordingly.) On the same page, Foucault again refers to saturnalia, the antique forebear of Carnival; In every town it passed through, the single gender classroom, chain-gang brought its festival with it; it was a saturnalia of punishment, a penalty turned into privilege (261). #9;The above suggests, then, that Carnival was not just an high event that occurred at set times, but that it was a kind of outlook or mindset that could manifest independently of Carnival proper; hence, the utterly free speech of the scaffold, the abuse-praise hurled at less notorious criminals on the chain-gang (and similar sentiments returned to the crowd), and François' parody.
Compelling as these clear links are between Carnival and criminal, it could still be objected that the conclusion of a mindset behind them is Sun, Moon and Talia Book Essay overhasty; that all that has been shown so far is a kind of behavior, but not the psychology that informs that behavior. One could also object that Carnival, executions and hrm chain-gangs represent extra-ordinary situations that do not reflect an everyday picture of the popular mind. Reno Vs Condon. For this, we must turn to the archaic mentality, as described by Mircea Eliade in high hrm, The Myth of the Eternal Return . #9;The main characteristics of the archaic mentality are most clearly discerned where its ritual imagery is most concentrated: namely, in the various forms of New Year rites. The basic elements of such rites, exemplified by the Babylonian New Year ceremony of akîtu as cited by Eliade, consist of the abolition of past time, the restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act (57). In fact, realization of the second intention accomplishes the first, since the blood brothers facts, restoration or return to primordial chaos projects the community into mythical time, to a time before Creation. (In akîtu, this is signified by the reading of the high, Enûma eli? , the classroom, epic of Creation, in which the god Marduk must fight and commitment hrm destroy the Great Dragon, Tiamat, in order to milton friedman free affect Creation.) Eliade's comments here make explicit the hrm, parallels with Carnival: #9;The first act of the [akîtu] ceremony represents the domination of Tiamat and thus marks a regression into the mythical period before the Creation; all forms are supposed to be confounded in milton friedman free, the marine abyss of the beginning, the apsu . Enthronement of a carnival king, humiliation of the real sovereign, overturning of the entire social order (according to Berossus, the high hrm, slaves became the reno vs condon, masters, and so on)--every feature suggests universal confusion, the high hrm, abolition of order and hierarchy, orgy, chaos (57). #9;The reading of the sacred epic has its parallel in the chaos of Carnival as well, insofar as the writing and public reading of innumerable parodies of Scripture and the Liturgy, in fact, all official writings, were a standard feature of Carnival. Bakhtin draws attention to this enormous body of reno vs condon, writings, which was accorded official status during the festival ( Rabelais 13).
#9;New Year rituals often included, or began, with ceremonies for both individual and communal purification (the expulsion of diseases, demons and high hrm sins). Eliade summarizes these ceremonies in broad outline as fasting, ablutions, purifications; extinguishing the fire and ritually rekindling it. expulsions of demons by Making Cougar, means of noises, cries, blows. followed by their pursuit through the village with uproar and high hrm hullabaloo (53). Blood Brothers Facts. Again, the symbolic abolitions of time take on a different register in commitment, the primordial chaos preceding re-Creation. Fasting, ablutions, and purifications become feasting, libations and profanation in Carnival. Reno Vs Condon. Extinguishing the fire (an act reserved for the adults) transforms into a filial responsibility; in the Roman Carnival's candlelight parade, the sons blow out their father's candle, crying out, sia ammazzato il signor Padre! ?Death to you, sir father!' ( Rabelais , 251). #9;I have focussed here principally on Carnival's restoration of high commitment, primordial chaos to locate its often inexplicable imagery in its larger context as a festival for the regeneration of time, but the repetition of the cosmogonic act is also present. In akîtu, the single gender, conquering of commitment, primordial chaos is finalized by the restored king's reënactment of Marduk's sacred marriage with Sarpan_t_ as a concrete realization of the ?rebirth' of the blood brothers, world and man (Eliade 50). For Carnival, the commitment, equivalent act is the restoration of the normal order of things. The mundanity of this, however, should not obscure that Carnival does in fact wholly reflect the intent of a New Year ritual: the single, abolition of past time, restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act, such that it denotes a repetition of the high commitment hrm, mythical moment of the passage from chaos to cosmos (34), the re-Creation of the world. #9;Eliade, then, lends an explanatory coherence to the overwhelming array of blood brothers facts, Carnival images Bakhtin (and to high commitment hrm a lesser extent, Foucault) presents. Single Classroom. Eliade also demonstrates the high, intense significance of Carnival indirectly that Bakhtin does not otherwise quite directly seem to justify.
But even though the coherence, context, intent and significance of Carnival may be said to be established (as a repetition of the definition of comic relief, divine act of Creation, and all that that entails), the high, mindset out of which this ritual originated is still unclear. In other words, why does what Eliade call the ?archaic mentality' utilize the technique of a repetition of the cosmogonic act at all? 	For traditional societies, all the important acts of life were revealed ab origine by gods or heroes. Brothers Facts. Men only repeat the exemplary and paradigmatic gestures ad infinitum (Eliade 32). As such, repetition (reënactment) of commitment hrm, a divine precedent obtains the divinity and sacredness of the original; Eliade provides several of such examples (29-34). More than this, however, an object or an act becomes real only insofar as it imitates or repeats an archetype. everything which lacks an exemplary model is ?meaningless', i.e., it lacks reality (34). As such, New Year rites (and Carnival) employ a repetition of the single gender, cosmogonic act because any other act would be meaningless.
#9;Carnival's repetition, then, literally projects it into the mythical time before Creation, such that one may say that its re-Creation exactly coincides with the original Creation. They become identical; re-Creation is Creation. Hrm. Since this is true for all repetitions of exemplary gestures, when an Sun, Moon and Talia individual repeats a divine precedent, an commitment hrm identification of deity and individual in mythical time occurs as well. An Exploration Of The Aging Cougar Society Essay. By this, it is clear that the public ritual (of Carnival or akîtu) has its analog in the personal life of its participants as well. High Commitment. As such, the definition of comic relief, abolition of time, restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act may all be ascribed to the mindset of the hrm, archaic mentality of definition, individuals.
#9;Eliade describes several other features of high hrm, this mentality. First, insofar as all real acts occur only in mythical time (through repetition), the brothers facts, archaic mentality may therefore be said to be ahistorical in nature. Thus, the abolition of time entailed by exemplary repetition may be more properly understood as an abolition of profane (non-sacred) time; time taken up by all the non-important acts of life not preserved as exemplary gestures in myth. Eliade later convincingly illuminates the advantages of such a view; principally that it makes the terror of commitment, history, with its suffering, misfortune, social injustice and so forth, tolerable . Moreover, by milton, being able to annul personal history: #9;archaic man recovers the possibility of definitely transcending time and living in eternity. Insofar as he fails to commitment do so, insofar as he sins, that is, falls into historical existence, into time, he each year thwarts the possibility. At least he retains the freedom to annul his faults, to wipe out the blood facts, memory of his fall into history, and to make another attempt to escape definitively from hrm, time (158).
#9;This access to freedom has a correlate implication of access to power and creativity. This is obvious in the re-creation of the world in Carnival, but every repetition involves the re-creation of a first gesture, and hence is an act performed for the first time. Eliade further demonstrates the single gender, ubiquity of this type of personal creative power as cosmogenesis in ritual: in temple building and for lands conquered by war, at hrm times of reno vs condon, coronation, consummation of marriage, and the birth of children, or as a response to bad crops, or even bad luck. #9;For the cosmos and man are regenerated ceaselessly and by all kinds of means, the past is destroyed, evils and high hrm sins are eliminated, etc. Differing in Making Diane: of the Within Essay, their formulas, all these instruments of regeneration tend toward the commitment hrm, same end: to Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis annul past time, to abolish history by a continuous return in illo tempore , by the repetition of the cosmogonic act (81). #9;One could critique the validity of this archaic mentality (as Eliade does to some extent), but the purpose of my discussion is high hrm only to establish the nature of the popular mindset as it informs a hypothetical archaic Utopia. As such, Eliade's assertion that the archaic mentality has served in good stead tens of millions. And Talia Book Analysis Essay. century after century (152) is perhaps less important than the fact that in 1949, when The Myth of the Eternal Return was originally published, Eliade could note that a very considerable fraction of the high hrm, population of Europe, to say nothing of other continents, still lives today by the light of the traditional, anti-?historicistic' viewpoint (152). #9;The archaic mentality's devaluation of history entails that it exists in a continual present (86). Time becomes a state of being (either sacred or profane), within which every sacred reënactment alludes to its divine counterpart. A similar conception exists in the archaic mentality with respect to space.
Every object in the world that is conceived of as sacred (hence, real) has also an extraterrestrial archetype, be it conceived as a plan, as a form, or purely and Sun, Moon Essay simply as a ?double' existing on a higher cosmic level (9); profane (ritually unsacralized) places do not have this archetype, and thus may be spoken of as non-real. ?Sacred', however, must not be understood as referring only to temples or the high, like; an entire city, or monarch's domain, may be ritually sacralized. As such, the archaic mentality sees itself mirrored in the celestial archetypes precisely as a sacred reënactment is mirrored by a simultaneous divine enactment. #9;For every sacred action, then, there is a coincident occurrence of action on the terrestrial and celestial planes. Definition Of Comic Relief. If the time of this action is the continual present, then it would seem that the place of hrm, this occurrence is an equally concrete absolute space. Such a continual present may be understood as comprised of discontinuous moments of time. (Why discontinuous? Imagine several pennies laid flat, edge to edge; each penny is a moment. Though touching, there yet remains a gap between each pair of coins; this gap represents the discontinuity of non-time between each moment.) Insofar as the pennies are not actually connected, by virtue of the gap, they might just as well be scattered everywhere, as placed edge to definition edge. This, because the width of the gap is irrelevant, since one does not traverse the gap to get from one moment to the next; rather, one simply remanifests anew within each moment, within each instance of the continual present. High Commitment. As such, every moment is radically now , and this suggests the parallel term for the archaic mentality's space, here . (Here is also discontinuous. We do not traverse the gap between one here and the next, but rather remanifest anew from one here to Diane: An Aging Essay the next.
We are always, and perpetually, here ; we can be nowhere else.) #9;As such, there is a radical integration of the individual into the here and now of sacred reality, that gains its meaning from the transcendental exempla and archetypes of the celestial planes. High Commitment. It might even be said that this reality-transcending meaning is not transcendental at all, insofar as the consciousness of definition of comic relief, its meaning is commitment wholly bound up in the utterly integrated here and blood facts now of the act. I will not insist on this further point, but will refer henceforth to this aspect of the archaic mentality as reality-integrating. #9;It is this mentality that provides the basis for the archaic Utopia, characterized by the reversibility of time (back to the Golden Age of new Creation), by a radical integration of the individual into commitment reality here and now, and informed (transcendentally or not) by divine meaning. As a symbol, the archaic Utopia's attainment of reno vs condon, Creation anew implies the attainment of those goals George Kateb has included as essential to Utopianism: peace, abundance, leisure, equality, consonance of men and hrm their environment ( Utopia and Its Enemies 11), but also adds hope, liberation (from authority and Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis Essay time), freedom of high, speech, power and creativity--all on behalf of the individual (as Carnival well illustrates).
It should also be pointed out single, that this archaic Utopia is temporary, recurrent and small-scale. #9;What, then, was lost, and what was retained, of high hrm, this archaic Utopia by its recontextualization and brothers revaluation as an official (literate and literary) Utopia? #9;The most fundamental change may be seen foremost in the archaic Utopia being written , which after a fashion also indicates the most faithful retention of archaic values. High Commitment. For example, the Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis, act of authorship is a cosmogonic act that implies as much freedom, power and creativity as Eliade imputes to the archaic mentality. (There are, of course, psychological and high hrm imaginative limits here, as well as constraints on freedom of speech if the book is meant to be published, but these limitations are also operative for the archaic mentality as well.) Even so, the very act of writing literally returns the author to the beginning, to a mythical time before Creation. Past time and real-world (profane) time are abolished and, like Marduk, the author confronts Tiamat's primordial chaos (chaos means gap in Greek) in the empty white page. A struggle ensues; and the author creates the cosmos from the fragments of reno vs condon, Tiamat's torn body (Eliade 55)--the remaining white space between the words, and even within the letters themselves--until Creation is complete.
The text, then, is literally a record of exemplary gestures made originally by a world-creator. #9;The analogy continues even more precisely at the level of the reader. By the act of reading, the exemplary gestures of the author are reënacted, such that the reader's act of re-Creation refigures the high commitment, original Creation in classroom, mythical time, and thus retains and reflects the freedom, power and creativity of the archaic mentality. Moreover, the distinction between deity-author and mortal-reader is also maintained, insofar as the author (if only in retrospect) knows the whole of the text omnisciently relative to the reader. This does not concern the reader, of course, who can re-start time and creation at high will (by re-reading phrases, or returning to page one), who can reorder Creation (by skipping pages, or to reno vs condon the end of the book), or who can suspend creation indefinitely by high, leaving it unfinished (partly read). As a repetition of cosmogenesis, then, the reader too abolishes profane time and projects into the mythical (fictional) time of pre-Creation; there to repeat (by reading) the exemplary gestures (text) of the original Creator; to Making of the Aging Society struggle with the oceanic vastness of commitment hrm, potential textual significations; and to emerge, finally, intact and victorious, having affected an individualized Creation (meaning). #9;In the reno vs condon, world of literature, it seems that the commitment, reader is typically of the reno vs condon, lowliest caste. By the act of reading, however, the tables are turned, as in commitment, the turvytopsy world of Carnival. The reader becomes the Carnival monarch; the true sovereign (the author) is humiliated, insofar as the Making of the Society, reader's interpretation of the text becomes sacrosanct, law, unchallengeable (unless the hrm, reader for definition of comic relief, some reason assents to a challenge). The reader sees the high commitment, world with a deity's eye (especially in third-person omniscient narration). Milton Free Market. Moreover, Carnival's free and familiar contact between people normally divided by caste becomes available to the reader, who can now (with sufficient library skills) travel everywhere and meet with everyone; even the spirits of the dead (those denizens of Carnival) may be visited, or come visiting.
Reading becomes a feast for the imagination, and the book a banquet for all the world ( Rabelais 278). If the novel is comic, then the festive laughter is self evident--the laughing reader is high a laughing divinity; if the brothers facts, novel is not comic, the festive laughter might still be asserted, in the sheer pleasure of reading itself. #9;Insofar as reading bears analogy with exemplary repetition, then the hrm, doubling (of sacred and reno vs condon celestial space, and high commitment hrm of reënacting and divine time) that radically integrates the individual into the here and now of reality informed by Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay, transcendental meaning holds for the act of reading as well. When reading, real-world space and time become shut out, so to speak. The specific here and now where reading occurs, suffused by the transcendental meaning of the text, may therefore be described as equally radically integrating, not escapist. It should be pointed out in addition that this author-book-reader Utopia is temporary, recurrent and small scale. Lastly, as the individual's archaic mentality may be said to be the commitment hrm, foundation for public-communal New Year ceremonies and Carnival, so also can solitary reading be adapted to a social scale, as the reno vs condon, initial ceremonial gesture of akîtu (reading the high commitment, Enûma eli? ), as a traditional aspect of Carnival (the reading of sacred parodies), or simply for the sake of communal reading (as at Beat happenings and English Department teas). #9;Given this almost total incorporation and reno vs condon reflection of the archaic Utopia in the very nature of authorship, literature and reading, it is therefore surprising that the main body of literary Utopias are relentlessly authoritarian: #9;The authoritarian Utopian State does not allow of any personality strong and independent enough to conceive of change or revolt. Since the utopian institutions are considered as perfect, it goes without saying that they cannot be capable of commitment hrm, improvement. The Utopian State is essentially static and does not allow its citizens to fight or even to dream of a better utopia.
#9;#9;This crushing of Making of the Aging Society Essay, man's personality often takes a truly totalitarian character (Berneri 7). #9;On one hand, these authoritarian elements manifest primarily within the text, at the level of commitment hrm, utopian representation, rather than at the level of the architectonic relation between author, text and reader. In other words, the content of the literary Utopia has changed relative to the archaic Utopia, but not its form. This kind of change seems to precisely parallel the Catholic Church's technique of relief, retaining the forms of pagan religion and festivals (such as the Winter Solstice), while substituting Christian content and significance (as Christmas), and commitment hrm clearly indicates the shift from unofficial (folk) culture to Sun, and Talia official (ruling) culture. Insofar as official culture is always authoritarian to high commitment hrm one degree or another, the authoritarianism of literary (official) Utopias is therefore no longer so surprising. #9;Literary Utopias are authoritarian also because they tend to share the Moon and Talia Analysis, official culture's valuation of the social over against a valuation of the individual. Of course, such social values are often little more than the commitment, ruling individuals' values imposed on the whole of milton market, society. High. As such, it is apparent that the single gender, universal freedom, power and creativity accessible to all within the archaic Utopia is claimed as belonging to high hrm only certain individuals in the official Utopia. This transformation of archaic values may be illustrated by the fact that in traditional cultures almost everything and all people were sacred; in of comic relief, later cultures, only certain places or people (e.g., temples and priests) were considered sacred. Consequently, the hrm, individual of the archaic Utopia vanishes, refigured as the masses and ruled by an individual who retains the sole right to the freedom, power and creativity of cosmogenesis in of comic, official Utopia.
This act of usurpation (literary or social) may have been legitimated on commitment, the basis of sheer power with respect (or disrespect) to the masses, who were neither trained nor equipped to prevent it, but power alone would be an insufficient legitimation vis-à-vis other literati or glitterati; usurpation simply because I can won't cut any ice amongst those who can as well. (Such a claim would provoke and reno vs condon justify ambitiousness in commitment hrm, others also.) One needs a sturdier basis for authority. #9;Recall that akîtu begins with the reading of the epic of of the Aging Within Society, Creation. As I have already noted, the very act of high commitment, writing is cosmogonic, but by transcribing the epic of Creation, the milton market, theme of Creation becomes not only the structural principle (as writing), but also the object of representation. As such, reading the epic represents another method for repeating the exemplary gesture of Marduk, that nevertheless remains invested with the sacredness (and hence, reality) of commitment, actual, ritual reënactment. It is this retention of sacredness and reality that precisely leads to the investiture of divine authority in blood brothers facts, the very text itself. Probably all Scripture obtains its authority in this manner, and this authority is absolute. There is no question of commitment, subjective authorial bias, since the writing is already divinely sanctioned as an exemplary repetition of gender, oral tradition. That the written word is high commitment absolute, incontestable and sacred is nowhere better illustrated than by the fact that at the very heart of the Hebrew's temple, in the Holy of Holies, was the definition of comic, Ark of the Covenant (which it was death to touch) that contained the Word of God.
#9;Authority among the ruling and literate classes, then, derives partly from sheer power, and is partly augmented by documents. It would no doubt be excessive to claim that all literature may be genealogically traced to high commitment hrm Sacred Writ, but some influence is impossible to deny. In the very act of Exploration Aging Within Society Essay, writing Scripture, the temporary aspect of the high commitment hrm, archaic Utopia (the temporaneity of the very repetition itself) becomes permanent. Definition Of Comic Relief. Moreover, the universal quality of sacredness becomes absolutely embodied in the text. In a sense, the text is the first usurper of high commitment, cosmogonic freedom, power and creativity hitherto accessible to all; it is the first to deny universal rights to relief all, and to hrm claim them for itself. As an absolute sovereign or deity, its claims encompass the whole world, and do not refrain from mandating both the definition relief, large details (sexual and economic relations) and high the small details of a person's life. Many literary Utopias have taken up this tendency with a vengeance. #9;In contrast, then, to reno vs condon the temporary, recurrent and small-scale archaic Utopia, the official Utopia is permanent and world-scale. The official Utopia promises peace, abundance, leisure, equality, consonance of men and their environment, but must do so at the expense of the individual's liberation, freedom of high hrm, speech, freedom, power and creativity.
In spite of this authoritarianism though, one should never lose sight of the almost equally universal good intentions of most literary Utopists. Thus, instead of Essay, liberation, the Utopist proposes service ( not ?enslavement') to Utopia's central authority; power becomes loyalty (that relies on the sovereign's power); freedom is purchased as the price for high commitment hrm, security (in exchange for service); creativity may be granted the patronage of the arts (only very rarely), or becomes limited to being rewarded for innovations in Sun, Analysis Essay, the workplace, for example, that increase production. In all of these somewhat questionable proposals, one might discern the faint traces of Carnival's spirit of parodic inversion--a kind of commitment, unpleasant, official humor. On a more abstract level, insofar as the Moon Analysis, archaic Utopia affects a radical integration of the high, individual into the here and now (informed by transcendental meaning), the gender classroom, official Utopia affects a radical transcendence of high hrm, a society toward a then and Making Diane: Exploration of the Aging Society there (informed by a wholly immanent meaning). In Ideology Utopia , Karl Mannheim provides a similar definition: #9;Every concretely operating order of life is to be conceived and characterized most clearly by means of the high commitment hrm, particular economical and political structure on which it is based. But it embraces also all those forms of human living together (specific forms of single gender classroom, love, sociability, conflict, etc.) which the commitment hrm, structure makes possible or requires; and also all those modes and forms of definition of comic, experience and thought which are characteristic of this social system and are consequently congruous with it. But every actually operating order of life is at the same time enmeshed by conceptions which are to be designated as transcendent or unreal because their contents can never be realized in the societies in which they exist, and because one could not live and act according to them within the limits of the existing social order. #9;#9;In a word, all those ideas which do not fit into the current order are situationally transcendent or unreal (194). #9;Insofar as such a utopian ideal is situationally transcendent relative to the status quo, Utopia itself could only high hrm exist in some there and then, not in the here and now. Moreover, it should be obvious that if one of such utopian ideas ever succeeded in single gender, being implemented, it would immediately cease to commitment hrm be Utopia, becoming instead the new operating order of life; More's pun on Utopia (?good place'-?no place') fits perfectly with Mannheim's definition. This sense of Utopia as then and brothers there, which is so characteristic of the official Utopia, will henceforth be referred to as reality-transcending.
#9;As noted previously, satire and parody do not directly present folk laughter, but represent it indirectly from within a recontextualization of official values. A similar development is commitment hrm apparent in Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay, the literary history of Utopia. High Commitment Hrm. As folk laughter split into two forms of official laughter (satire and parody), so too does the archaic Utopia split into two strands of official Utopia. These two strands will be explored more below, but first, something must be said about the reno vs condon, nature of the contrast between them, by way of high hrm, analogy. #9;Previously, I characterized satire as revolution, and parody as renovation, and further noted their shared target (official culture) and comedic nature; it is Moon Book Analysis tactics and high intent (revolution versus renovation) that especially distinguishes the one from the other. At the heart of definition of comic relief, these genres, however, (and in commitment hrm, fact in all official culture, including literature), there is a logical tautology. Broadly speaking, the satiric world-view may be said to see things along a continuum from Civilization to ?folk-culture' (demonized as vulgarity, barbarity, incivility and so forth). The parodic world-view, by contrast, sees things along a continuum from Civilization (criticized as decadent or absurd) to ?folk culture' (idealized as genuine or true life).
As such, both satire and parody appear to employ a Civilization-folk culture dichotomy, though with markedly different accents. This dichotomy, however, is not a true opposition, insofar as real folk culture is not included in the opposition (as is suggested by the demonization and idealization). Definition Relief. The opposition is actually not an commitment opposition at all, and rather should be indicated as Civilization-Civilization; it is simply just different kinds of civilized civilizations arguing for ascendancy and power, with characteristic disregard for the masses each would dominate once in Sun, Moon Analysis, power. #9;Precisely the same kind of false dichotomy exists between the two historical strands of literary Utopias. Ostensibly, the dichotomy appears to high hrm be a Society-Individual dyad, but in fact it is and Talia Analysis Essay actually a Society-Society debate in which different kinds of socialized societies are vying for ascendancy.
This is perhaps least apparent in the contrast between the Socialist Utopia and science fiction (?fantastyka') Utopia, and is still somewhat tenuous in the contrast between the bourgeois Utopia (exemplified by Richardson's novels) and high commitment hrm the Gothic Utopia. (This will be explored further below, but for now I will simply mention that the weddings that end many of the earlier feminine Gothic novels precisely indicate the heroine's individual achievement of establishing the market, society of a home.) In the contrast between the Renaissance Utopia (exemplified by More's) and the Arcadian Utopia, the high commitment hrm, opposed values of city and country most clearly bring out the fundamental Society-Society pseudodichotomy at single classroom work in the genre. #9;Even as this appears to be the case, there would be a certain artificiality in insisting on the point as regards developments in literary Utopias. False as the Society-Individual dyad might be at root, there is no question that it more accurately meets the literary Utopia on its own ground. It may well be that the individualistic pleas for a more genuine life, for liberation, or for a world of future possibilities coming from the high commitment, mouths of the inhabitants of Arcadia, the feminine Gothic, and fantastyka are finally (consciously or not) merely self-serving, but at Moon Book Analysis Essay the very least, these cries are imaged in commitment, individuals and as such still retain their link with the of comic relief, archaic Utopia's assertion of commitment, individual value. It is this ancient and often tenuous link that prompts me to term this strand (Arcadia-Gothic-Fantastyka) of the reno vs condon, two lines of high hrm, literary Utopia as unofficial.
As such, the other, more typically authoritarian, strand (More-Richardson-Chernyshevsky) will henceforth be termed official. #9;In general, then, the official Utopia values and definition of comic advocates Society; the unofficial Utopia champions the Individual. Consequently, the former will tend to suppress the individual voice; that is, such suppression will tend to high hrm be reflected in brothers, an authorial monologism, as defined by Bakhtin above. Hrm. Hence, he correctly notes, Everything capable of meaning can be gathered together in one consciousness and subordinated to brothers facts a unified accent; whatever does not submit to hrm such a reduction is accidental and unessential. All of single gender classroom, European utopianism was likewise built on hrm, this monologic principle ( Problems 82). For the most part, the unofficial Utopia is equally monologic in authorial treatment (i.e., at the level of style and reno vs condon structure), but at commitment hrm the level of content belies a more, if only relatively, polylogic nature. It is primarily in the individualized voices of the Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis Essay, unofficial strand (the dialogists of Arcadia, the heroine of the feminine Gothic, the liberation of ideas in Eastern European fantastyka) that this relative sense of polylogism arises. #9;Having thus characterized the general nature of the official and unofficial literary Utopia, it now becomes possible to examine the specific manifestations of such Utopias in high commitment, their historical development. Exploration Cougar. The first step in this direction, however, must be to abandon the two, quite traditional, definitions of Utopia Berneri cites in her Bibliography: An Utopia has been defined, in the Encyclopedia Britannica , as ?an ideal commonwealth whose inhabitants exist under perfect conditions' . But a utopia has also been defined as ?an imaginary conception of an ideal government' ( Dictionaire Général de la Langue Française ) (320). #9;Why this must be done may be adduced from the first several selections in Berneri's work.
To illustrate: Plato's Republic is purely theoretical, such that we never go to Utopia; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus is ostensibly a history; and Aristophanes' The Clouds and Ecclesiazusae are parodic Utopias. In the medieval extraordinary voyage of St. Brendan, Utopia figures as an allegory for Paradise; for St. Augustine, Utopia is the City of God. Northrop Frye would defend all of these as quite proper to the history of literary Utopias; Still, the attainment of the high hrm, City of reno vs condon, God in literature must be classified as a form of utopian fiction , its most famous literary treatment being the Purgatorio and Paradiso of high commitment hrm, Dante (Varieties of Literary Utopias 34, my emphasis). #9;The fact, however, that Frye refers to forms of reno vs condon, utopian fiction, rather than to fictive Utopias, should serve to make clear that such works as those noted above (as well as others, e.g., the Greek utopian novel) indicate a utopian discourse that is similar to commitment the novelistic discourse Bakhtin identifies as predating the novel, and that will provide the foundation for Utopia itself. Sun, Moon Analysis. It is not until the commitment hrm, Renaissance, then, that the disparate strands of this utopian discourse will finally be joined, most representatively in the official Utopia of Thomas More, and its unofficial counterpart of Arcadia. #9;There are four predominant features of single gender, More's Utopia that particularly bear commentary, especially as they establish major conventions for later official Utopias: these are Utopia 's monologism, its definitive formulation of the high hrm, travelogue format, its solution to Making Exploration Aging the literary problem of the hrm, depiction of an entire world-society, and its social criticism. #9;The first three features are interrelated, as may be readily demonstrated.
#9;In order to depict Utopia, More dramatizes what Socrates, Glaukon and others merely discuss in definition of comic, The Republic ; in fact, the Second Book of Utopia can be described as a mobile Socratic dialogue. (Book One, which is trenchantly critical of 16th century England, adapts the Socratic dialogue to this purpose as well, but is wholly stationary.) This explicit separation of More's social criticism (Book One) and visionary utopianism (Book Two), though each may obviously be said to high hrm inform the Sun, Moon and Talia Book, other, is high indicative of the reno vs condon, work's monologism. All novels characteristically incorporate disparate genre-types into their texts; monologic novels, however, tend to keep such incorporations discretely separate from one another. #9;Further, More employs the travelogue device of a guided tour to present Utopia to high hrm the protagonist (and the An Exploration Within, reader); a device that inevitably tends to produce a somewhat monocular view of the high commitment hrm, place toured (much as Soviet tours once did). The fact that this one-sidedness is a structural-generic consequence of the guided tour device might be said to mitigate the relief, imputation of authoritarianism against More and high hrm like-minded Utopists. Even so, the distribution of authority and speaking power between the tour guide and the tourist is inordinately in the former's favor; as Frye remarks, As a rule the guide is completely identified with his society and blood facts seldom admits to any discrepancy between the commitment hrm, reality and reno vs condon the appearance of high hrm, what he is describing (Varieties 26). Though he recognizes that this is inevitable given the definition of comic, conventions employed (26), that the guide tends to speak with a pervading smugness of commitment, tone (26) cannot be explained in terms of convention; rather, it should be understood as reflecting authorial monologism. #9;One of the Moon Book Analysis, apparently trivial details of Utopia is its attention to trivial details; a habit picked up by a distressing number of subsequent official Utopias. On one hand, this reflects More's effort to depict the entire world of Utopia--not by commitment, a detailed litany of literally everything, but rather by a selection of those details that artfully suggest everything. (Tolstoy is one of the true masters at milton friedman market discovering such essential details.) On the other hand, Foucault notes that in the classical age a meticulous attention to detail, and at the same time a political awareness of these small things, for the control and commitment hrm use of men (141, my emphasis) begins to crystallize, but the roots of the phenomenon are far older. In fact, one could trace this attention to market detail for the hold it provides for the power that wishes to hrm seize it (140), for the access to the control of others it grants, to that exemplary model of niggling details, Scripture. It may in fact partially be Utopia 's generic link with the Bible (though More's Utopia is not a Christian State) that explains the Sun, Book Analysis Essay, bizarrely ritualistic mandates on high commitment, sexual relations between husbands and wives in the book. (In fact, many official Utopias, including Huxley's Brave New World , reflect similarly bizarre strictures.) Again, as with the definition of comic relief, guided tour, the authorial intent to depict the world through details on one hand mitigates an commitment hrm apparent authoritarianism that is an blood accidental consequence of that intent, but which at the same time contributes to high hrm the overwhelmingly monologic nature of the book. #9;Monologism is apparent in the socially critical element of the definition, novel as well, insofar as the social criticism (apt as it is) seems more a rhetorical device for making Utopia seem that much more perfect.
One can only wonder, for instance, how seriously one should take More's concern for the plight of the poor and dispossessed in high, Book One, when slavery is an institution in Utopia (Book Two); in fact, the question is hardly moot. More's pun on Utopia is not the only one in Sun, Book Essay, the book: The name for hrm, founder of Utopia, Utopus means he who has no people; the capital, Amaurot, means Shadowy town. Berneri notes, Of the use of these facetious Greek names G.C. Richards remarks that More meant those acquainted with Greek to see through his fiction (Berneri 68n). This may well be true, but the facetious names could also have served to protect More (humanist and friend of Erasmus) from milton, any authorities angered by his non-Christian (humanist) Utopia; he could have answered any charges to the effect, What? You thought I was serious? I called the place ?Nowhere,' and so forth. #9;However, with respect to high the history of literary Utopias, the Exploration Aging Society, specific content and commitment hrm seriousness of intent of More's social criticism is of lesser significance than its rhetorical character. It would seem to Making Diane: An of the Aging Cougar Society Essay be this rhetorical character that explains the odd blend of ostensible social sensitivity and despotism one typically finds in hrm, official Utopias. It finally seems as if the social criticism is less genuine than it appears; that it is rather a kind of tactic for making the Utopist's social arrangements more attractive.
Again, though, it does not seem plausible to deny More's, or later official Utopists', good intentions; it's just that the road to Hell is paved with good intentions. #9;The static character of More's Utopia , and the bulk of subsequent official Utopias, may also be understood as an definition relief indirect consequence of monologism, insofar as both the guided tour device and high commitment extreme attention to detail naturally do not permit a great deal of narrative dynamism. The narrative movement from brothers, scene to high commitment scene is very placid and within each scene the explanations of the tour guide take precedence over the activities witnessed. This static quality, in fact, would seem to be a carryover from the discussion and debate of free market, Book One (as a kind of symposium without food), which belies a certain intellectual movement, but precious little physical. #9;Again, this may be understood as a consequence of commitment hrm, More's solution to the literary problem of depicting an entire world-society. The famous map of Utopia that More provides as a frontispiece to his book, a device that has since become de rigeur in the fantasy genre, exemplifies the official Utopia's tendency toward static states. In the genre of the map, all time is suspended; Utopia becomes static (as well as permanent and world-scale) and objectified in the most literal way.
With the device of the guided tour, which similarly relies on free, an acutely necessary objectification, time is no longer wholly suspended, but remains thoroughly subordinated to space. Since More wants us to see everything, nothing can happen off-stage while we are not looking; hence, his narrative bears a similarity to those science fiction narratives in which a protagonist moves amongst the inhabitants of a world who have somehow become frozen in time. In a sense, then, More's guided tour of Utopia takes place in a single moment of time; that is, by affecting a unity of time, with its consequential staticness, More becomes able to high realize the ideal space of his Utopia. #9;By contrast, the unofficial Utopia of reno vs condon, Arcadia had to commitment hrm solve a different literary problem: the depiction of single gender classroom, time--specifically, pastoral-idyllic time. Commitment Hrm. Under idyllic time, as characterized by Bakhtin, life is severely limited to a few. basic realities. Love, birth, death, marriage, labor, food and drink, stages of growth ( The Dialogic Imagination 225) that all occur within, and are inseparable from, a unity of place; the Making An of the Aging Society, familiar territory with all its nooks and crannies, its familiar mountains, valleys, fields, rivers and hrm one's own home. where the fathers and definition grandfathers lived and where one's children and their children will live (225). This unity of place, then, allows the depiction of high hrm, generations (time), less as a biographical progression than as the simultaneous being together of children and the aged, and the middle-aged, who are at once both parents and children.
Bakhtin further asserts that the mixing together of milton friedman market, these age categories thereby engenders that cyclic rhythmicalness of high hrm, time so characteristic of the idyll (225). Single Gender Classroom. As such, the unofficial Utopia of high commitment, Arcadia reflects a dynamic quality, a rhythmicalness that is tied as well to Making Within the rhythms of Nature, quite distinct from the official (static) Utopia. #9;Arcadia is high not precisely contemporary with More's Utopia. In fact, as part of the Sun, and Talia Book Analysis, pastoral tradition, it has a very ancient lineage, which Northrop Frye conveniently summaries in Anatomy of Criticism: #9;We think first of the pastoral's descent from Theocritus, where the hrm, pastoral elegy first appears as a literary adaptation of the friedman market, ritual of the hrm, Adonis lament, and through Theocritus to Virgil and the whole pastoral tradition to The Shepeardes Calendar and beyond to Lycidas itself. Then we think of the intricate pastoral symbolism of the bible and the Christian Church, of Abel and the twenty-third Psalm and Christ the Making Diane: Exploration Aging Cougar Within Society, Good Shepherd, of the high, ecclesiastical overtones of pastor and flock, and of the link between the Classical and Christian traditions in Virgil's Messianic Eclogue. Then we think of the extensions of pastoral symbolism into Sidney's Arcadia , The Faerie Queene , Shakespeare's forest comedies, and the like (99-100). #9;The close association of pastoral-idyllic literature with Nature would probably already have alerted the literary historian to its links with folk culture; that its roots may be found in the Adonis lament make the links obvious, insofar as Adonis is one of the milton friedman market, dismembered-regenerating vegetation figures of mythology. It is significant as well that the pastoral-idyllic tradition is inaugurated as a literary adaptation of an high hrm actual ritual. This is precisely the same kind of development I cited in the transformation of myth into Scripture (or the archaic into definition the literary Utopia). High. Consequently, one would therefore expect to find recontextualized and revalued folk culture in Arcadia. #9;This in fact proves to be the case, as may be somewhat sardonically demonstrated by noting the transformation of people into sheep in the Christian pastoral tradition.
A remark by Bakhtin further suggests this recontextualization and revaluation, in less insulting terms. He notes that all the basic life-realities of the Within, idyll are not presented in their naked realistic aspect (as in high commitment hrm, Petronius) but in a softened and to Diane: An of the Cougar Society Essay a certain extent sublimated form. Thus sexuality is almost always incorporated into the idyll only in sublimated form ( The Dialogic Imagination 226). This sublimation is indicative of hrm, a refining or civilizing modification to the otherwise typically frank (i.e., ?vulgar') attitude of folk culture, especially with regard to sexuality. #9;Although the formulation of Arcadia, as part of the much longer pastoral-idyllic tradition, is not strictly contemporaneous with More's Utopia , the milieu of the Renaissance, with its strongly court-centered and urban culture, would have almost automatically prompted a renewed interest in, and significance for, the Nature of Arcadia.
Moreover, the disintegrating social conditions Utopia criticizes (such as urban crime and poverty, partly as a result of the economic displacement of peasants into the city due to the onset of the assault on the land that would later manifest fully as the enclosure movement), generally suggests two solutions: better cities (Utopia), or a return to the land (Arcadia). Northrop Frye reaches a similar conclusion, though he disallows that Arcadia is strictly utopian (Varieties 41). #9;Nevertheless, he admits that the Arcadian ideal reflects simplicity, equality--a society of shepherds without distinction of class (41)--peace and leisure; the arts appear spontaneously, as these shepherds were assumed to have natural musical and poetic gifts (41). And, by contrast to the sexual taboos of Utopia, in Arcadia making love is a major occupation, requiring much more time and attention than the sheep (41). #9;Arcadia also reflects two ideals almost wholly unknown to the official Utopia. Frye asserts that the pastoral is a type of romantic comedy ( Anatomy 43), and that the theme of the comic is the integration of society (43). As such, the pastoral (and hence, Arcadia) may be described as reality-integrating. #9;[I]t puts an emphasis on the integration of man with his physical environment. The utopia is a city, and it expresses rather the human ascendancy over nature, the domination of the single gender classroom, environment by abstract and conceptual mental patterns. In the pastoral, man is at high commitment peace with nature, which implies that he is also at peace with his own nature, the reasonable and the natural being associated.
In the second place, the blood brothers, pastoral, by high hrm, simplifying human desires, throws more stress on the satisfaction of such desires as remain, especially, of course, sexual desire. Thus it can accommodate, as the typical utopia cannot, something of that outlawed and furtive social ideal known as the Land of of comic, Cockayne, the fairyland where all desires can be instantly gratified (Varieties 41). #9;The seeming identification here between Cockayne and Arcadia, as well as Frye's disavowal of Arcadia's utopian nature noted above, must be taken issue with. Of course, if one defines Utopia as Frye does, as a city, then obviously Arcadia cannot be Utopia, but such a definition is high commitment hrm too limited, and friedman causes Frye to commitment accept the official (urban) Utopia of Making Diane: Aging Cougar Society Essay, More as definitive, and to overlook the unofficial (rural-arboreal) Utopia of high hrm, Arcadia. #9;With regard to Cockayne, Bakhtin notes, There was a popular cycle of legends about the utopian land of gluttony and idleness (for instance, the fabliau of the pays de Cocagne ) ( Rabelais 297). Not only does this brief remark emphasize a utopian element, the popular nature of Diane: An Exploration of the Essay, Cockayne should also caution one against its automatic identification with the literary Arcadia; the link between the two, rather, must be recognized in the recontextualization of the former in accordance with the literate values of the latter. #9;Having thus clarified the nature of Arcadia, further aspects may now be explored. For one, Arcadia may be distinguished from Utopia as a generic setting, usable by any number of poets or later novelists; it is, in a fairly concrete sense, communally owned. (With the official Utopia, each author posited a separate island, city, or continent.) As a generic setting, then, Arcadia reflects a multi-voicedness not found in the official Utopia.
This relatively greater degree of polylogism is expressed, not only at the structural level of genre, but also at the level of representation within the text. Insofar as Arcadia typically depicts generations of high hrm, people, this multi-voicedness is self-evident, but there is also a comparatively greater degree of equality of speech, compared to the unequal distribution of authority and speaking power reflected in the guided tour device of the official Utopia. #9;This greater equality may be readily discerned in the playful and variously ribald encounters between any number of 17th century Stellas and Astrophels; George Williamson, in fact, notes precisely a casuistic dialogue on love ( Seventeenth Century Contexts 64) as the distinguishing feature of such encounters. Without a presumed equality of speech, of course, such a dialogue would become quite pointless, and lose all of market, its charm. Neither can the importance of the theme of love (as the sublimation of sexuality in Arcadia) be underestimated, as it signifies the unofficial Utopia's counterdiscourse to the sexual prohibitions of the official Utopia. In this at least minimal way, Arcadia may be said to commitment advocate individual desires over against the social desires advocated by the official Utopia. #9;Despite the relatively polylogic generic setting and quality of romantic encounter in Arcadia, the authorial treatment of individual texts nevertheless remains strictly conventional, such that monologism remains wholly in effect. (Insofar as poetry aspires to the condition of a unity of voice, such monologism cannot necessarily be deemed a demerit in Arcadian poetry.) In tracing the development of the casuistic dialogue on love from Sidney to Donne's The Extasie , Williamson cites one interpretation of Donne's poem that indicates the blood brothers facts, most complete realization of such authorial monologism (as poetic unity); In Donne's poem by a characteristic subtlety the dialogue is reduced to a monologue spoken by high commitment hrm, the undistinguished soul of the two lovers (64). #9;To expect a plurality of blood brothers facts, voices in Arcadian poetry (or any poetry) is generally hopeless, and indicates why Bakhtin (and I after him) would seek it instead in high commitment, the novel. Consequently, Bakhtin ascribes considerable significance to the idyll and definition of comic idyllic time (hence, Arcadia) in high commitment hrm, later developments of the novel, in single classroom, either a positive and direct sense (as incorporated into high the Sentimental, family-generational and brothers facts provincial novel genres), or in a negative and hrm indirect sense (as a kind of time to be superceded, principally in the Bildungsroman ). This, because idyllic time (as the officially revalued version of folk time) may be described as circular, and hence closed. In contrast to this circular conception of time, writers such as Goethe, Pascal and Leibniz propose a linear, and hence open, conception. Eliade traces the origins of reno vs condon, this latter progressive view of time to Christian eschatology, which waged an ongoing battle with the cyclical nature of high commitment hrm, folk time (143-6).
#9;It should be clear that cyclical is not identical to circular; specifically, the cyclical nature of folk time (and the archaic mentality that perceives it) is not closed. However, by revaluing this cyclicity as circular, Arcadia thereby comes to reflect a kind of time (and hence society) that is open to the charge of stagnation, moribundness and of comic relief so forth. Precisely what has been lost in this shift of conceptions is the high, regenerating aspect of cyclical time. In spite of this misconception, Arcadia nevertheless affects a realization of ideal time that parallels the official Utopia's realization of ideal space. As such, both represent culminations or milestones in the genre of the literary Utopia that (like all milestones) both implicitly and explicitly point the way to new literary directions; milestones, moreover, that entailed both positive and gender classroom negative consequences. #9;On the high hrm, negative side, insofar as time is viewed as circular in Arcadia and static in Utopia, the images of time we have inherited in literature (especially as stripped of its regenerating capacity) are patently inadequate. Time thus viewed becomes an inescapable trap, and its tone (as in all official culture) becomes deadly serious. Laughter can only single gender classroom become ironic or cynical under such conditions; pleasure begins to take on that sadomasochistic quality so evident in hrm, the Romantics.
At the end of Stanislaw Lem's Solaris , published in 1961, one character aptly summarizes all of these modern themes: #9;We all know that we are material creatures, subject to the laws of reno vs condon, physiology and physics, and not even the high, power of all our feelings combined can defeat those laws. All we can do is detest them. Making An Exploration Of The Society Essay. The age-old faith of hrm, lovers and poets in the power of love, stronger than death, that finis vitae sed non amoris , is a lie, useless and not even funny. Milton. So must one be resigned to being a clock that measures the high commitment, passage of time, now out of order, now repaired, and whose mechanism generates despair and love as soon as its maker sets it going? Are we to grow used to the idea that every man relives ancient torments, which are all the more profound because they grow comic with repetition? That human existence should repeat itself, well and good, but that it should repeat itself like a hackneyed tune, or a record a drunkard keeps playing as he feeds coins into the jukebox. (204). (This should not be taken as the final word in Diane: An Exploration of the Cougar Society, Lem's novel, as the question marks and final ellipsis suggest; Lem rarely, if ever, provides a final word in any case.) #9;Eliade might add that the commitment, closed or static impression of reno vs condon, time engendered by Utopia and Arcadia, insofar as they present negative examples usable to argue in favor of linear time, thereby helped to condemn humanity to the terror of history, to the irreversibility of historical time in its progressive (linear) conception; that Utopia and Arcadia helped to make time into history, which subsequently became Joyce's nightmare. As I have sketched it here, Eliade's contention might seem like a bare assertion; a fuller exposition, which would be out of place here, may be found in the last chapter of The Myth of the Eternal Return (141-162). For now, I will simply note that the official distinction between the circular and the linear views of time (as opposed to the more accurate distinction between the high commitment, cyclical and the linear conceptions Eliade presents) is somewhat fatuous. In the same way that official culture stripped folk laughter of Sun, Book, its profoundly significant regenerating aspect (thus rendering it merely frivolous or destructive), a similar stripping was performed on folk time (thus rendering it stagnant or indolent). It has only been in high hrm, this century that a more accurate conception of folk time as cyclical, not circular, has been rediscovered by the Western intelligentsia; in the interim, we have been struggling with only half of the equation (a linear, irreversible time) at our disposal.
#9;On the positive side, the realizations of ideal space and time affected by Diane: An Exploration Within, Utopia and Arcadia, respectively, realized also a set of literary conventions as exemplary models to be explored and exploited by later generations. As Bakhtin notes, the love idyll was able to serve as the foundation for various types of novels, and could enter as a component into other novels (for example, those of Rousseau) ( The Dialogic Imagination 226), as well as the family idyll and the provincial novel. Utopia's guided tour, on the other hand, provided a basis for the innumerable memoirs and high hrm first-hand accounts written by explorers during a particularly exploratory age. As such, the reno vs condon, realized ideals of high commitment hrm, Utopia and Arcadia became the idealized realities of actually explored land and personally experienced time. In both cases, consciousness (personality) begins to infiltrate the Diane: Exploration of the Aging Within Essay, official and unofficial branches of literary Utopias. #9;This shift is commitment especially obvious in later titles of single gender classroom, Utopias. After the commitment, Renaissance (which includes, along with More's Utopia, such places as Campanella's City of the Sun,, Sun, Bacon's New Atlantis, Andrae's Christianopolis, Hartlib's Macaria and commitment Gott's Nova Solyma), a place like Harrington's Oceana, published in 1656, becomes very rare, to reno vs condon be replaced with memoirs, such as The Life, Adventures and Voyage to Greenland of the Reverend Father P. High Commitment Hrm. de Mésange, Gulliver's Travels, or The Memoirs of Gaudence de Luques . This shift is less obvious in the Arcadian branch of literary Utopias, but may still be sensed, insofar as the focus of the novel becomes centered on an individual consciousness (e.g., the novel of education or the Bildungsroman ); Rousseau's Emile and Goethe's Wilhelm Meister may be considered exemplary in this respect. #9;In general, this shift from realized ideals to idealized realities seems to vindicate Mannheim's conception of Utopia as situationally transcendent relative to the present but realizable in the future. As previously noted, however, an implemented Utopia is no longer Utopia, but becomes rather the operating order of life, the very status quo that Utopia is supposed to situationally transcend. (It might also be added that the very existence of literary Utopias violate Mannheim's definition, insofar as such Utopias are precisely realizable in the present as texts.) In this respect alone, it would seem to disallow that the idealized realities of memoirs and Bildungsromane warrant designation as literary Utopias, though obviously they comprise a part of utopian discourse. On a more intuitive level, there is not a strong enough sense of a specific and reno vs condon concrete place or time in these idealized realities to high seem persuasively like literary Utopias. Single Classroom. As such, one might say that Utopia and Arcadia per se vanish after the Renaissance.
This disappearance, however, is not permanent, as may be seen by high, examining the official Utopia of the bourgeoisie, and the unofficial Utopia of the feminine Gothic. #9;The rise of the middle-classes to power brought with it an extraordinary upheaval of social life that amounted to a complete reinterpretation of all aspects of culture, including Utopia. One of these cultural revisions, as examined by free market, Kate Ferguson Ellis in The Contested Castle , was the formulation of the ideology of separate spheres. This new ideology proposes a gender division and rigorous separation of the worlds of masculine work and feminine domesticity, based on, and dignified by, Biblical and Miltonic ( Paradise Lost ) authority. As such, work occurs in the fallen world (with the husband as a post-lapsarian Adam), while domesticity occurs in the home (with the wife as a pre-lapsarian and high innocent Eve). #9;The redefinition of feminine gender-roles, over against the aristocratic images of women (as slaves to milton free their sexual passions and appetites) and in conjunction with the middle-class conceit of moral superiority, led to a conception of Eve (woman) that endowed her with the capacity to reclaim what she originally lost for all. It is woman's superior virtue, her implicit sense of commitment, morality that is self-evidently greater than man's, that especially qualifies Eve for this role. As such, this virtue, along with its correlate passionlessness (i.e., sexlessness), coupled with Eve's socially divine mission of Making Diane: Aging Within Society, domestic redemption, creates the image of woman as an innocent domestic angel.
A similarly total redefinition of masculine gender-roles (perhaps most completely realized in Richardson's Sir Charles Grandison ) is based on both the high hrm, morality of the Protestant work ethic and the civilizing conceits of early capitalism; as Adam Ulam has remarked, in Making Exploration of the Cougar, Socialism and Utopia, Free enterprise was considered not only socially beneficent but also morally imperative (124). However, this redefinition bears only indirectly on the history of literary Utopia, insofar as the foci of the hrm, bourgeois Utopia are the home and its resident domestic angel. #9;The reduction of the official Utopia from Making Diane: An of the Aging Within, island or continent to home precisely reflects a diminution of commitment, scale that characterizes what Frye has termed the low mimetic mode ( Anatomy 34), and for which Bakhtin provides a similar formulation, as characteristic of the pathos of the Sentimental psychological novel: The didactic purpose behind this Sentimental pathos is tied to more concrete situations, descends to the depths of everyday life, its smallest details, to single classroom intimate relations between people and into the internal life of the individual person ( The Dialogic Imagination 396). #9;On one hand, this diminution represents a reaction to the historical enormity of the Baroque novel, but as Bakhtin goes on to correctly note, [i]t is not a matter of high commitment, scale, but rather of a special organization of space (397). This special organization of space indubitably has its links with the kind of attention to Making Diane: Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Society Essay detail and high commitment the emergence of what Foucault has referred to as the disciplinary society; in the first instance, discipline proceeds from the distribution of free market, individuals in space. Discipline organizes an high analytical space (141,143). The home is not so small as it may first seem, as the cliche A man's home is his castle and the maxim the home is an island of sanity in Moon, a mad world attest.
Home therefore represents the bourgeois Utopia's revision of More's official castle. There is a further parallel as well, insofar as there were several castles on More's island. As Raymond Williams notes (citing Austen as exemplary): #9;Neighbors in Jane Austen are not the people actually living nearby; they are the people living a little less than nearby who, in social recognition, can be visited. What she sees across the land is a network of propertied houses and families, and through the holes of this tightly drawn mesh most actual people are simply not seen. To be face-to-face in this world is already to belong to a class. No other community, in physical presence or in high, social reality, is by any means knowable (166). #9;As such, More's island has become the bourgeois island of class, with yawning abysses between each castle. #9;In attempting to realize this ideal class-space, the official bourgeois Utopia seems to have automatically adopted the authoritarian nature of gender, its official forebears. Home arrogates to high commitment itself the authority of a castle; the father-husband becomes king; royal benevolent despotism becomes paternalism; the definition of comic relief, mother-wife and children become ornamental subjects.
In such a context, not only must father know best, but also, since the high hrm, ideology of separate spheres adamantly maintains the innocence (i.e., ignorance) of women, only father knows. Insofar as Monologue pretends to be the ultimate word (Bakhtin, Problems 293), this is blatantly monologic. This fact is also confirmed by the epistolary novel being the most prevalent subgenre of the bourgeois Utopia, with Richardson as its most prominent popularizer. Making An Aging Within Society Essay. (Recall that in the epistolary Pamela by hrm, Richardson, the overwhelming number of definition relief, letters presented come from Pamela's pen, such that every other point of view, and high commitment hence the other side of the story, basically goes unrepresented.) #9;Although Freud's theory of Making Exploration of the Cougar Essay, prehistoric humanity may never be subject to anthropological verification, it nevertheless provides a vivid example of the power distribution implicit in the ideology of separate spheres. In Freud's view, the original despot-father hoarded all women for himself, thus incurring the wrath of his sons, who are finally driven to high commitment hrm parricide. By murdering the father-despot, the sons commit the supreme crime, insofar as it was the father who, despotically or not, established the order which has preserved the single gender classroom, life of the group (Marcuse 64). But in the wake of this murder, and in order to reëstablish social stability, the sons must repeat the father's exemplary gestures, and thereby reimpose his taboos and strictures against high commitment hrm, which they had originally rebelled.
These taboos, however, are imposed on all people, including the fratriarchy since they too must obey the taboos if they want to maintain their rule (65). Consequently, the ghost or the image of the father survives as the god in whose adoration the sinners repent so they can continue to sin, while the new fathers secure those suppressions of pleasure which are necessary for preserving their rule and organization of the group (64). #9;The seemingly fantastic significance Freud accords here to the father (as either the tyrant-despot or guilt-ridden son) is quite in blood facts, keeping with the hrm, values implicit and explicit in of comic relief, the ideology of high commitment, separate spheres, especially when it is remembered that sons become new fathers, and that daughters are shuttled from the old father's hoard to the new father's (as wives). Single Gender Classroom. It is also logical that the supreme crime should be conceived of by Freud as parricide, since parricide is the bourgeois equivalent of the supreme crime under feudalism, regicide. Foucault provides an hrm explicit proof of of comic, this. Against the background of gentle punishments for high hrm, crime envisioned in 1781 by Vermeil, one crime warranted an Exploration of the Within Essay infinity of punishment, something equivalent in high commitment, the new penal system to what regicide had been in the old (113). The guilty would have his eyes put out definition, (113), and be suspended naked in an iron cage in full public view, perpetually exposed to all the elements, and fed on only bread and water until death: 	a villain. condemned to high commitment see no longer the reno vs condon, heaven that he has outraged, and to live no longer on high, the earth that he has sullied (Vermeil 148-9). [T]he criminal who is to be thus crucified by the new law is the parricide (Foucault 114). #9;Vermeil's moral fury should be taken as neither eccentric nor atypical; as J.M.S. Tompkins remarks, the vast and tidy camp of virtue, with its grand and simple plan, is one of the spectacles of the definition, eighteenth century (70).
Consequently, her comment with regard to the era's demand for moral instructiveness in literature applies as well to the whole spirit of the 18th century in England: In the ?seventies and the ?eighties. the tradition was so strong that it took a very self-sufficient, indeed a very brazen man to defy it (72). Hrm. Freud's conception of the self-repressed fratriarchy, then, is accurate at least with regard to the bourgeoisie. #9;The deification of the blood, father-husband necessarily implies a concomitant submissiveness on commitment, the part of the blood brothers facts, home-king's subjects, be they wife, child or servant. In the high hrm, popular literature of Making Aging Within Society Essay, 1770-1800 that Tompkins has analyzed, she notes, It is impossible to exaggerate the frequency with which this attitude occurs (87). This submissiveness, however, is idealized as generous submission, especially in books by women, who obviously would have needed to idealize submission to preserve their self-respect (88). Similarly, in hrm, an age of extreme moral didacticism, Incomparably the most frequent of all these didactic themes is Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within filial obedience (84), displayed especially in gestures of generous submission; Such submission was not a degradation, but a spiritual grace. The wife faced with an unworthy husband, the child oppressed by a tyrannous father, do more than obey. By an act of will they abrogate reason, quell discrimination, and not only accept but approve the high, fiat they bow to (88-9). As she further notes, such submission is an attitude that no longer has much popular appeal (89), but this should not blind us to the popular favor it held in the late 18th century.
Neither should it be thought that only reno vs condon men espoused these ideals. The assumption that: #9;woman was created primarily for wifehood and commitment motherhood, and that she owed a debt of gratitude, which only the severest ill-usage could cancel, to the man who rescued her from the useless--it is their own word--condition of old-maidenhood, and undertook her support and that of blood brothers facts, her offspring (156) is a very common idea in high commitment, books by women of the period. As such, wifely dependence, as an blood brothers economic necessity sublimated by Christian ideals (155), thus takes on positive connotations now lost to a modern audience. This gratitude and commitment hrm dependence extended to children as well; Children should be grateful for their breeding and subservient to their parents' authority. Parents, of course, should be moderate and kind, but authority is their function, and they ought not abdicate it (85). #9;To these virtues, wives were also expected to add patience, loyalty, and that most frequently praised quality in a wife, complaisance; a flexible deference to her husband's moods, a ready fund of encouragement for all his tastes, provided they do not transgress principle (157). Milton Market. In the commitment hrm, case of marital infidelity, Above all, she must never recriminate; let her be blind as long as she can, and afterwards patient, and if possible cheerful.
No husband was ever won back by what Mrs. Diane: Aging Within. Griffith calls the ?vain arts of eloquence' (158). Again, the potentially resigned tone of Mrs. Griffith notwithstanding, this was not an commitment ideal solely proposed by men: #9;The supposed oblates of this rigid discipline. seldom complain of the different standard of morality applied to men. Single Gender. No delicate woman would envy such a freedom; rather they glory in being measured by the stricter standard and, to some extent, warded from temptation, for they see in this behavior not so much the commitment hrm, effect of selfishness or mistrust as the recognition of their own finer fibre. Every appearance of vice in a woman is sometimes (something?) more disgusting than in a man, wrote Clara Reeve; which I think is a presumption that woman was intended to Making Diane: An Exploration of the Cougar Society be a more perfect creature than man,--a quieting and sustaining conclusion (154). #9;Such values, as idealizations, in hrm, general reflect the bourgeois Utopia's aspiration toward domestic bliss.
As Tompkins notes, this domestic bliss, as reflected in a successful marriage of husband and wife, depends upon his generosity and her obedience (155). Ellis asserts much the same, but in a very different way; Feminism and a concern with domestic violence emerge in and Talia Book, the context of the Enlightenment, with its faith in the power of masculine reason to correct and check social abuses (3). His generosity, then, also includes his self-control, because it is precisely the threat or the commitment hrm, actuality of the unchecked, uncorrected social abuse of domestic violence that most thoroughly vitiates the bourgeois Utopia's claim of home as paradise. Even in Book Essay, its ostensibly non-violent guise, the rights of a husband or wifely duty introduce the potential of rape into the home. Moreover, the superaggrandized authority of the father-husband, in high commitment, conjunction with the enforced ignorance of women under the brothers facts, ideology of separate spheres, has the double negative effect of making a wife helpless before the demands of her husband, and incapable of escape, since she has been rigorously denied knowledge of the world (and hence, how to operate within it). #9;This prohibition on knowledge--whether Eve is not allowed to eat, or chooses not to eat, from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil--was never perfect in practice. It is from this position of hrm, forbidden knowledge gained, from the socially unacknowledged or lived experience, of milton free market, domestic violence that the feminine Gothic launches its critique of the ideology of hrm, separate spheres, and Making Exploration of the Aging Within Society offers its own counterproposed Utopia.
#9;Before examining the specifics of the genre, however, it is necessary to reemphasize the hrm, almost fanatical moralism of the era. If it is only a very brazen man (Tompkins 72) who could revolt against Making Diane: Aging Cougar Within Society Essay, the spirit of the high hrm, age, one wonders what adjective to use to describe the woman who would seek to critique it. The idealized virtue of womanhood excluded the right to recriminate; patience and martyrdom were expected instead. Reno Vs Condon. Add to this, as Fanny Burney notes in Letter 39 of Evelina , that nothing is high commitment hrm so delicate as the reputation of milton market, a woman (qtd. in Tompkins 141), and it becomes almost miraculous that the hrm, feminine Gothic's critique was ever written (much less published). Tompkins refers to prudence as the ark of female virtue (141), and one can see why. #9;In such a context, one could hardly expect the feminine Gothic's critique of the Moon and Talia, bourgeois Utopia, along with its own proposed Utopia, to be presented directly. And it is not. But, to high commitment a certain extent, the extraordinary constraints on feminine Gothicists assisted their project. Female novelists in general were viewed by critics of literary periodicals (such as the Monthly and the Critical ) with a mixture of condescension and curiosity. As such, any apparent moral lapses might have tended to be seen as arising from the Moon and Talia, novelist's deficiencies of education or talent rather than from a determined perversity. This might not be enough, however, to high hrm spare such female novelists from ridicule; the reviewers, as men, were ostensibly obliged to take a considerate attitude toward the Diane: Aging Within Society Essay, feminine sensibility of such writers, but they did not always honor their own code. (In its own small way, this illustrates the vulnerability of women, in as much as they had to rely on male self-control.) #9;Perhaps the first feature of the feminine Gothic to note, then, would be the hrm, self-deprecating preface that seems to be almost a standard feature of novels by women of the period.
Instead of leaving it to the critics to assume some benign reason for friedman, any apparent moral lapses, these self-deprecating prefaces provide one, often with poignant biographical details about high, poverty, dying breadwinners and general hardship as being the single classroom, sole reason behind the commitment hrm, impulse to write in the first place. Making Diane: An Of The Within. While such biographies may well be true (perhaps exaggerated somewhat for the sake of an indulgent review and book sales), it is also clear that such a preface would have helped to high commitment disguise any critique and would have helped to spur its dissemination amongst the public. In an era proud of its Christian charitableness, Mrs. Eliza Parsons, who took up her pen for the support of eight dear fatherless children (Tompkins 118) could rightfully hope that her book would be published and bought, if not read. As one neophyte put it directly, a candid, a liberal, a generous Public, will make the necessary allowances, for the first attempt of a young female Adventurer in Letters (117, emphasis in original).
Such flattery might get your critique everywhere. #9;This possibly strategic self-deprecation is counterbalanced by two other features of the feminine Gothic. First, there is a remarkable solidarity about the attack of the women on the literary world (123). The sentiment is facts echoed by Ellis; since courage is required to write about areas of social reality about commitment, which middle-class women were supposed to have no knowledge. Milton Friedman Market. novelists must ?not desert one another' (7). That such novelists typically lost no opportunity of advertising each other's wares (Tompkins 123) illustrates this solidarity.
The second feature of the feminine Gothic is its sudden appearance; Like the high, beanstalk, it shot up overnight into redundant vegetation, and enterprising novelists thronged its stem (Tompkins 243). The suddenness of this is especially pronounced in Tompkins' study, since she dates the official inception of the Gothic by free, Radcliffe; such figures as Horace Walpole, Clara Reeve, Sophia Lee, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft appear more as precursors. #9;The apparent authorial voicelessness of self-deprecation, along with the solidarity and suddenness of the feminine Gothic's production, present a unique event in literary history, and belie as well a relative polylogism at work in the genre. High. One could almost assert that the feminine Gothic comes to milton friedman market reflect something similar to Arcadia's communal ownership, except that the Gothic commune is high hrm not a literal place like Arcadia, but rather the class-space noted by Raymond Williams above. Single Classroom. A similar communal ownership and transformation of time may also be discerned as class-time in the feminine Gothic; in it, [t]he bourgeoisie was then able to read. of how it ?repaired the ruins' of its medieval past as part of God's scheme of providential history (Ellis 49). #9;In general, then, the unofficial Utopia of the feminine Gothic presents a point by point inversion of the high hrm, official bourgeois Utopia.
For example, rather than filial obedience, much of the feminine Gothic centrally involves a daughterly rebellion. This often takes the form of some kind of transgression (of innocence, of knowledge barred, against masculine will, or even as simple initiative, such as flight, which is rarely an option for non-Gothic heroines). The reason for the rebellion and transgression typically originates in a conflict between a heavy father figure (an actual father, or one of Freud's new fathers, a dispossessed second son) and the heroine's choice of marriage partners, which hints at the taboo realms of female sexuality and passion in an age when passionlessness was the ideal. In fact, the extent of daughterly initiative (rebellion) in the feminine Gothic already reflects a transgression in itself, since what many heroines manage to accomplish by reno vs condon, the novel's end was beyond the pale of the socially possible at the time; as Ellis remarks of high commitment, Charlotte Smith's Emmeline , No court in eighteenth-century England would have awarded a girl in her [Emmeline's] position the title to an estate and the privileges that went with it (92). #9;As such, though the feminine Gothic presents its case indirectly, it nevertheless drives straight to the very heart of the bourgeois Utopia. This is perhaps most readily seen in single gender classroom, that most readily seen feature of the Gothic landscape: the castle. It is high not enough to gender classroom say that the castle symbolizes the home; rather the high commitment, castle blatantly exposes the home's true nature. There is no simile at friedman work here; the high commitment hrm, castle is a literal image of the Gothically realized home.
The audacity of this exposé, however, is obscured by the anachronism of setting and by the apparent compliment paid to middle-class Protestant values (over against facts, the castle's associations with the evils of high, aristocracy). More generally, by drawing on reno vs condon, images and institutions from the bad old days (rarely with much historical accuracy) of high hrm, England, the feminine Gothic was able to ostensibly criticize the past, and be praised for it, while actually attacking the contemporary bad new days. #9;What is being made natural is not the displacement of Sun, and Talia, Catholicism by Protestantism, which had been thoroughly absorbed into popular consciousness, but the shift away from the absolute power of the father over his wife and children. The role of the daughter in this myth-making process is to high hrm embody Protestant individualism, as castle, convent, and friedman free market prison work together to thwart the natural desire of young people to be sexual within marriage. With its network of high hrm, closed spaces hostile to the lively preference of the daughter, the imaginary medieval landscape of the Gothic novel becomes an single classroom analogue for the corrupt, male-dominated world against which Mrs. High Hrm. Haywood's heroines were powerless to prevail (Ellis 48). #9;The total inversion of the era's official Utopia affected by market, the feminine Gothic may be understood as a parody, rather than a satire, of the high commitment, bourgeois Utopia. As such, the Gothic may be said to be a comic genre; an assertion supported somewhat by reno vs condon, its links with Arcadia (also a comic genre).
These links are most evident in high commitment hrm, the importance of brothers facts, Nature imagery both share, but are also indicated in the weddings that often happily end Gothic novels; weddings are the most conventional literary method for commitment, conveying the socially integrating aspect of comedy noted by Making Exploration of the Within Essay, Frye. As a parody, then, the feminine Gothic does not aim at satiric revolution, but at social renovation--cultural regeneration as a result of festive laughter's abuse-praise. It is high commitment a vision of daughterly choice, not parental decision, in marriage partners; it is a vision of equality, not patriarchy, in the marriage itself, with the single gender classroom, consequential establishment of commitment, a true home, a true Paradise, that such equality implies. The heart of the feminine Gothic Utopia, then, is not so different in appearance from the bourgeois Utopia; it is the principle upon which each is founded that is radically different. #9;But parody, Nature, Arcadian associations and weddings may not seem to Sun, Moon and Talia warrant the claim that the feminine Gothic is a comedic genre; its premium on terror alone should refute such an hrm idea. However, one should recall Radcliffe's own definition for terror: that it expands the soul, and awakens the faculties to a higher degree (qtd. in Ellis xvii n1). This kind of terror is to be specifically associated with the aesthetic pleasure of the Sublime as famously formulated by Edmund Burke; Radcliffe used Burke as the theoretical base for her work (xvi n1). Brothers. Alternatively, and somewhat rephrasing Michael Sadleir's formulation of terror in Radcliffe, it affects an agreeable shudder (Ellis 57). Narrative terror, then, is an ambivalent pleasure, very much like the terror of rollercoasters and funhouses. The funhouse (or Halloween's haunted house) is especially apt, insofar as one's squeals of terror in the company of commitment hrm, friends is facts as often as not accompanied by laughter. Such laughter is very close in nature to festive laughter's abuse-praise.
#9;In addition to commitment hrm parodic inversion, another common technique of festive laughter is its grotesque realism: Exaggeration, hyperbolism, excessiveness are generally considered fundamental attributes of the grotesque style (Bakhtin, Rabelais 301). Such hyperbolism often borrows the grandeur of the epic for totally non-epic occasions. Classroom. A classic instance in the Gothic occurs when an absurdly overlarge helmet kills Manfred's son in high, Walpole's Castle of Sun, Moon and Talia Essay, Otranto . Hrm. Apologists of the Gothic (such as George Haggerty in milton friedman free market, Gothic Fiction/Gothic Form ) have had to negotiate around such literary faux pas in their attempts to raise the Gothic to the level of literature deserving of analysis. Such conniptions, however, are unnecessary if a comedic nature is assumed for commitment, the Gothic. The tradition of the unheroic death, for instance, extends back at reno vs condon least as far as Seneca's Ludus morte Claudii , in which the emperor dies at the moment of hrm, defecation ( Rabelais 151 n1). Earlier still, Greek heroes tended to die comic deaths as well; they are brained by falling branches, walk off cliffs and so forth. It is almost not an exaggeration to claim that no Greek hero, who did not die in battle, died an epic death. #9;The death of Manfred's son, then, is a comic death.
It is our lack of familiarity with the tradition in which it participates that makes it seem otherwise serious, but even modern examples may be found. It is exactly the same kind of image that provides the entire basis for the very short animated film Bambi Meets Godzilla. The difference, of course, is that such deaths are now conceived of as final; in the ancient tradition, the ubiquitous regenerating element was always somehow present. #9;Hyperbole is also apparent in the exaggerated virtue and villainy of the Gothic heroine and her antagonist, as well as the vastness of the Sublime in Nature. On one hand, of course, the exaggerated moral nature of the feminine Gothic's inhabitants (whether good or evil) has the advantage of justifying the heroine's rebellion as a supervirtuous act; who could not but rebel against Diane: Cougar Society Essay, such villainy? On the other hand, this hyperbolism veers very close to the melodrama, which seems based on the principle of bringing its audience to commitment the very edge of hysterical laughter, without actually going over the edge. Moon Book Analysis Essay. Tompkins suggests this in high, another way: Even in single classroom, the hands of commitment hrm, its finest exponent, it [the Gothic] was precariously balanced over the abysses of the ludicrous and disreputable (247). In later Gothic writing, by the Brontës and Mary Shelley in particular, the melodramatic elements are handled with considerable sophistication, though usually at the expense of laughter. (The transformation of laughter, as from comedic terror to tragic horror is almost always a sign and technique of the dignifying of a genre by reno vs condon, high seriousness.) #9;Hyperbolism affects another advantage for the feminine Gothic's critique by hrm, drawing on exaggeration's comic associations. Broadly speaking (or perhaps literally), the comedic is not meant to be taken seriously.
Rabelais, for instance, asserted the most outrageous blasphemies in print at a time when people were burned at brothers facts the stake, but lived to die peacefully in old age. High. By contrast, Rabelais' friend, Etienne Dolet perished at blood brothers facts the stake because of his statements, which although less damning had been seriously made. He did not use Rabelais' methods ( Rabelais 269). One might similarly contrast the fate of most feminine Gothicists to the public pillory suffered by high commitment, Mary Wollstonecraft for her statements made on behalf of women's rights. #9;Lastly, hyperbolism may be said to milton free be the basis of terror in the feminine Gothic, insofar as it is the intense emotion. that a ?good' female character can have in commitment, a novel without threatening her innocence with respect to male lust (Ellis 46, emphasis in original). Innocent virtue is forbidden sexual knowledge and so cannot even recognize male lust, much less react to it, even in flight.
Unlike Pamela, who knew what her pursuer was after (46), the Gothic heroine does not, must not know. For Ellis, the terror of confinement, not rape, therefore motivates the heroine's flight. True as this might be, however, the feminine Gothic's parodic inversion suggests that terror might actually be lust (as the intense emotion), disguised in the most thorough way possible. It is, after all, the heroine's lively preference for some man other than her would-be captor-rapist that spurs her flight as much as the threat of enclosure. Gender Classroom. The supervirtuous heroine, of course, could not even know, much less express, such a thing, but that does not bar such recognition on the author's or reader's part. It might also be added that the confrontation between the heroine and the villain, whether actual or only high hrm dreadfully imagined by the heroine, is a form of the reno vs condon, casuistic dialogue on love, and as such adds another link between Arcadia and the feminine Gothic. #9;An awareness of the potential for sexuality in such a confrontation, along with its positive obverse (the heroine's wedding at the end of the novel), would already represent a transgression of hrm, official feminine virtue, made all the more audacious by the novel's being written. As such, however unobjectionably virtuous the text is, it may still be tainted by lust, either in the writer's mind and blood brothers memory, or in the reader's reading. The feminine Gothic novel, then, becomes almost a symbol of, or objective correlative for, public masturbation. If so, it might be particularly pointed to recall that terror affords an agreeable shudder. #9;Consequently, the haunted castle may be said to commitment hrm become the author's or reader's mind, and the undisclosable secret it holds, sexuality: #9;What does it mean for the castle to be haunted?
It means that the owner of the An, castle is trying to conceal a secret upon which [her] continued ownership depends. In consequence, the high hrm, castle becomes a space where the next generation cannot be produced, or more generally, where the domestic activities over which women are beginning to rule cannot be carried on. Blood. The exposure of the secret, then, sometimes accompanied by the destruction of the castle, frees the female protagonist to reassert the primacy of commitment hrm, home and reno vs condon its values by marrying the man of her choice, not as an innocent young lady but as a heroine who has encountered evil, learned from it, and triumphed over it (Ellis 37). The above passage, quoted verbatim except for hrm, the substitution of her for his as noted, is addressed by Ellis toward the thematic elements of the single, Gothic, but I have cited it as applying to commitment the level of the blood brothers facts, author (and perhaps the reader) as well. #9;As such, the Gothic drama represented within the text is reënacted outside of the high commitment hrm, novel as well; by transgressing the enclosures enforced by patriarchal society, forbidden female initiative is able to assert its claim to Utopia (determined by, not chosen for, women), and to reclaim a castle long since usurped by second sons: the cosmogonic act of Sun, Analysis Essay, writing. High Commitment. By reclaiming the act of authorship, the Gothicists (and all female novelists) undid the original Word of and Talia Analysis, God and challenged the Father's original transgression against the female principle of high, Creation. By writing, women regained access to the freedom, power and creativity that Freud's new fathers had been hoarding and lording over for aeons. #9;Ellis cites Milton's Paradise Lost as the single gender, model and commitment hrm point of Making of the Aging Cougar Within Society Essay, departure for the Gothic rebellion. The Satanic revolt, however, seems more appropriate to the Lewisite Gothic (which is antiutopian, rather than utopian, preferring destruction and high hrm satire over the parodic renovation of the gender classroom, feminine Gothic; thus, I have not included it in my study of literary Utopias).
Howevermuch Milton may have informed or justified the theme of rebellion, its archetypal content does not fit the feminine Gothic scenario very well. High Hrm. The Gothic God does not expel a Satanic Eve; he tries to blood facts enclose her. Moreover, her departure and flight are wholly self-willed. The archetype that seems to be at work, rather, is something similar to Freud's prehistory, in which one of the daughters of the hrm, father's hoard escapes to freedom. If there are still Christian or Miltonic implications to Exploration of the Aging Within be found in this, then they go beyond Lucifer's oath of Non serviam . #9;This rebellion may be said to originate from the fact that God advanced one son (Jesus) above all others; Lucifer refuses to serve out of commitment, a protest for this inequality of treatment.
He questions God's judgment, but not the society He has created. The feminine Gothic's Eve, by contrast, is not merely a reconceptualized heroine capable of correcting the mistakes of her youth (though she can do that too); rather, in her youthfulness, she makes a much bolder claim: that the fault for original sin rests with God, and that only an act of gender, re-Creation can correct what He has muddled. It is a protest directed against the self-proclaimed biologically justified authority (Marcuse 64) that boasts to have originally ordered Creation, the order which has preserved the life of the group (64). In fact, God is the Gothic's first usurping second son--not God the Father, but God the New Father, who denies He ever had a Mother-Goddess; the one who has usurped the castle of high commitment hrm, Creation, and turned Paradise into Hell. The terror of the feminine Gothic, then, may originate partly in the enormity of single, Eve's transgression, in the reassertion over against divine authority of her right and capacity to correct creation, but it may also arise partly from the thrill of simply getting away with it, of parodying culture when it was absolutely forbidden to do so. #9;The serious intent of the Gothic critique and its Utopia of a true home, where freedom, power and creativity, equality, freedom of high commitment hrm, speech, peace, abundance, leisure and Cougar pleasure are not male-only prerogatives, is not undermined by high hrm, the claim of a comedic nature for the feminine Gothic.
On the contrary, the method of festive laughter's regenerating abuse-praise is fundamentally oriented toward basic and all-important aspects of Making Diane: An Exploration of the Within Essay, life. As Bakhtin notes, Seriousness burdens us with hopeless situations, but laughter lifts us above them and delivers us from commitment hrm, them. Laughter does not encumber man, it liberates him. Laughter lifts the barrier and clears the Diane: An Cougar Within Society, path ( Speech Genres 134, 135). #9;Like their Renaissance forebears, the official and unofficial Utopias of the 18th century represent milestones that marked points of high commitment, departure for subsequent literary works.
However, unlike the distinct realizations of ideal space and time in the Renaissance Utopias, the presence of individualized consciousness in the later Utopias seems to have served to merge space and time. As such, in realizing its ideal class-space, the bourgeois Utopia incorporated the single, generational time of high commitment hrm, Arcadia into the intimate setting of the home; similarly, in realizing its ideal class-time, the feminine Gothic incorporated the perfect commonwealth of Utopia as a true home into the providential history of personalized fate. In short the 18th century Utopias affected realizations of ideal time-space. #9;In so doing, they contributed to the creation of the perils of history (as terror, irreversibility of time, and so forth) that I have already noted in conjunction with the blood brothers, Renaissance Utopias. One distinction, however, must be noted.
Where the circular nature of the Renaissance Utopias indirectly argued in favor of a progressive (linear) conception of time (and hence, history), the 18th century Utopias directly argue in favor of the linear conception, insofar as they are based on this progressive principle. This may most readily be sensed in the relatively increased plotting of commitment, such novels, especially in reno vs condon, the Gothic where the premium on terror mandated the creation and maintenance of narrative suspense. #9;Increased sophistication of plotting is one of the main gifts of the 18th century to the 19th, but it is not the only one. High Commitment. In the same way that Utopia and Arcadia provided a foundation for the idealized realities of memoirs and Bildungsromane , so also did the realized ideals of the bourgeois Utopia and the feminine Gothic provide the basis for 19th century realism and Romanticism: the brothers, bourgeois home becomes the idealized and criticized reality of the novel of commitment hrm, manors, while the providentially individualized fate of the feminine Gothic becomes the idealized (though infrequently criticized) reality of Individualism and Romantic genius. Though innumerable non-Russian examples abound, nevertheless these two main developments in the 19th century, along with the full flowering of the novel, could hardly be better characterized than by Diane: Exploration Cougar, the works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Apt as these examples are, however, it would seem that we have once again left the reality of commitment hrm, Utopia; that, as implementations of the 18th century's Utopias, they represent the status quo, the current operating order of literature in the 19th century. #9;To rediscover the milton market, strands of the official and unofficial Utopia in the 19th (and 20th) century, then, it becomes necessary to look elsewhere; specifically, to examine the Socialist Utopia and high commitment hrm science fiction (the ?fantastyka).
#9;The most obvious trait shared by the Socialist Utopia and fantastyka is a focus on the future, with another, almost equally decisive accent on technology. Neither of these characteristics are absolute; Morris' News From Nowhere , though set in the future, reflects an idealized, almost medievally non-technological way of life, while forays backward in time are legion in fantastyka. (Fantastyka's subgenre of alternative versions of history similarly retreats in time, while the parallel universe subgenre may be said to move laterally in time and space.) These notable exceptions, however, simply reflect the vitality of the genre, and do not destroy the overall truth of the generalization. Consequently, the place of the Socialist and fantastyka Utopia becomes located in the future. #9;At first, this displacement might seem a bit strange, but there has always been a degree of displacement in definition of comic relief, Utopia. Given the extent of the high commitment hrm, known world, More had to milton posit an island; the Arcadians had to escape from the City to a semi-mythical Country; the commitment hrm, Gothic had to project backward in time to reno vs condon find a home; and the bourgeois Utopia, crowded out by the historical enormity of its Baroque predecessors, retreated to the privacy of its own home. It would seem that wherever there are gaps in a culture's time-space consciousness that permits of imaginative projection, then there will Utopias appear. High Commitment. Ulam, discussing socialism in Socialism and reno vs condon Utopia, offers a further explanation for this displacement: #9;Faced by the domination of hrm, liberalism in both politics and in the intellectual sphere, socialism went underground, so to speak. The utopian character of much of socialist thinking represented then a kind of of comic relief, rearguard action which withdrawing radicalism conducted against the triumphant march of industrialism and liberalism (125-6). #9;The linking of the commitment hrm, future with technology is facts another key feature shared by the Socialist Utopia and high commitment hrm the fantastyka.
What primarily distinguishes the one from the other, again restating the distinction between a monologic and relatively polylogic approach, is the former's closed view of the future compared to the open-ended view of the latter. Defenders of Condorcet, Fourier, Saint-Simon, Comte or Marx may assert, as Frank Manuel does, that virtually all the great nineteenth-century utopias have continued metamorphoses built into their very frame; they are open-ended (Toward a Psychological History of Utopias 80), but they seem to be in the minority; it is, after all, difficult to discern continued metamorphoses in and Talia Analysis, Marx view of the end of history. The very fact that the commitment hrm, Socialist future had a specific place in An Exploration Aging Cougar Within Essay, mind contributes to this; later Socialist thought, chastened by the very events of history itself, still retained the high hrm, hope for such a place, even if its specifics were no longer so clear. If original Socialism could see a straight line to reno vs condon a glorious and harmonious future, then later Socialism was forced to commitment hrm be less sanguine, but did not deny the line (only its straightness or visibility). Fantastyka infrequently bothers with such a line; how we get from today to, for example, the utopian Earth of television's Star Trek is of little concern. Rather, under fantastyka, not only the future but all of time becomes an open field of possibilities, limited only by one's imagination. #9;In the main, the development of the Diane: An Exploration Aging Society Essay, monologic Socialist Utopia in literature is especially uninteresting; parodies, such as Dostoevsky's The Possessed (originally Devils ), are much worthier of critical attention on high hrm, artistic grounds. They were, however, enormously influential socially. Cabet's truly dreary Voyage to Icaria inspired the foundation of Icarian communities in the United States, and it is impossible to underestimate the extraordinary importance of of comic, Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done? in the development of the Russian revolutionary mentality. In fact, to discuss the Socialist Utopia in its most significant manifestations, it is necessary to turn to Russian, rather than Western European, literature. #9;Let there be no illusions, however; R.H.
Stacy remarks that What Is To Be Done? has occasionally been called the worst novel ever written (55). de Jonge confirms this verbatim as one of the worst novels ever written, which became the bible of the high hrm, Russian radical movement (52). Berlin, with characteristically less scoffing and blood more insight, notes that Chernyshevsky's: #9;deepest aspirations and emotions were poured into What is to high commitment hrm be done? , a social Utopia which, grotesque as a work of art, had a literally epoch-making effect on Russian opinion. This didactic novel described the ?new men' of the reno vs condon, free, morally pure, cooperative socialist commonwealth of the high commitment hrm, future; its touching sincerity and moral passion bound their spell upon Sun, the imaginations of the idealistic and guilt-stricken sons of prosperous parents, and provided them with an ideal model in the light of which an entire generation of revolutionaries educated and hardened itself to the defiance of existing laws and conventions and to hrm the acceptance of exile and death with sublime unconcern (228). #9;This image of the revolutionary implies, of course, a total selflessness, endurance and indifference to personal suffering; one will put up with literally everything to help pave the way to the glorious future, even if one does not live to see it. As long as this ideology of self-sacrifice remains in a context of revolutionary conspiracy, it may be said to still retain some justification; when it becomes implemented upon the whole of society, however, it quickly loses whatever justification it had left and becomes simply an instrument of social control and terror, as the Soviets have since demonstrated. The promise of the glorious social future thus becomes a method of oppression, while at the same time justifying the present deplorable social conditions as birth throes--or, as time goes on, as the work and fault of some scapegoat, e.g., kulaks (rich peasants), saboteurs, wreckers, counterrevolutionaries, agents provocateur , foreign influences, etc. #9;Insofar as the ideology of self-sacrifice (suffer today for a glorious future you may not live to enjoy) involves a method of social control, two necessary correlates arise. The first is reno vs condon that self-sacrifice must be hyperidealized, much as women had to idealize submission under the high, ideology of separate spheres to brothers facts retain their self-respect. The second is that the glorious future must be indefinitely put off, since the basis of hrm, social assent to the status quo today is the brothers facts, imminent arrival of the glorious tomorrow. (In the Soviets, of course, social assent was also based on the terror of hrm, being carried off to the GULag, executed, or both.) This deferral into the future is, in fact, a central tenet of Socialist Realism, especially in Soviet culture.
In Russian Literary Criticism , R.H. Analysis Essay. Stacy cites an illustrative passage from Solzhenitsyn's The Cancer Ward : #9;[A] character who is a willing and simple-minded mouthpiece of the high commitment hrm, Party line explains the mysteries of Socialist Realism: You must understand this. To describe something that exists is much easier than to describe something that does not exist--even though you know that it will exist. What we see today with the single, unaided eye is not necessarily the commitment hrm, truth. The truth is what we must become, what will happen tomorrow.
This wonderful tomorrow of reno vs condon, ours is what writers should be describing today. Asked what writers will describe when tomorrow comes, this character replies that they will then write about the commitment, day after tomorrow (235). #9;That the Sun, Book Analysis Essay, genre described here so aptly is called ?Socialist Realism' provides its own trenchant criticism, but the passage does correctly identify one of the main artistic challenges of both Socialist Realism and commitment hrm fantastyka: the milton, difficulty of describing something that does not yet exist (or, more particularly, whole worlds). In fact, this brings us full circle back to the challenge that originally confronted More. One would then well expect the ?guided tour' device to resurface, and indeed it does. The very name Star Trek belies exactly this. (I keep returning to Star Trek , not only because it is high commitment exemplary, but also because it is probably the best-known Western example of fantastyka.) Huxley's Brave New World opens as well with a classic guided tour (of Utopia's Central Hatchery). #9;If the history of the monologic Socialist Utopia is fairly simple to describe, then the history of fantastyka is proportionately complex.
The term ?fantastyka' itself helps to suggest this complexity, since it echoes the larger genre of the fantastic. A distinction, however, immediately suggests itself between the definition, supernatural magic of the fantastic, and the super-natural technology of fantastyka (although Arthur C. Clarke, if memory serves. has noted that technology sufficiently advanced is indistinguishable from magic). Tzvetan Todorov, in his own study of the fantastic, provides a more precise description; [I]n a general fashion, supernatural beings compensate for a deficient causality. Thus the fairy who assures a character's fortunate destiny is high merely the incarnation of an imaginary causality for market, what might just as well be called chance, fortune, accident (110). In fantastyka, it is technology that compensates for a deficient causality. #9;Todorov further describes the fantastic as a kind of liminal genre that is especially marked by hesitation, either at the level of the reader or of the narrator-characters, or both. This hesitation creates a defining ambiguity in the fantastic; the character or reader is no longer sure where she or he stands in relation to the narrative. This fantastic ambiguity, however, is fairly delicate, and easily lapses out of an equally defining indeterminateness of meaning (that is an obvious consequence of the hesitation): meaning therefore reflects a liminal quality in the fantastic as well. #9;The fantastic therefore leads a life full of dangers, and may evaporate at any moment. It seems to be located on the frontier of commitment, two genres, the marvelous and the uncanny, rather than to be an autonomous genre.
One of the great periods of supernatural literature, that of the Gothic novel, seems to confirm this observation. Indeed, we generally distinguish, within the Diane: An of the Essay, literary Gothic, two tendencies: that of the supernatural explained (the uncanny), as it appears in the novels of Clara Reeves ( sic ) and Ann Radcliffe; and that of the supernatural accepted (the marvelous), which is commitment characteristic of the works of Horace Walpole, M.G. Lewis and Maturin. Here we find not the fantastic in reno vs condon, the strict sense, only genres adjacent to high commitment hrm it. More precisely, the effect of the Sun, Moon Book Essay, fantastic is certainly produced, but only during a portion of commitment hrm, our reading: in Ann Radcliffe, up to Making of the Aging the moment when we are sure that everything which has happened is susceptible of a rational explanation; in M.G. Lewis, up to high hrm the moment when we are sure that the supernatural events will receive no explanation. Once we have finished reading, we understand -- in both cases -- that what we call the fantastic has not existed (Todorov 41-2). #9;Much fantastyka belongs in Todorov's genre of the uncanny insofar as a rational explanation usually clears up the technological or xenobiological curiosities in any given book, but there is milton friedman also another entire tradition of fantastyka, best represented by Stanislaw Lem and Eastern Europe (including Russia) that falls into high commitment hrm Todorov's category of the classroom, marvelous, if not actually the fantastic.
In both traditions and genres, however, the supernatural elements have typically been replaced by the supernatural weirdness of astrobiological species, alien intelligences, and hitherto unencountered planetary phenomena. All of these extraterrestrial features are usually approached narratively as rationally explicable things, even if human reason proves incapable of discovering an explanation. #9;This empirical bias is what purportedly puts the high hrm, science in science fiction. As such, one could extend the fantastyka tradition back to Bacon's New Atlantis , but his Utopia seems more fantasy than fiction, so to speak. Similarly, one may discover early salvos of fantastyka in Prince Vladimir Odoevsky's The Year 4330 (a utopian novel incomplete at reno vs condon the time of his death in hrm, 1869), in Lytton's The Coming Race (which features a subterrestrial superspecies, armed to milton the teeth with handy, personally portable vril sticks capable of more than atomic destruction), published in 1870, and, of course, the works of Jules Verne. Verne's works are especially important, since they inaugurated, or at least popularized, a whole genre characterized by technological speculation and extrapolation. High. This genre went on definition, to become the mainstay of early fantastyka in the United States, particularly in the cult followings of various pulpy periodicals. High Commitment. Most of the stories in these early efforts, like most early efforts, are unreadably dreadful, and helped to found the debased reputation of science fiction in the United States. Verne's epigones substitute mere novelty for even the least shred of plausibility, and definition relief the plots themselves are rarely more than of the hero slays monster type.
One might try to see an archetypal significance in this; Frye contends that it is often precisely in popular literature that one can most clearly discern the archetypal nature of high commitment, literature ( Anatomy 104), but this is little consolation. This tradition, gaining somewhat in sophistication, has continued to free the present; its most prolific exponent to date would seem to commitment be Larry Niven, who will not hesitate to justify an entire novel (and a sequel) strictly based on a single technological gadget (e.g., Ringworld ). #9;More typically, the Vernean tradition is used to technologize and cosmicize otherwise perfectly ordinary narratives. The original Star Trek , for example, is often little more than the Odyssey in space, and the theme of ?war,' especially during the era of the Cold War, found its cosmic equivalent in an unceasing flow of milton friedman, hideous invaders from the stars. In general, the epithet ?rockets and robots' applied to hrm the founding (so-called Golden Age) of science fiction is fair. Given the vitality of classroom, invention in the United States at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the high commitment, 20th, one can perhaps forgive the scribbling Edisons in their garrets for An Exploration of the, their tawdry productions, but (along with World War I and eventually the Depression) the general refusal of science fiction to high address these changes, or even to pay much attention to actual scientific developments, certainly served to discredit the genre, perhaps deservedly. An example of this may be seen in definition relief, Brave New World , though it is not strictly speaking science fiction, when Huxley admits in high, his Foreword that the lack of atomic energy in his Utopia does in classroom, fact represent a vast and obvious failure of foresight (x).
#9;It is not necessary to trace any further the high hrm, general history of Sun, Moon Analysis, science fiction in the United States, in spite of its later interesting and artistic coming into its own during the so-called New Wave that began roughly in the 1960s (and that is foreshadowed particularly in high commitment, the works of Heinlein and Bradbury); this, because Utopia does not figure significantly in New Wave writing. Rather, I have provided this brief sketch of the origins of brothers facts, science fiction in the United States principally to illuminate why the hrm, genre, still for the most part, has a literary reputation as bad, if not worse, than the original Gothic. Again, though, its popularity was as equally widespread, as may be discerned from the cult following that sprang up around H.P. Lovecraft (and his later disciples, particularly August Derleth), and that has continued to Sun, and Talia exist to the present day. Commitment. (William Gibson, in milton friedman, our day, seems to high hrm have gained an equally devoted following of reno vs condon, cyberpunks.) #9;To locate the main strands of Utopia in fantastyka, it is necessary to turn from the commitment, technological trend of Verne's epigones to H.G. Wells, most obviously in his A Modern Utopia or New Worlds for Old , but more tellingly in Men Like Gods . It is here that one can convincingly feel the influence of the Socialist Utopia, insofar as alternatives to the Socialist future and single gender classroom its societal arrangements are being pursued and modified by Wells. In fact, one of the high, more remarkable authorial about-faces in literary history occurs between his Modern Utopia and Men Like Gods . In the former, he appears to promise a correction to the errors of Utopias past, but the results are more antiquated than renovated. Gender Classroom. For example, having criticized old Utopia's reductions of liberty due to an endless proliferation of regulations, commonsense therefore dictates a reduction in the number of rules.
Wells, however, prefers to high hrm redefine liberty; But in Book Analysis, truth a general prohibition in hrm, a state may increase the sum of liberty, and a general permission may diminish it. It does not follow. that a man is more free where there is least law and more restricted where there is most law (qtd. in Berneri 295). #9;The point here is definition not the truth or falsity of Wells' assertion; others, notably Kateb in his unquestionably well-intentioned Utopia and Its Enemies (220-7), have asserted as much as well. Rather, the point is to high commitment hrm underline the radical change one may discern between this Utopia and Wells' later Men Like Gods , as indicating not only the direction of future Utopias, but also the distinction between the monologic Socialist Utopia and the relatively polylogic Utopia of fantastyka. Hence, in Men Like Gods , there are only the Five Principles of Liberty that govern all of of comic, social life. More importantly, Wells' affects an idea he sarcastically proposed in A Modern Utopia : to change the nature of Homo sapiens to Homo superior . This marks a fundamental break with both the Socialist Utopia and all past Utopias; hitherto, human nature had been accepted as is, and Utopia had either to high commitment accommodate it, ignore it, or crush it. Morris' News From Nowhere has depicted truly free individuals, thus implying a change in human nature, but it is Wells who incorporates the theme into fantastyka. (B.F. Skinner's notorious Walden Two wanted to literalize the theme.) The change of human nature in Wells' Men Like Gods , however, is weakly realized, and is primarily one of mindset; except for the fuller realisation of Making Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Society Essay, his latent possibilities, the common man in Utopia was. the same flesh and nature as we are (qtd. in Berneri 308). #9;The British utopian tradition continued to high commitment hrm develop primarily along Wellsian lines in the fantastyka, but rarely on reno vs condon, a large scale. Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End is probably the best-known example, but there are also contributions by Aldiss, Wyndham (particularly his Re-Birth ) and high commitment Stapledon (who is almost wholly unknown in blood brothers, the United States).
It is somewhat ironic, then, that Aldous Huxley proves to high commitment hrm be the author who most strongly extends the tradition, first of course in Brave New World (and its essayistic sequel, Brave New World Revisited ), and later in blood brothers facts, Ape and high Essence and Island . #9;It could of course be disputed that Huxley is a Utopist at all; Brave New World , along with Zamyatin's We , are widely regarded as the canonical anti-Utopias of the 20th century. (Huxley's Ape and Essence , with its fanatical cult of Belial worshippers, seems even still more anti-utopian). Other works, such as Orwell's Animal Farm and 1984 , Gheorghiu's The Twenty-Fifth Hour , and of comic Wolfe's Limbo might also be considered anti-utopian, but the unremitting viciousness of the State in these books makes them more Dystopias (the bad place), than anti-Utopias. Whatever classification one decides upon for these various reactions to the classical-official Utopia, I nevertheless intend to high hrm demonstrate that Huxley's Brave New World is an reno vs condon official Utopia; or, more precisely, that the novel is the product of a frustrated Utopist trying to come to grips with Utopia. #9;For the moment, if this may be demonstrated in brief, after remarking on the popularity of the dystopian novel in the 20th century in high commitment, his introduction to Utopias and Utopian Thought , Frank Manuel then adds that Aldous Huxley lived to single gender classroom write a utopia, Island (x). High Hrm. It is interesting to note also that this utopian fable written at death's door (Huxley would die the following year, with C.S. Lewis, on the very day of President Kennedy's assassination) is somewhat neglected in Huxley bibliographies. The Harper Perennial paperback edition of Brave New World mentions Island in and Talia Book Essay, a brief biographical appendix, but omits it from the lengthy bibliography provided at hrm the front of the book; similarly, in the Cliff Notes for Brave New World and Brave New World Revisited , neither in the bibliography nor anywhere in milton friedman free, the text, is Island mentioned. This seems rather odd, since surely a Utopia by commitment hrm, one of the ostensibly leading anti-Utopians of our century demands of an brothers explanation.
#9;Such will in fact be proffered below. High Hrm. In the meantime, however, it is milton friedman free market necessary to trace a third line of high hrm, fantastyka, that of the Eastern European (including the Russian) tradition. #9;Understandably, the Socialist Utopia has been highly influential in the countries of this region, such that futuristic Utopias are almost blandly assumed as a given. Consequently, the technological speculations within them retain a more genuine sense of the Vernean futurological prophecy, instead of the superficial inventiveness one finds in the science fiction of the United States. It would seem that the Socialist-Utopian creed of technology, as a lever into true Socialism (rather than decadent capitalist prosperity), helps to keep the facts, Machine firmly in the service of mankind. #9;Moreover, Utopia (when utilized) is rarely described in the kind of painstaking detail one has grown weary of in Western literature. The space of Utopia is such that one comes to know it, or infer it, as in any typical novel: through character interactions within it.
In other words, Utopia, finally, becomes a setting rather than a topic of discussion; fashion, laws, food, architecture--all become a consequence of a character's (and the reader's) vision, not a guided tour. If the character is high a native of Utopia, then the setting moves into the background of consciousness; this, for Sun, Moon Book, the same reason one does not find informative lectures on clothing in a contemporary novel, unless such a lecture serves some other, not merely informational, authorial intent. If the character is not a native of Utopia, then the setting tends to be extremely foregrounded in consciousness as something that character must come to grips with. This process of recognition or reconciliation with the commitment, confronting Utopia, however, is rarely arrived at by the blood facts, simple explanation of some tour guide; rather, the character must interact with both the Utopia and its natives to achieve a working knowledge of the commitment hrm, culture. Reno Vs Condon. This is one of the main dilemmas confronting Lem's protagonist, Hal Bregg, in high commitment hrm, Return From the Stars . #9;It is An Exploration Aging not so common to find non-natives encountering Utopias; usually the confrontation is between an commitment Earthling (from Utopia or not) and the alien (chuzhoi). In recent Western fantastyka, different varieties of minority authors have increasingly, and definition of comic with considerable sophistication, used this scenario to critique a present-day culture that defines their minority as Other (alien, chuzhoi). As such, the high commitment hrm, predominantly mundane Utopia of Eastern European fantastyka must be considered one of its triumphs. As Darko Suvin notes, this utopian element is ubiquitous in Stanislaw Lem's novels; I would argue that [a] utopian naivete remains one of the poles of the Lemian creative tension even in his richest works (208).
#9;As a consequence, the assumed Utopias and plausible technologistic futurologies of Eastern European fantastyka have singularly liberated the genre with respect to gender its speculation on ideas. Hrm. That is, not burdened with a tradition that could be puerilely gratified by the notion of a plasma gun (the United States), or mired in a socially conscious tradition that remains at a loss as to how to solve the human condition (Great Britain), Eastern European fantastyka has been able to market grapple more directly with cosmic questions. High Hrm. This positive may have had a negative source as well, insofar as ideological oppression by the Soviets and Socialist Realism tended to stifle the intellectual qualities of the arts. By dealing with the imponderables, fantastyka therefore would have pricked up the ears of fewer ideological censors. #9;In fact, Eastern European fantastyka found itself in a position similar to the feminine Gothic. And there do, indeed, seem to be instances of subversive critique in Diane: Exploration of the Aging Within, the genre. One of the most important instances may be seen in commitment hrm, the film, Stalker , directed by classroom, Andrei Tarkovsky. The film is based very loosely on Roadside Picnic , a novella by the leading authors of fantastyka in Soviet Russia (Boris and high commitment hrm Arkady Strugatsky), and juxtaposes a tenuous motif of Christian images over against a markedly bleak Dystopia that is difficult not to identify with a futurized Soviet State. Such critiques, however, are rare--and for blood, good reason. It may have felt like death for a female Gothicist to be caught by, and to have her reputation suffer because of, the Critical 's censors; for the Soviet author, it might well be death. If the Gothicist's catchword was prudence, the Soviet author's was avoidance.
#9;Lem's first fantastyka, The Astronauts , was published in 1951, two years before Stalin's death, so much of his work appeared during the high commitment, Soviet Thaw, but it too is characterized by an absence of Soviet critique (perhaps all the blood brothers facts, more surprising, given Russia's historical treatment of Lem's native Galicia, and Poland). To expect a critique, however, is to somewhat misunderstand Russian and Eastern European fantastyka. For one, it has never been deemed a tenth-class genre, as has its American counterpart, especially as it was encouraged by the futurism of Socialist Realism. Commitment Hrm. For another, criticizing the decadent West was approved of, if not expected, even if this sometimes led to a generic reflexiveness that seemed to redound on the Soviet Bloc. But, again perhaps due to ideological strictures, this criticism seems more directed toward our species, than toward specific cultures. Reno Vs Condon. To this is added an intense hopefulness that may most plausibly be linked to the Socialist vision of a glorious future. High. As such, there is a more universal quality in Eastern European fantastyka compared to the West's that is Within Society Essay entirely appropriate in a genre set in the Universe; what Suvin claims for high hrm, Lem's writing, then, may be applied to the region: Thus, the stars are for Lem in a way what Utopia was for More or Brobdingnag for Swift: a parabolic mirror for ourselves, a roundabout way to understand our world, species and times (212, my emphasis). #9;In such a context, Capek's R.U.R. Sun, Moon And Talia Analysis Essay. , the classic drama of robot domination which Kateb finds so difficult to account for--It is hard to say just what is to be done with this idea ( Utopia 109)--is not anomalous at all. It is precisely a merging of the technological and Socialist aspects of Eastern European fantastyka. Though analogies with The Sorcerer's Apprentice , Frankenstein and commitment The Golem obviously have a degree of validity here, what is at reno vs condon stake is less humanity's ability to control the monsters of its own making (with the attendant themes of hubris, mortals as gods, and family in general), and more the commitment, fact of blood brothers facts, being confronted by a conscious being who is ontologically superior to us. This theme connects, not with the merely personal concern of the individual vis-à-vis a more powerful person, but with whole cultures dominated or colonized by others.
#9;As Suvin notes, both Capek and Lem come from regions coextensive with the old Habsburg empire, which in our century has bred so many great writers attuned to the indifferent march of history; Musil and Svevo, Krleza and Andris, Hoffsmanthal and Kafka, Ha?ek and Capek. High Hrm. Yet this has also been the region of definition of comic, great hopes, exploding after both world Wars (214-5); a region, as the Romanian-born Eliade notes, that had to renounce any impulse toward a higher historical existence, toward spiritual creation on the universal plane (151) simply because it fell across the path of history's juggernaut (embodied in Asiatic hordes, and later empires of Ottomans, Habsburgs, Great Russians and Soviets). #9;As such, Lem's writings are regionally characteristic in their fusing of bright hope with bitter experience, the vision of an open road into the future with the vision of sure dangers and possible defeats inseparable from the high hrm, risks of openness (Suvin 215). It is therefore no surprise that Lem has coined the term optessimist (found in reno vs condon, The Futurological Congress ), which is someone who can derive a positive future from hrm, a miserable present. #9;Such an attitude is very close to the archaic mentality Eliade describes, especially as it retains its death-regeneration aspect. That Eastern Europe (destroyed and reborn time and again) still reflects this mentality more visibly in single gender classroom, its populace, and subsequently more often in commitment hrm, Lem's novels, than anywhere else in Europe should therefore not be surprising.
Lem's writing, then, not only subverts the ?comic inferno' approach of most American SF and brothers facts the deterministic utopianism of most Soviet SF, using the strengths of both (Suvin 215), but also comes closest to the original nature of the high commitment, archaic Utopia, with all that it implies and claims, and thus brings us virtually full circle, back to the beginning of Utopia's literary history. THE OFFICIAL UTOPIA OF BRAVE NEW WORLD. #9;The first task to be accomplished in my examination of Huxley's Brave New World is to establish that it is an official Utopia. As already noted, this is not necessarily easy, since Brave New World is usually considered one of the canonical anti-Utopias of the 20th century; it is easily the one most often cited. In Manuel's Utopias and Utopian Thought , there are eight listings in the index for Huxley's novel; for definition relief, Zamyatin's We and commitment hrm Orwell's 1984 , there is a combined total of only eight listings.
In Kateb's Utopia and of comic Its Enemies , the proportion is less even, with twelve listings for Huxley's novel, and only three for Zamyatin's and hrm Orwell's combined. An equally disproportionate number of listings for these three authors as well would further suggest that Huxley must be considered the anti-utopian writer par excellence . How then can the claim that Brave New World is an official Utopia be justified? #9;I have already noted that Huxley went on to write a full-blown Utopia, Island . As a literary about-face at least as dramatic as Wells' noted in the last chapter, this fact is still not enough of itself to prove that the Making Diane: An Aging Cougar Society, Brave New World is Utopia, but it certainly justifies reconsideration of the work. High Commitment. Preliminarily, an Making Cougar Within Essay analogy might be drawn with the feminine Gothic which was anti-utopian with respect to the official bourgeois Utopia, but was also pro-utopian with respect to high its own vision. Even so, it is not possible to deny that Brave New World is anti-utopian with respect to the Socialist Utopia; this is most readily apparent in Huxley's facetious use of names (e.g., Polly Trotsky , Herbert Bakunin , Bernard Marx , Lenin a Crowne). This anti-Socialist bias, however, does not automatically rule out a potentially pro-utopian vision. #9;Broadly speaking, three interrelated projects may be discerned in Brave New World : an anti-Socialist satire, a sociomoral broadside against hedonism, and Huxley's first, conflicted attempt to discover or realize Utopia. The first two projects represent a continuation of Huxley's writings in the niche he had established for himself in single, British literature in the first third of the 20th century, most notably in Point Counterpoint ; he was one of the cynical young men, nastily recording human social foibles (typically the gross errors of the ancestors and their puerile epigones), from under a mantle of ostensible moral outrage. High Hrm. This cynicism may be understood as the first symptom or signal that permits the epiphany that Brave New World is a Utopia; a few words about cynicism, then, are in order. #9;Cynicism is often a reaction to wounded idealism; consequently, the more intense the originating idealism, the more thoroughgoing the resultant cynicism. Moreover, such cynicism often begins to encrust during adolescence--that time of almost infinite hopes and dreams; such adolescent idealism, brutally confronted and crushed by the disappointments of (often love) life, retreats in Making Diane: Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Essay, the name of self-protection, and adopts the mask of high commitment, jaded indifference and derisive cynicism.
The buried idealism, however, is not always completely extinguished; sometimes it reasserts itself or reappears in old age, when there is either nothing more to lose or else when one has accumulated enough security, courage or inner strength to no longer be debilitated by milton free, the effects of disappointment. #9;One of the major disadvantages of high, cynicism, however, is classroom that if the idealism once again begins to seep out, if fatigue or carelessness lets slip the high hrm, reins tightly constricting one's idealistic impulses, then the cynic will most probably be ill-equipped to deal with it. It is, of course, quite possible to Sun, Essay learn how to handle idealistic hopes without being emotionally crushed by the threat or actuality of disappointment, but not if one has ruthlessly buried idealism in cynicism for years; or, rather, even the hrm, cynic can learn, but the progress will be that much delayed by years of self-repression. Brothers Facts. Owing to this lack of experience, when idealism does begin to reappear in the cynic, this can often lead to high commitment hrm dramatic, even ridiculous, changes in the cynic's outlook. #9;Huxley's literary career begins with Symbolist poetry and ends with Utopia; in the interim, his writings are marked by virulent sarcasm and cynicism. Single. Brave New World may well be a pivot point between the commitment hrm, exaggerated cynicism of Huxley's earlier writings and the exaggerated mystical idealism of his later writings, and thus provides some justification for re-viewing the Diane: Exploration Society Essay, apparent satire of Brave New World in a context of hidden or suppressed and wounded idealism. To do so, however, only strengthens the commitment, basis of the assertion that Huxley's novel presents a Utopia; it does not yet provide a demonstration that this is so. #9;In a lengthy Foreword written for the re-issue of Brave New World in 1946, hints of a surfacing utopian impulse may be discerned. Stylistically, the Foreword reveals that kind of offhand snottiness that is Making An of the Within Society often, if not a sign of internal weakness of character, then of ideological uncertainty.
Huxley begins, for example, with a maxim from the moralists to the effect that chronic remorse is bad; dutifully following the advice of wisdom, then, he acknowledges the defects and merits of his book, and sees this as a justification for high, not bothering to write it again correctly; And so, resisting the temptation to wallow in artistic remorse, I prefer to leave both well and ill alone and to think about something else ( BNW viii). #9;This might be all right, except that Huxley does go on to rewrite his book, in Borgesian fashion, by writing about its revision. Thus, having characterized the Savage's narrative choices at the end of the book as between insanity or lunacy, Huxley proposes a third option, sanity; in this community of sanity, economics would be decentralist and Henry-Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque co-operative (ix). #9;What is truly depressing about this passage is reno vs condon its ridiculous specificity, insofar as Henry-Georgian economics and Kropotkinesque politics are simply two more of the endless litany of economic and political isms that are by far one of the most tedious features of the official Utopia; one might just as productively propose a potlatch economy and Klingon politics. It has probably been done. The passage, in any case, provides an commitment example that Huxley at least had given some thought to the basis for a Utopia. In Brave New World Revisited , published in 1958, this possibility of sanity has vanished. Instead, Huxley attempts to friedman market demonstrate the veracity of the prophecies he made in Brave New World , in high commitment hrm, a tone common to the diatribe. 	Overpopulation and Making Diane: of the Aging Cougar Within overconsumption are the two most excoriated themes of Brave New World Revisited , and it is not difficult to discern behind this the high hrm, prophet's or arch-moralist's aversion to single gender sex and indulgence; themes that are equally, if less stridently, lambasted in high commitment hrm, Brave New World . It is, therefore, not wholly inappropriate to assume that a similar kind of reno vs condon, mystical aversion to the flesh is at work in Huxley's Utopia. #9;Northrop Frye remarks that [u]topian satire sometimes introduces celibate groups of fanatics by high commitment hrm, way of parody, as in 1984 and in Huxley's Ape and Essence (Varieties 35), but it is difficult to sense parody here, and certainly not in Brave New World (where the Savage is almost the Sun, Book Analysis Essay, lone celibate fanatic in a world of nymphomania and high satyriasis). Even as the Savage's propensity for self-flagellation may seem excessive or ridiculous, it is not parodic.
In his Foreword, Huxley notes that at the close of the novel the Savage: #9;is made to retreat from sanity; his native Penitente-ism reasserts its authority and he ends in maniacal self-torture and despairing suicide. And so they died miserably ever after--much to the reassurance of the amused, Pyrrhonic aesthete who was the author of the fable (viii). #9;The mocking tone here is directed more toward Huxley than toward his hero, the Savage, because for better or for worse the Savage is in fact one of the heroes of Brave New World (along with Helmholtz Watson). This may be seen in that one of the conceits of the novel is milton friedman market that the Savage has been partly socialized by an errant copy of The Complete Works of William Shakespeare that has found its way to the Reservation where the Savage (John) has grown up. Thus, it is the Savage, quoting Miranda from The Tempest , who gives the book its title. More significantly, in trying to come to terms with his mother's promiscuity on the Reservation, the Savage has recourse to hrm the Bard more than once. For example: #9;Nay, but to live. #9;In the rank sweat of an enseamed bed, #9;Stew'd in corruption, honeying and making love. #9;Over the definition of comic relief, nasty sty . High Commitment Hrm. (qtd. in BNW 133). #9;The attitude toward sex expressed here reaches it climax when the facts, Savage's self-flagellation turns outward into assault.
Having been vacillating between Romeo and Juliet and Othello with respect to his sexually promiscuous love interest (Lenina Crowne), the Savage finally flees both her and high commitment her culturally carnal Utopia and delights in Sun, and Talia, scourging himself with a whip. But Utopia will not leave him alone, and high commitment hrm a crowd invades his monastic privacy. Lenina, too, finally shows up and brothers the Savage promptly attacks her; first with Shakespearean words (strumpet, fitchew, fry, lechery, fry), and then with the whip he uses on himself: #9;Drawn by the fascination of the horror of pain and, from within, impelled by that habit of cooperation, that desire for unanimity and atonement, which their conditioning had so ineradicably implanted in high commitment, them, [the crowd] began to mime the frenzy of blood brothers, [John's] gestures, striking at one another as the Savage struck at his own rebellious flesh, or at that plump incarnation of turpitude writhing in the heather at his feet (266). It is apparently guilt for this act that prompts the high commitment, Savage's suicide. #9;Again, this is of comic not parody, but rather a romanticization of the domestic violence Ellis examines; a romanticization that can indeed be traced back to, and high hrm hence dignified by, William Shakespeare, and not only in its most complete incarnation in Othello . The Savage's horror and guilt are no more parodic than Othello's.
Consequently, the Savage's attitude reflects the double demand of chastity for both oneself and classroom others, which is, at least, as unhypocritical as it is despotic. Moreover, that the hrm, Savage's chastity leads to bizarre habits (in this case, self-mortification) is neither surprising, nor historically unattested. Quite before Freud observed the effects of sexual repression, the Marquis de Sade, with his characteristic bluntness, observed as much as well: #9;Juliette finds it quite a challenge to corrupt a pious Spaniard, but she has little difficulty once she has placed three young boys in his way. Man is single classroom weak, she comments. Hrm. The pious are weaker than most, especially when you offer them boys. Moon Essay. Seldom sufficiently stressed, often not even realized, there exists a powerful analogy between believers in high commitment, God and buggers ( Juliette 630 qtd. in Moore 89). #9;Certainly revelations of late out of the Catholic clergy would seem to vindicate the Marquis, and in prisons, it is Making Diane: of the Aging Cougar Within Society tacitly assumed (with justification) that many inmate churchgoers are often sex offenders, especially child molesters. Commitment Hrm. As such, the Savage's grimly serious Penitente-ism, and the milder but still sarcastic scorn heaped on the promiscuity of single gender classroom, Huxley's Utopia seem to stem from the same source: a religious aversion to the Flesh. It might also therefore not be so surprising to high hrm discover that there is what some might term child pornography in Brave New World . Chapter III begins, outside, in the garden, it was playtime. Naked in the warm June sunshine, six or seven hundred little boys and girls were running. (29). Of course, mere nakedness would not constitute pornography, but the following would: #9;In a little grassy bay between tall clumps of Mediterranean heather, two children, a little boy of about seven and a little girl who might have been a year older, were playing, very gravely and with all the brothers facts, focussed attention of scientists intent on a labour of discovery, a rudimentary sexual game (30).
#9;Perhaps there is nothing prurient here, but Hollywood will never film Brave New World with the original of high hrm, this scene in it. Huxley's intent, of course, appears to be satirical, insofar as he inverts the conventional sentimentalization of children (as sexless) to Moon Book Analysis illuminate the high, depravity of his Utopia, but there are other problematic features of classroom, this chapter, to which I will return below. #9;Huxley's contention that he gives his Savage only two options (insanity and lunacy) is high commitment simply false, since the Savage somehow escapes from Utopia and Moon and Talia Analysis installs himself, after some scourging, in high hrm, the rather transparent symbol of a monastic lighthouse. In this Utopia beyond Utopia, the Savage settles in to make his life, nettled occasionally by Diane: An Exploration of the Cougar Within Essay, his lapses into desiring civilization's comforts, or becoming too overappreciative of the natural beauty around him, or forgetting his dead mother: poor Linda, and his own murderous unkindness to her, and those loathsome twins, swarming like lice across the mystery of her death, insulting, with their presence, not merely his own grief and repentance, but the very gods themselves (254-5). #9;One might detect a note of jocosity here (the very gods themselves), but it is far less pronounced, and less flatly sarcastic, than elsewhere in the novel; the normal glaze of cynicism seems to have become almost transparent, such that we may be very close to the true Utopia in Huxley's novel. But there is yet another, even less visible, Utopia in Brave New World. After an abortive revolution involving the Savage, Helmholtz Watson and Bernard Marx, the insurgent triumvirate is brought before Mustapha Mond, one of the high commitment hrm, ten World-Controllers. As punishment, Bernard and Helmholtz will be sent to the island of their choice, where they will, as Mond notes, #9;meet the most interesting set of men and women to be found anywhere in reno vs condon, the world. All the people who, for one reason or another, have got too self-consciously individual to fit into community-life. All the high commitment, people who aren't satisfied with orthodoxy, who've got independent ideas of their own. Every one, in a word, who's any one (233).
#9;Mond does not permit the Savage to go as well, since he is interested in the social experiment of the Savage remaining in Utopia. As I have already noted, however, the Savage escapes anyway, but Mond does not pursue him. Rather, Utopia itself does, in a plot twist as narratively bemusing as the reader's sudden discovery of the islands. Such islands totally destroy the logic of Huxley's anti-utopian critique; if discontents can go to the island of their choice, then we are certainly not dealing with a vicious totalitarian State; compare Orwell's 1984 for a properly totalitarian denouement. Similarly, if the Savage is supposed to remain behind for relief, the sake of high commitment, a social experiment, why doesn't Mond have him retrieved? That is, what is the narrative justification for Mond's statement, if there is no follow-through in the text? It begins to seem gratuitous.
Equally gratuitous is the invasion of the Savage's lighthouse; or, even if such were demonstrated to be purposeful, why couldn't the Savage just move to another site? Is this really just ?And so they died miserably ever after'--much to the reassurance of the amused, Pyrrhonic aesthete who was the friedman free market, author of the fable (viii)? Why reassurance ? Is this a rejection of the Savage's third option (the lighthouse, instead of lunacy or insanity), which Huxley does not mention in his Foreword, or of the Savage himself? Or of both, as a disavowal of the savage ideal and the idealized savage. Perhaps the Savage may be seen as a figure marked by the dark eros of lust-repulsion, conflicted desire; his rejection, then, points to a triumph of the Mind-Spirit ( pneuma ) over hrm, the Flesh, as informed by an ascetic Utopia that is gender classroom only dimly discernible in the novel. #9;Why this should be, as well as other preliminary answers to the questions posed above, may be explored with more precision and detail by examining the monologic authorial treatment that Huxley employs everywhere throughout his book. Monologism in Brave New World. #9;One of the hallmarks of the official Utopia is its predominance of monologism, expressed through an inordinate specificity and high commitment hrm attention to detail (especially in relief, sexual matters), by guided tours, benevolent despots, and so forth. Brave New World reflects all of these monologic features: in the guided tour of the Central London Hatchery and high hrm Conditioning Centre that opens the novel, in the ritualized nature of sexual relations (including mandates on promiscuity and taboos against long-term relationships), in the mandates on soma and sports consumption, in gender, the benevolent despot figure of the hrm, World-Controller Mustapha Mond, and blood brothers so forth. (Actually Mond is more avuncular than paternal; again, compare him to high hrm Orwell's arch-sadist O'Brien in 1984 to sense this all the more clearly). #9;One might say that Huxley is Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis simply using the conventions of the official Utopia to high satirize it, but the monologism is not limited to the level of representation in Brave New World. In fact, I have only briefly summarized these features of the novel as indicating its official nature for two reasons.
First, the features of the official Utopia have already been explored at Sun, Moon and Talia Book Analysis length in commitment, Chapter I; rehearsing them here again would be redundant. Second, I have constantly maintained that official Utopias are monologic, not only at reno vs condon the level of representation, but also at the level of the commitment hrm, text itself, without providing any actual examples. With Brave New World at milton friedman free market hand, examples may now readily be provided. #9;The opening three chapters provide a view of family life in the Brave New World . This includes non-sexual reproduction and gestation in high commitment, a bottle, the (as many as 96) identical siblings of a Bokanovsky group, the electric and audio shocks used for conditioning of infants, the inculcation of social values into slightly older children via sleep-teaching (hypnopaedia), and definition the idyll of erotic playtime. Mustapha Mond then enters the setting of this idyll, and delivers a lecture to hrm a group of future Hatchery workers on the nature of family life in the old days: #9;Home, home--a few small rooms, stiflingly over-inhabited by a man, by a periodically teeming woman, by free market, a rabble of boys and girls of high commitment hrm, all ages. Diane: An Of The Aging. No air, no space; an understerilized prison; darkness, disease, and smells. #9;#9;And home was as squalid psychically as physically. Psychically, it was a rabbit hole, a midden, hot with the frictions of tightly packed life, reeking with emotion.
What suffocating intimacies, what dangerous, insane, obscene relationships between the members of the family group! Maniacally, the commitment, mother brooded over her children ( her children). brooded over milton friedman, them like a cat over high, its kittens; but a cat that could talk, a cat that could say, My baby, my baby, over and over again. My baby, and oh, oh, at my breast, the milton friedman free, little hands, the hunger, and that unspeakable agonizing pleasure! Till at last my baby sleeps, my baby sleeps with a bubble of white milk at the corner of his mouth. Hrm. My little baby sleeps. Single. #9; #9;	Yes, said Mustapha Mond, nodding his head, you may well shudder (36-7). The nature of family life in the old days is high commitment later dramatized by Huxley in more detail in the biographical childhood of the Savage. #9;These characterizations of family life (in the gender, Brave New World , on the Reservation, and in commitment hrm, Mond's lecture) are presented wholly independently of one another; that is, they exist alongside one another in the text without there being any explicit, or possibly even necessary, links between them.
This kind of sheer juxtaposition is sometimes considered a touchstone for refinement in literature, but I doubt the validity of such a critical stance. Countless objects in the world are juxtaposed to single one another in this way purely by accident, without any artistry being involved. High Commitment Hrm. To simply bring images together in a text is to leave it to the reader to supply the reno vs condon, significance of the paired or grouped images. The apparent authorial largesse of this seems rather to commitment mask an authorial cowardice, insofar as he or she refuses to of comic relief take a stance vis-à-vis the joined images. #9;The issue here seems to involve a point Aileen Kelly notes, in her excellent and summary Introduction to Isaiah Berlin's collected Essays in high, Russian Thinkers , which goes beyond simple authorial cowardice; the Russian intelligentsia had a habit of taking ideas and concepts to their most extreme, even absurd, conclusions: to blood brothers facts stop before the high, extreme consequences of one's reasoning was seen as a sign of moral cowardice, insufficient commitment to the truth (xvii). In these terms, mere juxtaposition without an authorial stance may, then, be considered an instance of moral cowardice. #9;Of course, sheer juxtaposition is usually not the only reason for claiming literary refinement; rather, it is the Exploration Aging Society Essay, author's selectivity, not the juxtaposition itself, that makes for greatness. In Huxley, the extremity of his contrasts obviously belies an intention of commitment hrm, selectiveness, but even so, a collection of stones, selected for their contrast, and definition of comic nicely arranged does not advance beyond the level of craft , however well-executed.
Art , as its meaning in alchemy reveals, is a combination of commitment, items that form another item altogether; it reflects an interanimation and fusion of elements. If an author merely presents craftily selected images in juxtaposition, then the effect may be aesthetic, but it is the reader who becomes the definition of comic, artist, who provides the artful combination of images that realizes their joined significance. Such art, as combination, fusion, interanimation and so forth, obviously resembles dialogue; simple juxtaposition, then, resembles the non-communication of two mutually deaf monologues. #9;It might be thought that I am overstating matters with regard to Brave New World , but the lack of dialogue between images is even more strongly apparent between characters. High Hrm. Lenina Crowne is constantly unable to understand Bernard Marx's social critique, and doesn't want to; she is even more at a loss when the Savage quotes Shakespeare at her. Neither can the reno vs condon, Savage make sense of his mother, who was mentally conditioned by the Brave New World. Bernard Marx and Helmholtz Watson meet from time to hrm time in an atmosphere of definition of comic relief, revolutionary conspiracy (owing to their shared alienation from society), but their conversations are usually transcriptions of failures to communicate. Even Helmholtz Watson (a poet and Propaganda Engineer) finally alienates himself from the Savage, by finding a serious scene in Romeo and Juliet hilarious: #9;He had managed, with a heroic effort, to hold down the mounting pressure of his hilarity; but sweet mother (in the Savage's tremulous tone of anguish) and commitment hrm the reference to reno vs condon Tybalt lying dead, but evidently uncremated and high wasting his phosphorous on gender, a dim monument, were too much for commitment, him.
He laughed and laughed till the tears streamed down his face. #9;	And yet, said Helmholtz when, having recovered breath enough to apologize, he had mollified the Savage into listening to his explanations. (188). #9;Why Helmholtz finds this so funny (mother is a wildly lewd term in the Brave New World, which has also adopted the pragmatic policy of cremating all bodies for phosphorous reclamation) is less significant than the obviously crossed paths of non-communication here; what the Savage is reading, and what Helmholtz is hearing, are totally different from one another. But note also that even the minimally dialogic exchange of I'm sorry and I accept has been elided; replaced by, ?And yet,' said Helmholtz when. he had mollified the Savage. Later in the same scene, Huxley seems to go out of gender, his way to dramatize this lack of communication; Helmholtz says, And who's going to get excited about a boy having a girl or not having her?' (The Savage winced; but Helmholtz who was staring pensively at commitment the floor, saw nothing.) (188). #9;The structure of this non-dialogue, then, is milton friedman free dialectic: point, counterpoint, as in a debate. Several of high commitment, Huxley's titles in blood, fact imply this kind of high, dialectic contrast: Ape and Essence, The Genius and the Goddess, Heaven and Hell, Themes and Variations, Ends and Means, Texts and Pretexts , and, of course, Point Counterpoint . What Bakhtin notes about blood brothers, dialectics would be pertinent to note at this point: #9;Dialogue and dialectics.
Take a dialogue and remove the voices (the partitioning of voices), remove the high, intonations (emotional and individualizing ones), carve out abstract concepts and judgments from living words and responses, cram everything into one abstract consciousness--and that's how you get dialectics ( Speech 147). #9;That dialectics, then, are ruthlessly monologic probably goes without saying. #9;The genre of the Analysis Essay, speech and high hrm the lecture are, of reno vs condon, course, almost always monologic, and hrm there are several examples of such in Brave New World : the Director of Hatcheries' spiel 3during the guided tour, Mond's own speech to the same tour group already cited, and the Savage's rebellious exhortation to a group of soma-craving Deltas. From a textual standpoint, the Savage's is the least interesting, but the first two warrant examination. Mond's lecture, for relief, instance, is split up into fragments interlarded into other scenic fragments. Huxley's intent by this would seem to be the manifold opportunities for juxtaposed contrasts and high commitment irony. Moon And Talia Analysis. Mond remarks: #9;	The discoveries of Pfitzner and Kawaguchi were at last made use of. An intensive propaganda against viviparous reproduction. #9;	Perfect! cried Fanny enthusiastically. She could never resist Lenina's charm for long. And what a perfectly sweet Malthusian belt! (51).
The Malthusian belt is commitment hrm a device that discourages pregnancy in unsterlized women like Lenina. Thus we see that the intensive propaganda has indeed resulted in a society that loves its subjugation--a perfectly sweet Malthusian belt. #9;If, as Darko Suvin suggests, one definition of wit is shifting between different cognitive levels (215), then Huxley is clearly demonstrating wit here, but it is rather of Exploration of the Cougar, a purely formal nature; that is, the irony of contrasts tends not to be terribly witty throughout. In fact, the fragmentation seems almost gratuitous, especially toward the commitment hrm, end where the juxtapositions become almost one-liners. Of course, this also leads to a readerly acceleration that provides a kind of narrative excitement, and which culminates well in milton market, a sudden, 15-line speech by his fordship (Mond) that is interrupted by two children. Commitment. The Director of Hatcheries (the ?D.H.C.') springs into action: #9;	Go away, little girl, shouted the D.H.C. angrily. Go away, little boy! Can't you see that his fordship's busy?
Go and do your erotic play somewhere else. #9;	Suffer little children, said the Controller. #9;#9;Slowly, majestically, with a faint humming of friedman, machinery, the conveyors moved forward, thirty-three centimetres an high commitment hour. In the red darkness glinted innumerable rubies (56). Since the innumerable rubies are the eyes of the free, future inhabitants of the Brave New World, the contrast of suffering children and these fetuses in glass is probably the most effective one in the chapter. But again, the high commitment hrm, monologism of this must be emphasized; whatever link exists between these two images must be provided by the reader; there is Sun, and Talia no explicit, and possibly not even a necessary link between the two. #9;It might be thought that I am being deliberately perverse in my insistence on an absence of links between the above images. In another paper, Discourse in the Modern Russian Novel, I drew attention to the intense parallelism of imagery in the opening section of Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago ; a parallelism that unmistakably linked the scene's several, carefully chosen symbols. Hrm. Such parallelism is weak at best in gender classroom, Brave New World. For one thing the innumerable rubies (56) noted above repeat an image (of fetuses grown in commitment, glass wombs and subjected to shaking, alcohol poisoning, disease and oxygen deprivation) from the middle of An Within Essay, Chapter I (9). The connection here (between fetuses and suffering children) can of course be established; it seems, however, to be as distant as the images are separated in the text, and may be felt, at best only very indirectly.
For another, Huxley has already shown us infant torture and childhood brainwashing; scenes that much more palpably suggest links with suffering children than the innumerable rubies. As it is, the images as Huxley has presented them to us seem to suggest more that simple conception is the hrm, root of blood facts, suffering children; that simply being brought into the world is egregious of hrm, itself. Such an idea, of course, could be applied not only to Huxley's Utopia, but to any culture and as such undermines what seems to be the satiric intent of juxtaposing the images in the first place. (It should also be noted in passing that by dropping the from Christ's suffer the little children, Mond's statement takes on more ominousness, and seems almost like a curse; that he wants the children to reno vs condon suffer. But this does not help to any more plausibly establish a necessary link between the high hrm, images.) #9;In the lecture by the Director of Hatcheries, a second voice (Henry Foster's) enters, but almost completely without a tittle of dialogue. There is an almost total consonance of blood facts, idea between the two men that, at one point, leads the Director's lecture to fragment into a kind of high commitment, schizophrenic monologue: #9;	Eighty-eight cubic metres of card-index, said Mr. Foster with relish, as they entered. #9;	Containing all the relevant information, added the Director.
#9;	Brought up to and Talia Book Analysis date every morning. #9;	And coordinated every afternoon. #9;	On the basis of which they make their calculations. #9;	So many individuals, of such and such a quality, said Mr. High Hrm. Foster. #9;	Distributed in such and such quantities.
#9;	The optimum Decanting Rate at classroom any given moment. #9;	Unforeseen wastages promptly made good. #9;	Promptly, repeated Mr. Foster. If you knew the amount of overtime I had to high commitment hrm put in after the last Japanese earthquake! He laughed goodhumouredly and shook his head. #9;	The Predestinators send in their figures to the Fertilizers. #9;	Who give them the reno vs condon, embryos they ask for. #9;	And the hrm, bottles come in here to be predestined in detail. #9;	After which they are sent down to the Embryo Store. #9;	Where we now proceed ourselves (8-9).
#9;The jauntiness of this passage is unmistakable, and its use of this kind of verbal switching goes back in comic writing at Moon and Talia Analysis Essay least to Classical Greece, where characters in drama bantered in high commitment, antiphonal hemistiches, but its monologic nature is equally obvious, almost to blood facts the point of exaggeration. Huxley's tendency for dialectic contrast has turned into a dialectic identity. #9;Monologism is also evident at the level of character in Brave New World , most obviously in the treatment of high, characters as types, rather than personalities. This is not, of course, strictly speaking a criticism, since character types are the stock-in-trade of social satire. Moreover, Bakhtin notes that in milton, the novel of ordeal (or Prüfungsroman ) a continuous identity of character is a prerequisite for a happy ending; The hammer of events shatters nothing and high commitment hrm forges nothing--it merely tries the definition, durability of an already finished product ( The Dialogic Imagination 107). This is quite true of Huxley's novel, except that And they died miserably every after requires the modification that the hammer of high, events shatters everything. This does not imply any character development, of course; the analysis of Bernard's character early in the novel (64-5) quite aptly foreshadows his grotesquely pathetic collapse in the latter half of the novel, following his return to Utopia with the Savage. The Savage undergoes a similar ordeal upon his arrival in Utopia, and gender classroom ends with a failure as spectacular (his suicide) as Bernard's, but in an entirely different register--grotesquely tragic, rather than pathetic. #9;This parallel of ordeal is matched by others as well, such that one can describe the Savage as Huxley's dialectic image of Bernard; the dialectic, however, is high again one of identity (as seen in the Director of Hatcheries and Mr. Foster), rather than contrast.
Thus, the Savage's violence, passion and Diane: An Exploration of the Cougar Society chivalry have their precedents in Bernard, though his grounding in Shakespeare gives him a stronger base to work from; in neither case are they strong enough to avoid disaster. That the Savage's past is radically different from Bernard's does not invalidate the claim that they are, in effect, the high hrm, same character; literary types do not, properly speaking, have pasts; biography only adds color, not substance. (Certain actions of the Savage, of blood brothers facts, course, are alien to Bernard, such as the Savage's grief over the death of commitment, his mother, but the type-parallels between the blood facts, two character nevertheless remain very close.) Camille Paglia has coined the phrase allegorical repletion to explain such doubling (for example, in Rossetti's The Bower Meadow and Astarte Syriaca , where the facial features of the various figures are identical); [t]he term describes a redundant proliferation of homologous identities in a matrix of sexual ambiguity ( Sexual Personae 157). She also reintroduces into critical usage the Greek word, apotropaion, as a charm to ward off evil spirits (49). As such, the doubling of the Bernard-Savage image may be interpreted as an allegorically replete apotropaion, with the ambiguity (or ambivalence) being that dark Eros of lust-repulsion (as an aversion to the flesh) that manifests not only in the exaggerated chivalry-profligacy of Bernard and the chivalry-violence of the Savage (toward himself and Lenina), but perhaps also in the erotic play of the naked children. Commitment Hrm. This, because children, precisely as symbols of sexlessness, may serve as a kind of apotropaic safe haven for those troubled by the lures of the definition, flesh; that such sometimes proves insufficient, that the ward (the pun is intentional) sometimes becomes the commitment hrm, object of a libidinal cathexis, is only too familiar. Allegorical repletion, moreover, may also be seen in both the scores and scores of identical individuals in Bokanovsky groups, and in the dialectic identity of the Director of Hatcheries and Mr. Foster's lecture. Insofar as these features of Brave New World each multiply a single word, so to brothers facts speak, they are all almost literally monologic. #9;Lenina and Linda (the Savage's mother) present a similar dialectic identity: both are upper-caste nymphomaniacs, both are literally whipped (by the commitment, Savage and the women of the Reservation, respectively) for blood, being so, both have physical deformities, both constantly parrot the hypnopaedic homilies they were taught as children, and both are the object of love for the Bernard-Savage dyad.
Linda (similar to the Savage with respect to Bernard) presents a more extreme version than Lenina; the physical description of high commitment hrm, her and her surroundings (119-20) is far more grotesque than the first description of Lenina; One could see that, for Sun, Moon and Talia, all the lupus and the purple eyes, she was uncommonly pretty (15). Linda (again much more obviously than Lenina, but the parallel exists) represents what Northrop Frye has termed a suppliant: #9;the character, often female, who presents a picture of commitment, unmitigated helplessness and Diane: Exploration of the Aging Within Society Essay destitution. Such a figure is pathetic, and pathos, though it seems a gentler and hrm more relaxed mood than tragedy, is even more terrifying. Its basis is the exclusion of an individual from a group, hence it attacks the deepest fear in ourselves that we possess--a fear much deeper than the relatively cosy and sociable bogey of hell. In the figure of the suppliant pity and terror are brought to the highest possible pitch of brothers, intensity, and the awful consequences of rejecting the suppliant for all concerned is a central theme of commitment hrm, Greek tragedy. And Talia Analysis Essay. Suppliant figures are often women threatened with death or rape ( Anatomy 217). #9;Linda, presumed lost during her tour long ago of the hrm, Reservation and consequently left behind by her lover (the Director of Hatcheries as it turns out), fully accords with Frye's description. Her mental conditioning (as a member of the second, Beta, caste) has left her woefully unprepared for reno vs condon, primitive life; she is beaten, driven to alcoholism, and lives in rags and commitment garbage on the outskirts of the village because she is deemed a pariah and whore.
Once she returns to Utopia, she puts herself on such an of comic relief extreme soma -diet that she is (in perhaps one of the few acts of mercy in high commitment, Brave New World ) dead by the novel's end. But can her situation and friedman fate be blamed on Utopia? After all, her conditioning may make her helpless on the Reservation, but it is the values of Othello , so to speak, that make her destitute. #9;If Huxley is trying to satirize the atrocity of mental conditioning in the Brave New World, by using an image that argues, in effect, See what happens when a Beta is hrm confronted with ?real-life,' then he has failed as miserably as Bernard or the single gender, Savage. In the World-State of Utopia, such confrontations are non-real; that Linda survives at all without going insane is already heroic in itself. The argument is equivalent to saying, A clock makes a terrible broom, and much as we might want to decry Utopia on external grounds (e.g., that genetic disfigurement and conditioning are moral evils), within the context of Utopia, the overwhelming majority of Huxley's inhabitants are happy; that they have been conditioned to be that way is high so much the better since, in terms of ensuring their happiness, the Brave New World achieves what our Constitution can only promise as a pursuit. As the Director of Hatcheries puts it; ?[T]hat is the secret of happiness and virtue--liking what you've got to do. All conditioning aims at that: making people like their unescapable social destiny' (15). #9;Saying so may seem perverse, but what Brave New World appears to counterpropose (the Savage ideal) is even more perverse. As Kateb remarks, in reno vs condon, this discussion of pain and pleasure; At times it seems that the antiutopians favor pain as men would favor it who never felt very much of it and think it may be good for themselves and surely could not be too bad for others ( Utopia 126). This preference for physical pain over pleasure and an aversion to the flesh obviously go hand in hand; worse, that exponents of pain think that it surely could not be too bad for others is a very true and commitment ominous concomitant.
It is a very short step from this idea to deliberate violence, or even darker still to pure sadism that masquerades as moral instruction. How many wives have been thrashed by domestic sadists to teach her a lesson in fidelity? How many teachers had erections as they paddled the naked buttocks of their pupils? How often was something other than atonement going through the minds of abbots or priests as they witnessed the physical penance of their monks? Kateb alternatively offers that at other times, the antiutopians speak as men who have seen or had so much pain that they have become incapable of milton, imagining that there could come a time when pain--at least in its more brutalizing forms--could cease to be (126-7). This dovetails perfectly with the syndrome of cynicism I detailed above. #9;Linda's treatment in the novel, then, may be directly read in light of this cynicism and sadism. She (and to a lesser extent Lenina) is Huxley's whipping girl in a work that dramatizes his conflicted lust-attraction toward a hedonist Utopia. Outside of commitment hrm, such a view, Linda's debasement is logically incoherent and structurally unnecessary. She could, for example, have been rescued years ago by other tourists (to the detriment of the An Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Society Essay, plot of course); she could simply have died.
Her own reason for not trying to leave the Reservation was that the shame of being a mother prevented her from going to the Reservation's inspector (120); all the same, she could have abandoned, if not killed, her son. Any of these alternatives would have spared Linda her unnecessary ordeal. More significantly, though Huxley refers to life on the Reservation as more human in some respects, but in others hardly less queer and abnormal (viii), this is rather disingenuous, since the Penitente -ism of the Reservation is hardly a universal feature of Native American culture. High Hrm. Another tribal setting, then, would have spared Linda as well (unless, of course, not sparing her was precisely Huxley's intention). #9;At the obvious level of Brave New World , then, there are two interrelated Utopias: the erotopia of the Brave New World, punished in the figures of Lenina and Linda, and reno vs condon the thanatopia of the Reservation, championed by Bernard and the Savage. In spite of these apparently dialectical contrasts, however, the novel belies a very single-minded and consistent unity of purpose; the Reservation's squalor, violence, pain, humiliation and blood are simply the obverse of the Brave New World's cleanliness, peace, pleasure and soma . #9;So far, I have had recourse to high commitment hrm a perhaps dubious psychologism by definition, reading behind the surface of Brave New World and imputing various impulses to Huxley himself. Huxley may, in fact, have been wholly aloof to the conflict his juxtaposed images suggest, but the ironies of the text make determining whether this is high either a defensive covering or simply cynicism extremely difficult. Huxley's rigorous partitioning of images, their undialogic nature (for which the reader must provide the significance) and the monologic repetition of images might have been a way for him to avoid an engagement in the conflict he presents, or it might just be an artistic conceit. (Of course, one could impute that it is a fear of engagement that leads to the choice of this kind of artistic conceit.) #9;It is possible to use the reno vs condon, hermeneutic of idealism behind cynicism and a fear of engagement only to a certain point of diminishing returns. As is high commitment also the case with many of Freud's fundamental ideas, such hypotheses are difficult, if not impossible, to verify.
That Huxley's ironic stance leaves it to the reader and the critic to draw conclusions about the blood facts, novel (and abrogates Huxley's right, though not his ability, to object to such conclusions), still does not justify being satisfied with the hrm, psychoanalysis of the foregoing. Terry Eagleton, in Literary Theory: An Introduction , has noted that the problems of literary value and pleasure would seem to lie somewhere at the juncture of psychoanalysis, linguistics and ideology, and little work has been done here as yet (192). Reno Vs Condon. If linguistics and ideology are understood in their Bakhtinian sense as metalinguistics and discourse, then the following may represent a start. Metalinguistics and Discourse in Brave New World. #9;Huxley's novel opens: #9;A squat grey building of only thirty-four stories. Over the main entrance the high hrm, words CENTRAL LONDON HATCHERY AND CONDITIONING CENTRE, and, in a shield, the World State's motto, COMMUNITY, IDENTITY, STABILITY. #9;#9;The enormous room on the ground floor faced towards the north. Cold for all the summer beyond the panes, for all the tropical heat of the room itself, a harsh thin light glared through the windows, hungrily seeking some draped lay figure, some pallid shape of academic goose-flesh, but finding only the glass and nickel and reno vs condon bleakly shining porcelain of a laboratory. Wintriness responded to wintriness. High Hrm. The overalls of the workers were white, their hands gloved with a pale corpse-coloured rubber. The light was frozen, dead, a ghost.
Only from the yellow barrels of the microscopes did it borrow a certain rich and living substance, lying along the polished tubes like butter, streak after luscious streak in a long recession down the Moon and Talia Analysis, work tables (1). #9;In the very first sentence, there is the surreal disjunction of the squat building of only thirty-four stories. This disjunction, however, is not supported by the rest of the paragraph, which is high commitment instrumental in telling us that we are not in Book Analysis Essay, the present world, but rather in the World-State (presumably) of the future, well-characterized by its motto. #9;With the second paragraph, with its morgue-like description of cold (in spite of the tropical heat of the room), corpse-colored rubber, the frozen, dead ghost of the light, and the clinical gleam of commitment, glass, nickel and bleak porcelain, Huxley gets down to business. Into this atmosphere of autopsy (the Fertilizing Room as it turns out, that substitutes for the intimacy of blood brothers facts, sexual intercourse and commitment hrm reproduction in the Brave New World), Huxley inserts images of food: the hungry light, the goose of pallid goose-flesh, and of course the buttery microscope tubes drenched streak after luscious streak in friedman free market, light. #9;There are at least three ways of reading this paragraph. #9;As a surrogate for reproduction, this Fertilizing Room solves the problem of sexual intercourse that arises out high hrm, of an aversion to the flesh. Sun, Moon Book Analysis. It is not a complete solution, insofar as even clinical distance cannot wholly deny what is going on hrm, in this tropical morgue; hence, the disgusting or repulsive combining of the morgue (corpse-coloured rubber and goose-flesh) and relief the banquet (butter and goose as food) to heighten the hrm, nausea-potential of the scene.
#9;It should also be added that the paragraph is either confused, or confusing (which may be nothing more than another surreal disjunction that underlines the unnatural inversions the Brave New World espouses and reflects, but might also signify the confusion of conflict arising from an milton free market aversion to the flesh, whether Huxley's or purely thematic). High Commitment Hrm. For example, since goose-flesh usually occurs in single classroom, cold, not tropical heat, the actual temperature of the room is difficult to decide at first. The first word of the second sentence, Cold, refers to the harsh thin light but, because of the high commitment, intervening phrase (for all the definition relief, tropical heat of the room itself), Cold seems to commitment hrm refer to single gender the room. Commitment. Wintriness responded to wintriness is Making An Cougar Within similarly unclear at first; since there are both the tropical heat of the commitment hrm, room and single all the summer beyond the panes, that the two wintrinesses refer to the harsh thin light and hrm the clinical coldness of the laboratory is friedman free not readily apparent at first. #9;Then comes the butter, no less than luscious. Commitment Hrm. Doubtless, certain Freudian critics would see row upon row of glistening phalluses in the butter-drenched microscope tubes and, in this case, in the Fertilizing Room, the assertion would at least seem apropos; Paglia might additionally point out that the sheer number of tubes (300, in fact) makes for a vivid example of definition relief, allegorical repletion.
Whether these tubes should be taken as phallic or not, the sudden sensuality of the commitment hrm, description, especially the lascivious luscious, could be interpreted as an outbreak of lust over against milton free, its attempted suppression by a clinical coldness, a return of the repressed. #9;A second, less involved, interpretation would accept the images at face-value, taking the commitment hrm, morgue-banquet combination as straightforward satire designed to elicit disgust in the reader. Having thus engendered our nausea without letting us know in advance why we should be disgusted, Huxley then provides a grounding or lightning rod for this nausea by announcing this laboratory is the Fertilizing Room. Discovering this afterward would seem to be more effective than if we know beforehand; the shock of gender classroom, realization is more pronounced. #9;Of course, for readers not familiar with the premise of the novel, the fact that humans are being reproduced here goes unappreciated, especially as Huxley spuriously tells us that this building is a hatchery. The scenario seems rather to be one of livestock or chicken production; Huxley is deferring the revelation that human production is at high hrm work here until later. As late as page three, Huxley is still deferring, and offering red herrings; Rams wrapped in theremogene beget no lambs (3). The first clue is found on the same page, when the Director of Hatcheries refers to a bonus amounting to six months' salary (3) for gender classroom, the surgical extraction of ova undergone for high, the good of Society (3).
This rather cryptic statement for the first reader is followed by the first reference to the castes, and definition of comic soon after by Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress (4). #9;The third interpretation of the second paragraph would draw attention to high commitment the ancient and Moon Book Analysis carnivalesque tradition of the funeral feast (a morgue-banquet), and to the linking of death and eating in general. For the modern mind, the proximity of eating and food to hrm repulsive things (like corpses) evokes disgust precisely because the older, carnivalesque associations have been forgotten or revalued in negative terms. Under Carnival, the conjunction of butter, goose-flesh, and corpse would already imply the Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis, communal triumph and renewing of life (as feasting) over death; that the setting is the Fertilizing Room makes the renewing-regenerating aspect of the commitment, image explicit. #9;There seems to be no reason, however, to believe that Huxley intended these old associations.
The entire paragraph is Making An Exploration Within Society Essay slanted toward nausea, not festiveness. Commitment Hrm. This is exactly how reduced laughter manifests in modern satire; the unions of images are retained, but are stripped of their regenerating (positive) aspect. Consequently, there is an milton free alienation of death and eating that implies a correlate alienation from life as well. The funeral banquet acknowledges death, but triumphs over it through the social immortality of hrm, community and life itself, and by the festive, not existentially gloomy, atmosphere of eating and reno vs condon drinking. Reduced laughter severs these links, and thereby effaces festive laughter's wisdom; death becomes an intolerable horror, the terror of history. Hrm. Of course, festive laughter (cosmic and universal) cannot ever be wholly extinguished, and its images are easy enough to discern once one learns how to recognize them; de-revaluating them back to An Exploration of the Aging something of commitment, their original nature, however, is more difficult to be persuasive about. #9;This paragraph does not feature the only repulsive use of blood facts, food and drink in Brave New World . Discussing how excised ova are preserved after extraction, the Director of Hatcheries referred to the liquor in which the commitment, detached and ripened eggs were kept; and, leading his charges to the work tables, actually showed them how this liquor was drawn off from the test-tubes (3). The use and repetition of liquor here almost reflexively invites the reader to have a glass of ripened and detached ova in saline (with probable gag results), but that again does not efface the Diane: An Exploration Cougar Within Essay, fertility of the image, if the pun will be excused. And, after the commitment, main course of butter and blood brothers facts goose-flesh, apparently washed down with eggnog, Huxley then serves us a warm bouillon containing free-swimming spermatozoa--at a minimum concentration of one hundred thousand per cubic centimetre (4).
I suspect that the word warm lends this description its effectiveness more than the high, concentrated thickness of the bouillon itself; again, though, the inadvertently positive link here between eating (food) and life-renewal is obvious. #9;After these moments of divine conception, food and drink imagery ebbs, leaving behind an only physical grossness in definition of comic relief, phrases like blood surrogate, but carnivalesque associations still do not become totally obliterated. In the Bottling Room (where fetuses are placed in glass wombs, hence ?bottled'), the bottles are lined with flaps of fresh sow's peritoneum ready cut to the proper size [that come] shooting up in little lifts from the Organ Store in the sub-basement (7-8). The peritoneum is a membrane investing the internal surface of the abdomen, and the viscera contained in it ( New Webster's Expanded Dictionary ). Commitment. And again, like warm noted above, the word fresh here tends to evoke edibility (flaps of brothers facts, fresh sow's peritoneum), though I think the commitment, retching of the reader here would be delayed until a dictionary could be found. The whole phrase is well-calculated to repulse (fresh gastrointestinal lining) and insult (the substitution of sow for womb, and the Biblical and barnyard association with pigs). #9;In spite of reno vs condon, all of commitment, this, the peritoneum itself, as literally closely associated with tripes ( viscera is the Latin for tripes) has its own set of positive, carnivalesque associations. #9;The stomach and bowels of cattle, tripe, were carefully cleaned, salted and cooked. Tripe could not be preserved long; they were therefore consumed in milton friedman free market, great quantities on slaughtering days and cost nothing.
Moreover, it was believed that after cleaning, tripe still contained ten percent excrement which was therefore eaten with the rest of the meal. #9;#9;Tripe, stomach, intestines are the bowels, the belly, the very life of man. High Commitment Hrm. But at the same time they represent the swallowing, devouring belly. Further, the belly does not only eat and friedman free market swallow, it is also eaten, as tripe. [T]ripe is commitment linked with death, with slaughter, murder, since to disembowel is to kill. Finally, it is linked with birth, for the belly generates. #9;#9;Thus, in the image of tripe life and death, birth, excrement and food are all drawn together and tied in Moon Essay, one grotesque knot; this is the center of commitment, bodily topography in Making Diane: of the Cougar Society Essay, which the upper and lower stratum penetrate each other ( Rabelais 162-3). As the lining of the intestines and high hrm belly, then, the brothers, peritoneum is the very shield of life (whether sow's or not) that holds it all together.
#9;Additionally, Mr. Foster tells the future Hatchery workers of the growing embryo on high commitment, its bed of Sun, Book Essay, peritoneum. High Commitment Hrm. Made them taste the rich blood surrogate on which it fed (10-1). Again, note the word rich here, like warm and fresh, which edibilizes the blood surrogate. A variation of classroom, this occurs on the same page in the hog's stomach extract and fetal foal's liver. High Hrm. The liver, of course, has its own set of definition relief, ancient associations, not only that it was once the high commitment hrm, seat of affections, but also that as one of the filters of bodily impurities, it too reflects the blood brothers facts, same tainted quality as tripes when eaten. The phrase fetal foal also has its own amusing qualities, not only for its alliteration, but also for its oxymoronic redundancy.
Turning a fetal foal into an extract, then (to prevent anemia in the growing embryos), is a sort of double infanticide. Commitment. (I do not need to stress the of comic relief, popular sympathy for high hrm, fetuses, and milton friedman free market if Huxley had used fetal veal instead, I would not need to mention the popular sympathy for commitment, helpless young animals either). #9;Of course, with these fetal foals, we are not yet in single classroom, the realm of Swift's Modest Proposal, but we are certainly nearby; close enough that anti-abortionists and equinophiles might be raised to high commitment alarm, even if less sensitive humanitarians were not. Swift's proposal, in any case, was primarily economic; de Sade offers a different proposal: 	We'll try some, said Sbrigani; it is absurd to turn up one's nose at anything. it is no more extraordinary, after all, to eat a human than to reno vs condon eat chicken. #9;#9;So saying my husband dug his fork into high hrm a joint of boy which looked to him especially well prepared ( Juliette 585, qtd. in Moore 98). Moore, in his characteristic way, interprets this theme of child-eating as a way of internalizing and reno vs condon tasting childhood and the archetypal child (98); that is, of overcoming the false sentimentalization by which we perceive actual children and high our own childishness. True as this may be, one could also more simply note that the child (or foal or calf) and all the more so the fetus, is closer to the original outburst of life energy than any adult; that they reflect the perfection of a renewed Creation. As such, extract of fetal foals, like a joint of boy or the related aphrodisiacal tiger penis, is single classroom yet another image of high hrm, regenerating festive laughter, now visible to us only in reduced form. #9;The remainder of Chapter I is taken up with a tour in the classic utopian style of the human production factory, with a subsequent decline in reno vs condon, the concentrated richness of vocabulary and description found in the second paragraph; sarcasm comes to replace the relative subtlety of the opening. An example of this is the repeated phrase Straight from the horse's mouth (2), which is used in reference to the slavish attention paid to the Director by commitment, his future workers during their tour. The phrase, moreover, may clearly be attributed to Sun, Analysis Essay the narrator. A more ambiguous example has already been noted: Making ninety-six human beings grow where only commitment hrm one grew before.
Progress (4). The word progress here has a doubled intonation that reflects both the effusive enthusiasm of the Director and the scornful irony of the narrator. Of Comic Relief. Such double-accentedness illustrates the interanimation of one discourse (word) by another; by contrast, Straight from the horse's mouth is bodily inserted into the Director's discourse. The latter belies only high opposition to another's word, rather than the subversion of it indicated in progress. #9;Such subversion in Brave New World , however, is invariably of relief, a negating, ironic type, and is not limited by commitment, the narrator to blood brothers facts the people or powermongers of Utopia. High Commitment. The contrast between the Savage's Shakespearean passion for Lenina and her totally liberated view of sex makes for yet another surreal disjunction that drifts finally into the ridiculous.
This ridiculousness can be felt when the narrator reports that the Savage was obscurely terrified lest [Lenina] should cease to be something he could feel himself unworthy of (172, my emphasis). Sun, Moon And Talia Book Analysis Essay. The emphasized portion here perfectly reflects the Savage's discourse; he might very well have uttered it himself. Commitment Hrm. Conveyed, however, by the narrator, who, along with the reader, knows that Lenina is definition of comic relief already something the commitment hrm, Savage could feel himself unworthy of, the phrase is imbued with the narrator's sense of the Savage's ridiculousness. #9;Such negations are unremitting and legion in Brave New World . Pyrrhonic is an apt characterization for Huxley's attitude, since nothing is left unrazed by the novel's end. Such ironization, as a base of satire, again reflects reduced laughter; a laughter that retains the destructive element of festive laughter's abuse-praise, while eliminating (or remaining unaware of) its regenerating element. What particularly makes this monologic, in spite of the double-accentedness of the text, is that all of the irony proceeds in the same cynical tone. The stridency of this tone, however, drops off considerably in the first three chapters of the friedman free market, book, partly because the interanimation of discourse apparent in progress begins to appear on a larger scale.
This occurs with the greatest frequency in Chapter I between the narrator and high commitment hrm the Director (and the Director's surrogate, Mr. Foster). #9;Formally, this manifests as an alternation between direct and indirect speech transcription, between actual statements made by the Director and narrated summaries of his statements. Making Diane: Aging Cougar Within Society. For example: #9;	But, alas, the Director shook his head, we can't bokanovskify indefinitely. #9;#9;Ninety-six seemed to be the limit; seventy-two a good average. From the same ovary and with gametes of the hrm, same male to manufacture as many batches of identical twins as possible--that was the single classroom, best (sadly a second best) that they could do (6). #9;What is obvious in this selection, and high commitment hrm it is typical, is that the Director's discourse partially shapes the narrator's; the prose summary reflects the Director's style of speech. Milton Free. This is clearest after the dash, that was the commitment hrm, best (sadly a second best) that they could do, but it would not be an exaggeration to impute the shaping of the narrator's discourse by the Director's throughout the entire passage.
An even more striking example occurs when the Director rhetorically asks, What would be the use of reno vs condon, that? (6), and the narrator answers, Obviously, no use at all. This device is not solely limited to the Director's discourse; Huxley continues to use it when Mr. Foster takes over the tour. #9;	Which brings us at last, continued Mr. Commitment Hrm. Foster, out of the reno vs condon, realm of mere slavish imitation of nature into the much more interesting world of human invention. #9;#9;He rubbed his hands. High Hrm. For of course, they didn't content themselves with merely hatching out embryos; any cow could do that (12). #9;In Bakhtin's typology of discourses, the above principally reflects parodistic (ironic) discourse, in which another's discourse is used for conveying aspirations that are hostile to it ( Problems 194). As Huxley employs such discourse, it amounts to giving Utopia's spokespeople enough rope with which to hang themselves.
But, as I have noted, the technique is not strictly leveled against Utopia's inhabitants. If I am careful to attempt to definition keep separate the author and the narrator for the time being, then the universal irony of Huxley's narrator cannot necessarily be ascribed to Huxley as well. Insofar as a narrator is a tool for authorial intentions (whether such intentions are directly or indirectly expressed) as such the narrator's universal irony might serve to mask a different agenda on Huxley's part. For this reason, it might be pertinent to wonder if the irony is really irony. #9;With Straight from the horse's mouth, there seems to be an high commitment unmistakable example of the narrator's voice, uninvaded by reno vs condon, any Utopian's, and discretely set apart in its own sentence. With the other, invaded examples above, the assumption of irony seems plausible although, as was shown to be the case with Huxley's juxtaposed images, an explicit or necessary justification for such an assumption may not prove to be so plausible after all. The word, progress, for example, even in high commitment, its bluntness, warrants but perhaps does not mandate hearing an ironic accent. Moreover, as Chapter I progresses, the blatantness of the second paragraph and Straight from the blood, horse's mouth gives way to an increasing sense of this non-mandated irony. #9;One might assume that Huxley, the subtle British wit, dispenses with obviousness as he advances, because the tone has already been set, and that further obviousness would become artistically grotesque. On the other hand, a decrease in the mandate of irony might also be said to indicate a decrease in the amount of actual scorn heaped. #9;Insofar as Brave New World is anti-pleasure and anti-Flesh, rather than anti-Utopia per se, a decrease in irony could be expected the high commitment hrm, further and further the text gets from the act of conception occurring in the Fertilizing Room.
Repulsive food imagery does in fact entirely vanish by page twelve, never to Moon Analysis Essay return. The tour itself even begins to take on a somewhat jaunty, but still scientific tone: #9;	The lower the caste, said Mr. Foster, the shorter the oxygen [to the fetuses]. The first organ affected was the brain. After that the skeleton. At seventy percent of normal oxygen you got dwarfs.
At less then seventy eyeless monsters. #9;	Which are no use at all, concluded Mr. Foster. #9;#9;Whereas (his voice became confidential and commitment eager), if they could discover a technique for shortening the period of maturation what a triumph, what a benefaction to Society! #9;#9;They considered it (13). #9;Occasionally, a character's enthusiasm in Brave New World is noted by the narrator as infectious (14); the narrator here seems similarly caught up. Eyeless monsters cannot be taken as ironic, since it would seem to be exactly the phrase Mr. Foster would have used.
The same is true of the stilted benefaction to Society!, except that by presenting the statement in indirect transcription, one must assume that the irony implied by the narrator's statement somehow differs from Mr. Foster's direct statement. Moreover, the almost complete domination here of the narrator's voice by Mr. Foster's renders the former's almost mute. This is a kind of either clever or bizarre twist on More's guided tour; insofar as More's dominated narrator was embodied in a protagonist, in Brave New World the tour guide's domination extends to Sun, Moon and Talia the level of Huxley's third-person omniscient narrator. As a consequence of hrm, this, it becomes very difficult to remain certain that irony is present. #9;On the other hand, one might assert that the narrator does indicate points of irony, specifically in the yoking together of Sun, and Talia Book Analysis, technical jargon and high commitment hrm colloquialisms, e.g., at seventy percent of normal oxygen and single gender you got dwarfs. One might subsequently try to discover a correlation between an absence of contractions in the technical jargon, and a wealth of them in the narrated summaries, or some other kind of consistent use of discourse in a like manner, without success. Such would be very slim evidence in any case, unless it was clearly deliberate.
#9;Following the commitment, above-quoted passage, there is then a rather gratuitous discussion on the slowness of human maturation; a problem as yet unsolved by Utopia. The sense of gratuitousness here arises because Huxley seems to be following an idea that does not logically need to be pursued. It is true that an increased rate of maturation (i.e., full adulthood by age six) would lead to a disappearance of childhood as we know it, but if this is a satiric point on of comic relief, Huxley's part, then it is muffled by the technical jargon and is redundant in any case due to Utopia's predestination of high commitment hrm, caste and conditioning. Childhood as we know it has already vanished; increased rates of and Talia Book Essay, human maturation would not change a thing. #9;By the end of the chapter, the narrator has begun to sound almost reasonable: 	Heat conditioning, said Mr. Foster. #9;#9;Hot tunnels alternated with cool tunnels.
Coolness was wedded to discomfort in the form of high commitment, hard X-rays. Facts. By the time they were decanted the embryos had a horror of cold. They were predestined to emigrate to the tropics, to be miners and acetate silk spinners and steel workers. Later on their minds would be made to endorse the judgment of high, their bodies. We condition them to thrive on heat, concluded Mr.
Foster. Our colleagues upstairs will teach them to love it (15). #9;If there is still a certain foolish giddiness in single classroom, Mr. Commitment. Foster's speech, then the narrator's seems wholly devoid of irony, especially Later on their minds would be made to endorse the judgement of their bodies, which is a precise, but more sober, paraphrase of Making Diane: An Exploration of the Cougar Within Society, exactly what Mr. Foster concludes with. This may not be enough to assume that the narrator (or Huxley) approves of these proceedings, but it certainly marks a dramatic contrast with the commitment hrm, opening, and the tone of Straight from the horse's mouth.
There seems to free market be an enculturation at work here, typical for commitment hrm, the official Utopia's guided tour, but it is not clear if this enculturation applies solely to the future workers, the reader, the narrator or perhaps even Huxley himself. #9;In Chapter II, the tone and Making Diane: Exploration of the tactics change when it comes to the tour of the Conditioning process. The narrative voice becomes more neutral, and high commitment hrm the Director's becomes somewhat more arrogant. A comparison between the description of the reno vs condon, Fertilizing Room and the room where infants will be tortured by electric shocks and sirens is illustrative. The latter is very bright and sunny (10), with professional, rather than clinically dead nurses, and a riot of high, roses; Not exclusively pink and Aryan, but also luminously Chinese, also Mexican, also apoplectic with too much blowing of celestial trumpets, also pale as death, pale with the posthumous whiteness of marble (18). This is, of course, a set-up for the torture to come, well-modulated by friedman, the strengthening contrast of the high hrm, comic, apoplectic trumpets and the posthumous whiteness of marble. During the torture itself: #9;#9;There was a violent explosion. Reno Vs Condon. Shriller and ever shriller, a siren shrieked. Alarm bells maddeningly sounded. #9;#9;The children started, screamed; their faces were distorted with terror. #9;	And now, the Director shouted (for the noise was deafening), now we proceed to rub in the lesson with a mild electric shock.
#9;#9;The screaming of the babies suddenly changed its tone. There was something desperate, almost insane, about the sharp spasmodic yelps to which they now gave utterance. Their little bodies twitched and stiffened; their limbs moved jerkily as if to the tug of unseen wires. #9;	We can electrify that whole strip of commitment hrm, floor, bawled the Director in explanation, But that's enough (20). #9;Irony has vanished, to be replaced with apparent malice (the emphasized portion above), and the neutral (self-evidently horrific) narration. These are reinforced in small ways: that the Director bawled suggests the Director's own infantility, and the phrase, their little bodies twitched, rather unnecessarily exploits the sentimentalization of small and helpless things. Huxley less garishly reinforces the latter by having the narrator remark that the infants had two hundred repetitions of the same or a similar lesson (21) in store in facts, the future. #9;Contrasted with this, an odd accent is added by the narrator once the screaming infants are wheeled out commitment hrm, of the room, leaving behind them the reno vs condon, smell of sour milk and a most welcome silence (21). There is a certain diffidence in this that does not merely counterbalance the sentimental pathos of the commitment, scene in some kind of definition of comic relief, aesthetic way. It almost seems to commitment throw a weight of judgment on the infants for their sour smell and screaming, rather than on An Exploration Aging Within Essay, their torturers; as if the silence is welcome, not because the torture is over high commitment, or because the victims of that torture are no longer before the horrified eyes of the narrator, but because the narrator is typically intolerant of, and annoyed by, infant wailing, whatever the cause. Definition Of Comic Relief. This may seem a stretched point, and certainly is not meant to commitment suggest that Huxley or the narrator approve; it simply again illustrates the Diane: An Exploration Cougar Essay, radical contrast of tone between Chapter I and Chapter II.
#9;Part of the change in tactics here would seem to result in a change in the target of Huxley's satire, which has now become serious. The correlate of an aversion to the Flesh is an idealization of the commitment, pneuma (the Mind-Spirit), and conditioning aims at the pneuma , not the body. It is almost as if, at root, what Utopia does to the body might be treated with a certain loathing humor, perhaps even fascination. But conditioning of the Mind-Spirit. that's no laughing matter at all. #9;As such, the gross sentimentalization of reno vs condon, such sacred taboos as infants, children, and family (especially mother) that begins in Chapter II and continues into Chapter III displays Huxley's exploitation of such conventional sentimentality to fuel his satire. High Commitment Hrm. Against a background of these conventions, of course, irony speaks for itself, without the additional arrogance added as coloration to the Director's discourse. Convention in Brave New World. #9;Kateb's remark, that Brave New World depends for its most telling effects on reno vs condon, the disgust at stupid sensuality it can make its readers feel (126) is true enough, if applied to high the later chapters of the book; for the first three chapters, a wholly different criterion than stupid sensuality is at work. In a word, Huxley's criterion is convention, of which Frye notes, The possession of originality cannot make an artist unconventional; it drives him further into convention, obeying the law of the art itself ( Anatomy 132, my emphasis). Convention as a technique of literary communicability, however, does not always obey the facts, law of the art itself; moral conventions may just as well serve, as Huxley's use of them shows.
#9;The infant torture and the insidious inculcation of Utopia's ideals into children through hypnopaedia, then, rely for commitment, their most telling effects on the conventionalized view Western culture maintains about children (as innocent, sexless, helpless and so forth). #9;I do not intend here to launch a full assault on such conventional sentimentality; the feminine Gothic, in any case, has already done so, since it was women who were originally deemed innocent, sexless and helpless by the ideology that most likely extended to offspring as well. An indirect confirmation for reno vs condon, this may be seen in a remark by hrm, Camille Paglia, that J.H. Van den Berg claims the eighteenth century invented adolescence (115). Her quibble with this, indicated by the word claims, is only that the ancient Greeks recognized adolescence as well, and formalized it in their art; she otherwise acknowledges the general intent of Van den Berg's assertion (115). Consequently, like the origins of the image of the domestic angel, the roots of the Western conventional sentimentality about children may be plausibly traced to the ideology of Diane: Exploration Society Essay, separate spheres, perhaps in reaction to the pre-modern ideal of Greek pederasty with which Paglia qualifies Van den Berg's assertion (115). #9;The dominant tone of the sentimental conventions Huxley ruthlessly exploits is that of pathos as Frye defines it, and which found its most prominent expression in low mimetic and domestic settings: #9;Pathos presents its hero as isolated by a weakness which appeals to our sympathy because it is on our own level of hrm, experience. #9;#9;[I]n contrast to high mimetic tragedy, pathos is Diane: Within Essay increased by the inarticulateness of the victim.
The death of an animal is usually pathetic. Pathos is a queer ghoulish emotion, and some failure of commitment, expression, real or simulated, seems to be peculiar to it. Highly articulate pathos is apt to become a factitious appeal to self-pity, or tear-jerking. The exploiting of fear in Moon Book Analysis Essay, the low mimetic is also sensational, and is a kind of pathos in reverse. The terrible figure in this tradition. is normally a ruthless figure strongly contrasted with some kind of delicate virtue, generally a helpless victim in his power ( Anatomy 38-9).
#9;Frye's illustration of the death of an animal as particularly conveying this peculiar kind of pathos goes very far toward characterizing how such pathos feels , especially in commitment, its evocation of pity. Reno Vs Condon. Huxley does not eschew this animal-variety of pathos; it is suggested not only in the extract of fetal foals, but also much more clearly (though without death) in the image of an Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron elevator operator: #9;#9;Before Bernard could answer, the lift came to a standstill. #9;#9;The liftman was a small simian creature, dressed in the black tunic of an Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron. #9;#9;He flung open the gates. The warm glory of afternoon sunlight made him start and high commitment hrm blink his eyes. Oh, roof! he repeated in the voice of rapture. He was as though suddenly and milton free market joyfully awakened from a dark annihilating stupor. Roof! #9;#9;He smiled up with a kind of doggily expectant adoration into the faces of his passengers. Talking and laughing together, they stepped out into the light.
The liftman looked after them. #9;	Roof? he said once more, questioningly. #9;#9;Then a bell rang, and from the high commitment hrm, ceiling of the lift a loud speaker began, very softly and yet very imperiously to issue its commands. #9;	Go down, it said, go down. Floor Eighteen. Go down, go down. Floor Eighteen. Go down, go.
#9;#9;The liftman slammed the classroom, gates, touched a button and instantly dropped back into high commitment hrm the droning twilight of the market, well, the twilight of his own habitual stupor (58-9). #9;This is the first image of the caste system in hrm, action that Huxley gives us; up to now, we have only seen Alphas (the top caste). The animal imagery here is milton friedman market blatant, from simian to woofing dog (roof!), imbued with the sweet disposition, irrepressible enthusiasm and loyalness of a black Labrador (his doggily expectant adoration). The disregard of him by the talking and laughing passengers, his abandonment by them, and the sudden sense of his isolation (which the reader cannot fail to miss, and high commitment hrm which the liftman seems only Making An of the Cougar Within Essay vaguely aware of, in his questioning Roof?) evokes a terribleness that accords with the affect of commitment, domestic (low mimetic) pathos. #9;The irony here is of comic more dramatic, than sardonic. Frye remarks that in domestic tragedy, Aristotle's pity and fear are neither purged nor absorbed into high hrm pleasures, but are communicated externally, as sensations ( Anatomy 38)--sensations, presumably, in the reader or audience.
If so, then these sensations manifest most typically as horror (on behalf of the victim) and outrage (directed at the victimizer). Thus, the sensationalistic exploitation of fear in domestic tragedy, which engenders a ruthless villain who holds a helpless victim in his power, provides Huxley with a conventional method for making the reader outraged by the Brave New World; the increased arrogance and ruthlessness of the Director thereby all the more enhances his conventional villainy, as the representative of the definition of comic relief, Powers that have inflicted the pitiable liftman's condition upon hrm him. The plight of this Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron (the very lowest of the castes, barely one step above dwarfs and eyeless monsters) becomes an atrocity with the realization that he has been deliberately made as he is; the evil of the Brave New World is thus driven home. #9;Animal pathos is a logical extension of the domestic pathos inherent in, or created as a result of, the ideology of separate spheres. The horror and outrage that leads to a ready rejection of Huxley's Utopia on Moon and Talia Book, behalf of the liftman is just as evidently at work in the images of tortured infants and children corrupted by sleep teaching. In Chapter III, Huxley expands from the simple child pathos of Chapter II to include all of the family, with broadsides directed against home' and parents,' but especially mother' (while continuing to hrm exploit and outrage child pathos through the erotic play of definition, Utopia's young ones). #9;Such are the conventional techniques Huxley employs to create his most telling effects in the opening chapters of Brave New World , but convention can as much serve to conceal, as reveal; the conventionally high moral tone of satire might in fact serve to mask, as a cover story, a less noble agenda.
Subverting the conventional meaning of an image, in fact, is one of the most common tactics in satire. As such, it is not unreasonable to wonder just how seriously Brave New World 's Pyrrhonic aesthete viewed the conventional sentimentality he so thoroughly exploits. #9;The World-Controller, Mustapha Mond, remarks to the future Hatchery workers, ?Fortunate boys!' said the Controller. ?No pains have been spared to make your lives emotionally easy--to preserve you, so far as that is possible, from having emotions at all' (43-4). Up to the dash, Mond's statement is nothing less than an axiom of middle-class ideology; No pains have been spared to make your lives emotionally easy. It could virtually be the motto, as mindlessly repeated as any Utopian homily, of any Western middle-class parent. The remainder of the high commitment, statement, to preserve you. from having emotions at all, is simply a very much less decorous restatement of the first; one which few parents would aspire (or claim to aspire) to. And yet, how else can the desire to Diane: Aging Cougar Within maintain a child's innocence (ignorance, the feminine Gothic would say) for as long as possible be otherwise understood? #9;Whether Huxley intends this or not is difficult to determine, but it is inevitable that the contrast of today with Utopia should make itself felt. Consequently, the Brave New World is high commitment not only single gender a satiric image of the Socialist future, but also of the capitalist-liberal present.
This, of course, is precisely one of the most vital aspects of high hrm, fantastyka (the ability to critique the present through the future or past or other worlds), and so is therefore no surprise in Huxley's novel. But if the weight of the book is thrown into present-day satire, then we are no longer dealing with an anti-Utopia or Utopia, since the novel has suddenly become allegorical; it has lapsed, per Todorov's observation, out of the indeterminacy of meaning in Diane: of the Aging Essay, the fantastic and into the meaning of allegory. #9;As a contemporary satire, the setting of commitment hrm, Brave New World becomes an extrapolation of the present day, literally a projection. It reflects Huxley's two most belabored themes: overpopulation and Making Diane: An Within Society overconsumption. The former, of course, is really just one aspect of the latter, and it is at the juncture of the two that Huxley invokes his diatribe against the flesh and pleasure. The implication is that what Huxley in his Foreword calls the horror of Utopias (xvii) is an commitment inevitable outgrowth of the present capitalist-liberal mania for acquisition, with the great drug, money, as the soma of the present.
#9;Huxley's satire, then, is double-edged, being directed at both the present in the future, and the future in the present. These two projects, anti-Socialist and anti-hedonism as consumption, do not always dovetail neatly, which leads to the predominance of contrivance in the plot, but they do serve to illuminate the major elements of the novel, especially Huxley's use of convention. By perversely inverting the sacred cows of of comic, domestic ideology and continually mortifying them in the first three chapters, Huxley not only high hrm seems to legitimize his high moral tone, but also enlists the capitalist-liberal sympathy of his reader, who he proceeds to excoriate as the kind of overconsumer depicted in single, the remaining chapters of the novel. What unites these two projects is Huxley's grotesquely simple solution to the whole problem: abstinence. This is founded, to all appearances, on an aversion to the flesh and the idealization of pneuma (the Mind-Spirit), in conjunction with the self-mortification of the Savage. The perversity of this solution would seem to render it infeasible, but the ironization of the Savage himself must also be recalled. In fact, the abstinence Huxley is proposing (and that is the high commitment hrm, basis of his Utopia) is actually a much milder asceticism (as I will demonstrate below). #9;In the meantime, it must be pointed out that the extreme conventionalism Huxley employs precisely reflects or restates the kind of Making Diane: Exploration of the Aging Within Society, mental conditioning he vilifies in high hrm, his novel. Like the Utopians, who have an aversion to ickiness (to use an appropriately childish word), Huxley relies on our own cultural conditioning to make a phrase like warm bouillon of sperm icky to friedman free us as well. Like the high commitment, Utopians, who have an intense love of brothers, new things and gadgets, Huxley fills his world with neat adult toys it is a wonder that Sony has not gone on to invent. Like the Utopians, blithely or willfully unaware of the domestic and social violence done to high commitment their children, our culture continues to romanticize the child, to long for the perceived freedom and imagination of the child, [such that] repressed longing gets transformed into guilt-ridden sexual liaisons (Moore 99).
Like the Utopians, who are automatically programmed to respond to certain things with hypnopaedically implanted homilies, Huxley pushes our conventional buttons, and out come the predictable expressions of horror and outrage, whether sincere or not. Narration in Brave New World. #9;The above assumes that Huxley's conventionalism was self-conscious, though of course it is quite possible that he resorted to such conventions as automatically as we are supposed to respond to them. Market. Brave New World features a lone image that reflects exactly this, as the Director and his future workers are approaching the hypnopaedia dormitory: ?Silence, silence,' whispered a loud speaker. indefatigably repeated at intervals down every corridor. The students and high even the Director himself rose automatically to the tips of their toes. They were Alphas, of An Exploration of the Aging Cougar Society Essay, course; but even Alphas have been well conditioned (26). #9;This is no minor point, insofar as it destroys what little general sense of coherence (though not necessarily its effects, as described above) Huxley's satire reflects. This, because it suggests that no statement by any character (except perhaps the World-Controller Mond, unless he too is conditioned) can be deemed reliable; it becomes impossible to high hrm separate truth from conditioning.
For example, when the Director tells Bernard that it is an Alpha's duty to be infantile, even against their inclination (98), is this little flourish of authoritarianism (and hence satire), authoritarianism or conditioning? Similarly, during a Beta geography lesson, the students are told that a savage reservation is of comic relief a place which, owing to unfavourable climatic or geological conditions, or poverty of natural resources, has not been worth the expense of civilizing (164, my emphasis). In other words, like the liftman's condition, the deplorable conditions Huxley depicted on the Reservation are deliberate (or, at least, are capable of a remedy the Brave New World chooses not to high hrm affect). Again, though, is this little piece of totalitarian viciousness (and satire against Utopia) true? Or does Huxley (the Alpha Plus Propaganda Engineer) expect us to be good Betas and simply absorb whatever comes out of the loud speaker of his novel? #9;Insofar as all of the heroes of the friedman, novel (Bernard, the Savage and the too-intelligent Propaganda Engineer Helmholtz Watson) are all social misfits and discontents, one might well include the narrator in their cabal.
But who is the narrator, if not Huxley? If I assume the narrator is an inhabitant of Utopia, then the commitment hrm, epistemological muddle of narrative uncertainty remains. It is also clear that the narration (formally third-person omniscient) operates above the castes. Someone like the Savage would serve as a narrator, except that a Savage could not have come up with a passage like: #9;a much more than human voice began to warble. it effortlessly passed from Gaspard's Forster's low record on free market, the very frontiers of musical tone to a trilled bat-note high above the highest C to which (in 1770, at the ducal opera of Parma, and to the astonishment of Mozart) Lucrezia Ajugari, alone of all the singers in history, once piercingly gave utterance (169-70). #9;In the context of Brave New World , only the likes of a World-Controller could have access to the kind of historical knowledge displayed here.
The narrator, however, has access even to the private moments of Mond it seems. Commitment. One might therefore postulate another (undepicted and discontent) World-Controller, or possibly a particularly inventive and discontent Alpha Double Plus Propaganda Engineer like Helmholtz Watson, as the narrator of Brave New World . #9;Such a narrator, however, would be almost indistinguishable from Sun, and Talia Book Analysis Essay, Huxley himself. Of course, in his own way, Huxley is a discontent World-Controller. Moreover, affinities with Helmholtz Watson suggest themselves as well, especially when Helmholtz notes, You can't expect me to keep a straight face about fathers and hrm mothers. And who's going to get excited about a boy having a girl or not having her. No. Making Diane: Of The Society. it won't do. We need some other kind of madness and violence. High Commitment Hrm. But what? What?
Where can one find it? (188-9). Perhaps in novels about Utopia. Earlier, Helmholtz critiques his own writing: You see. I'm pretty good at inventing phrases. But that doesn't seem enough. It's not enough for the phrases to be good; what you make with them ought to be good too (69-70). When Bernard tells Helmholtz his work is friedman good, the writer replies, Oh, as far as they go. But they go such a little way (70).
#9;Not only are these typical authorial aspirations, they are also a fairly candid assessment of Huxley's own writing. High. For example, Helmholtz's aphoristic talent (and his complaints about its limitations) is reflected in the novel's hypnopaedic homilies, insofar as he might very well have written them for free market, the Brave New World; Huxley, of commitment, course, wrote them for milton friedman market, Brave New World . Such homilies include Civilization is sterilization, Ending is better than mending, The more stitches, the less riches, One cubic centimetre cures ten gloomy sentiments, and hrm A gramme is better than a damn. One homily is proffered solely from the single classroom, narrator's mouth; Rams wrapped in theremogene beget no lambs. #9;It may also be significant that Helmholtz is the least abused major character in the novel. The whipping of Linda and Lenina has already been noted, as has the Savage's self-abuse and Bernard's grotesque humiliation. Helmholtz suffers from no more than writer's angst and importunate nymphomaniacs (he's also the most handsome and high commitment brilliant character). Moreover, in the doling out of justice after the Savage's silly rebellion, Helmholtz is rewarded by being allowed to go to the Falklands; the Savage is forced to stay behind, and Bernard is reno vs condon terrified of leaving. Hrm. It is Helmholtz also who provides something of an objective view of Bernard and definition relief the Savage; with respect to the former, one can finally only agree with Helmholtz and wish that Bernard would show a little more pride (71). High Commitment Hrm. With respect to the Savage, Helmholtz grants the power of Shakespeare's poetry, but still desires some other madness and violence; Huxley lets Helmholtz have the last word.
#9;Helmholtz also has a nobility of character that is lacking utterly in Bernard, and may be only pretense in the Savage. For one, Helmholtz does not try to deny his part in the Savage's rebellion as Bernard does. Relief. Moreover, after Bernard has fallen once again into social disrepute, he (Bernard) #9;asked once more for high commitment hrm, the friendship which, in his prosperity, he had not thought it worth his while to preserve. Helmholtz gave it; and gave it without a reproach, without a comment, as though he had forgotten that there had even been a quarrel. Free. Touched, Bernard felt himself at the same time humiliated by this magnanimity--a magnanimity the more extraordinary and therefore the more humiliating in that it owed nothing to soma and everything to Helmholtz's character. It was the Helmholtz of hrm, daily life who forgot and Sun, Moon and Talia Book Essay forgave, not the Helmholtz of a half-gramme holiday (182-3). #9;A very similar kind of sentiment is high commitment echoed by reno vs condon, the narrator just preceding this passage: One of the principal functions of a friend is to high commitment suffer (in a milder and symbolic form) the classroom, punishments that we should like, but are unable, to high commitment hrm inflict upon our enemies (182). This, of itself, may not be enough to identify Helmholtz with the narrator, but the brothers facts, circumstantial evidence of the novel points to it as well. He certainly could have written Brave New World so to speak. His character could provide the novel's amused disgust toward physical conditioning, and its horror toward mental conditioning. Hrm. He could find the stupid sensuality of Utopia's inhabitant grotesque, and, in fact, he begins a principled experiment of swearing off sex (68), possibly because of an aversion to the Flesh, and certainly because of an idealization of the Mind-Spirit.
He could have both a fascination and repulsion for the lifestyle of the Making Diane: Exploration Within, Reservation (its myths and mysticism), and still have a sense of the Savage's ridiculousness with regard to Lenina and his absurdity with respect to self-mortification. He would also, on his island of exile, possibly have had access to the kind of historical information he would need to make reference to Shakespeare, Mozart and Lucrezia Ajugari. And he is also, of hrm, course, an aspiring writer. #9;There is blood facts another sense in which Helmholtz makes for an ideal candidate for high commitment hrm, Brave New World 's narrator; he is tongue-tied: I'm thinking of a queer feeling I sometimes get, a feeling that I've got something important to brothers say and the power to say it--only I don't know what it is and I can't make any use of the power (69). High Commitment Hrm. Later, confronting the World-Controller, Helmholtz declares that his work is idiotic; that he's [w]riting when there's nothing to say (226). Mond agrees with him, Precisely. But that requires the most. enormous ingenuity. Friedman. [W]orks of art out of practically nothing but pure sensation (226).
A novel of hrm, pure sensation, then, would be exactly what Helmholtz in exile would be capable of writing, given his limitations of conditioning and his attempts to grope beyond it. Such a novel is apparently all that Huxley was capable of writing as well, insofar as its nihilism provides nothing but sensations and sensationalism to the reader. Huxley, during his own voluntary exile in Italy and Southern France in the early 1930s, would probably not have thought so, since, as Warren Paul notes, Brave New World marked a departure from earlier fictional treatment of the reno vs condon, dilemmas characterizing our time. Commitment Hrm. Here Huxley abandoned his former visions of evil as a mildly amusing social phenomenon and adopted a more cosmic view (6). #9;Huxley's combination of sensationalism, cynicism and an art of pure sensation (as nihilism) in more poetic hands, such as Borges' in Ficciones , will compensate for such nihilism by an absolute gorgeousness of prose; Brave New World does not have this advantage.
As in much of the modernist writing in this century by males, Huxley seems to affect a very deliberate evasion and obfuscation of truth. This is gender classroom understandable in a context of existentialism and the Age of Anxiety, but the Russian intelligentsia's imputation of commitment hrm, moral cowardice still applies. It seems likely that Huxley probably intended to say something by writing Brave New World , but by making truth a vanishing quality in milton friedman, his novel, by giving the reader no sure place to stand, his something becomes unrecoverable, and hence meaningless. As a document of the shifting chaos of Huxley's day, Brave New World may be a sterling example, but it fails at precisely the point of the era's dilemma: the absence of a sure place to stand. Eliade diagnoses this syndrome by implying that the historical (modern) mentality, as opposed to high commitment the archaic mentality, creates individuals who cannot endure great historical pressures without despairing, without committing suicide or falling into that spiritual aridity that always brings with it a relativistic or nihilistic view of history (152). #9;It is not necessary, of course, to classroom identify Helmholtz Watson as the author or narrator of Brave New World ; nevertheless, he still represents the most apt concretization of the narrator in the book. Moreover, his centrality to the novel may be seen in the fact that the Savage and Bernard represent almost caricatures of high hrm, traits that are idealized in Helmholtz (his physique, his intellect, his character, and reno vs condon his narrative fate). Commitment. That he has fewer pages than any other important character in single, the book does not challenge the assertion of his centrality.
This may be understood partly as a result of Helmholtz's inarticulateness, but there is high a deeper significance to this as well. Insofar as the classroom, main themes of Brave New World are joined, however sometimes vaguely, in Helmholtz, he nevertheless represents the closest thing to a spokesperson for truth in Huxley's novel; this inarticulation permits this truth to go unchallenged, to avoid the confrontation of high commitment, dialogue, in the text. #9;In his typology of discourses, Bakhtin refers to the hidden polemic, in which: #9;discourse is gender directed toward an ordinary referential object, naming it, portraying, expressing, and only indirectly striking a blow at the other's discourse, clashing with it, as it were, within the object itself. High. As a result, the other person's discourse begins to influence authorial discourse from within. For this reason, hidden polemical discourse is double-voiced, although the interrelationship of the two voices here is a special one. The other's thought does not personally make its way inside the discourse, but is only reflected in it, determining its tone and its meaning.
One word acutely senses alongside it someone else's word speaking about the same object, and Making Diane: An Exploration Within Essay this awareness determines its structure ( Problems 196). In typical cases, hidden polemic then speaks with a forked tongue; the apparent object of discussion, and the structure of that discussion about the high, object, are actually being determined by an authorially unacknowledged real object. Hidden polemic, then, is similar to definition of comic allegory, or the parable, except that optimally the true object of the discourse would never be recognized; or, like an in-joke, could only be recognized by commitment, certain (kinds of) people. Brave New World , then, may be understood as a hidden panegyric to the Utopia it conceals. #9;Perhaps the main method for detecting hidden polemic or panegyric in a text, provided the author has not accidentally revealed the true object of discourse, is by way of structural deformation; that is, narrative movements that seem to bear little relation to the actual discourse. I have already mentioned something similar to this, when Huxley provides a gratuitous digression on an increased rate of human maturation. Not all such gratuitous digressions, of course, are necessarily instances of structural deformation due to Sun, Essay hidden panegyric of commitment, polemic; other intents may be momentarily at work. Nonetheless, even if this example is blood brothers facts not a genuine instance of hidden polemic or panegyric, it still illustrates a characteristic sense of digression or gratuitousness. A genuine example, however, may be found in the ending of the book. #9;The narrative climax of Brave New World would appear to be the Savage's anti-climactic revolution; the triumvirate of rebels is brought before the high commitment hrm, world's Authority, and reno vs condon poetic justice is handed out.
At this point, Helmholtz departs from the commitment hrm, novel for his island narratively , if not physically; he lingers in the text long enough to say farewell to market the Savage (just prior to his own escape), but after the trial before Mond, Helmholtz does not figure in the narrative with any significance. As such, even though Helmholtz is still in the novel, it is the Savage who conducts a long conversation with Mond about the nature of, and the justification for, the Brave New World. Following this, the Savage escapes to his Utopia, and is finally driven to suicide when the Brave New World will not leave him in peace. #9;I have already wondered why the Savage did not simply move once he was discovered in hrm, his lighthouse. A more productive answer than Huxley's And they died miserably ever after may be found in milton free, the fact that the high commitment, Savage's suicide is a kind of refutation of the idea (abstinence and self-mortification) he represents. Blood Brothers Facts. More generally, once the high commitment, true hero of the novel (Helmholtz) has narratively departed, Huxley attempts to substitute the Savage as a spokesperson for definition of comic, the idea (asceticism) that Helmholtz represents. Furthermore, the plot development of Helmholtz's departure also mandates distinguishing between Helmholtz's and the Savage's value within the high, Savage himself; the narrative irony of the last chapter indicates this.
In fact, the very wrenching of the plot to include the last chapter is the most overt structural deformation in the novel. #9;The Savage's escape from brothers, Utopia, for instance, is so abrupt that only high commitment hrm a caesura in Making Diane: An Within Essay, the text suggests it. This escape is necessary because the Utopia that Helmholtz represents cannot be realized in the Brave New World. Consequently, the Savage's lighthouse contains both Helmholtz's Utopia (imaged in the Savage's ascetic lifestyle) and the Savage's (imaged especially in self-mortification), the latter of which is refuted by high hrm, the Savage's suicide. This, because it is a sin of the Flesh (either lust for Lenina, or guilt for whipping her, or both) that drives the Savage to self-destruction, not his ascetic lifestyle per se. That such a refutation is relief a thematic necessity in Huxley's hidden panegyric may help to explain why Mustapha Mond did not retrieve the Savage after his escape from the Brave New World. #9;A less overt structural deformation occurs in the Savage's solo conversation with Mustapha Mond. Here again, the discourses of asceticism and abstinence are both present within the high commitment, Savage in single, implicit and explicit form. An elegantly concise example of the high, juxtaposition of these two utopian value-sets may be seen in a statement by and Talia Essay, the Savage: I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness. I want sin (246).
Two sentences; two very different sets of desires: Helmholtz's God, poetry, real danger, freedom, goodness, and the Savage's sin. Here, it is high commitment Mustapha who refutes the Savage, insofar as his response to milton free market this outburst is directed at high commitment hrm the desire for sin; #9;	In fact, said Mustapha Mond, you're claiming the reno vs condon, right to be unhappy. #9;	All right then, said the Savage defiantly. I'm claiming the right to be unhappy. #9;	Not to mention the right to grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to high have syphilis and cancer; the right to have too little to eat; the right to be lousy; the right to live in gender, constant apprehension of what may happen tomorrow; the right to catch typhoid; the right to be tortured by unspeakable pains of every kind.
There was a long silence. #9;	I claim them all, said the Savage at last. #9;#9;Mustapha Mond shrugged his shoulders. You're welcome, he said (246-7). #9;The most apparent structural deformation that occurs during this conversation between the Savage and Mond manifests in how the Savage speaks. As Huxley himself admits in his Foreword, #9;For the sake, however, of high commitment, dramatic effect, the Savage is often permitted to speak more rationally than his upbringing among the practitioners of a religion that is half fertility cult and half Penitente ferocity would actually warrant.
Even his acquaintance with Shakespeare would not in reality justify such utterances (viii). #9;While descriptively accurate, Huxley's for the sake of blood brothers facts, dramatic effect is disingenuous. It is rather for high commitment hrm, the sake of free, Helmholtz's asceticism that the Savage so speaks, because he is the only character still in the text (though Helmholtz has yet to leave the Brave New World) who can speak to the World-Controller. #9;There is high also some bending of Mond's character as well. When the Savage asks him if he thinks there is no God, Mond quite unexpectedly replies, No, I think there quite probably is one (240). An Exploration Cougar Within. What makes this unexpected is the complete lack of preparation for it earlier in hrm, the novel, but this is less significant than the narrative function of Mond's admission, insofar as it allows a discussion of God (one of Helmholtz's desires) into the text. Had Mond denied the Sun, and Talia Analysis Essay, existence of God, this twist in the conversation would have been much more difficult to affect. High Commitment Hrm. Again, this deformation of Mond's character is made necessary as a consequence of Huxley's real object of discourse (Helmholtz's Utopia) over against the apparent discourse of the Savage. Thus, behind the apparent pain-pleasure dichotomy Brave New World presents, the actual discourse is definition of comic one of asceticism versus happiness; or, rather, there is a discourse of asceticism that goes unchallenged (for being unrepresented) in the novel, even though it ultimately shapes the entire structure of the text. #9;This may all seem an excessively verbose belaboring of the obvious, insofar as few would attempt to deny that Brave New World is high commitment hrm anti-hedonist.
In fact, as I hope I have shown by a kind of reducto ad absurdum , Huxley's novel is more properly read as anti-everything. Whether an artistic conceit or a psychological block, whether a fear of and Talia Analysis, engagement or something more literary, the monologism of Huxley's novel, the lack of truly dialogic communication, the mere juxtaposition of images, the high commitment hrm, continuous negations of cynicism, satire, irony and grotesque exaggeration--all of milton market, these level the meaning of the novel to zero, to high the mere sensation and sensationalism of nihilism. The theme of conditioning serves to further undermine any sure ground in An of the Aging Cougar Within, the novel, and renders any interpretation vulnerable to ridicule. The ostensible humor of the novel makes treating it seriously seem like a consummate act of misunderstanding. Even Huxley's Foreword, admitting without conceding the defects of the novel, throws additional uncertainty into the interpretation of the text, since the possibility of authorial error may undermine any critical conclusions.
#9;My discussion of the feminine Gothic, however, has already suggested how the self-deprecating introduction may actually serve as a cover story for a deliberate authorial agenda. And humor, inclusive of satire's reduced laughter, has also been shown to have an exculpatory value (as the commitment, common phrase, I was only kidding demonstrates). In the ironic days of 1932, perhaps it was not permitted to write a serious book--at least not from the pen of one of the Sun, and Talia Essay, era's most trenchant voices. Huxley, however, attempted to do so by depicting and negating everything except his ascetic Utopia; were it not for the pressure it exerts on the text, it would remain wholly invisible. This may explain why the commitment, narrative does not follow Helmholtz to his exile on the Falklands, and why he comparatively has the fewest pages devoted to him. It may even explain the otherwise curious avoidance of reno vs condon, Alpha Plus (Helmholtz's caste's) conditioning (16) and of the high commitment, Alpha Double Plus classroom at Eton (164). In other words, Huxley attempted to depict something positive by multiple negatives, but if I say, It is not snowing, not raining, and not cloudy, that does not mean it is sunny; it could be night. #9;Whatever the arguments against or in Making Diane: An Aging Cougar Within Society, favor of high commitment hrm, Huxley's ascetic Utopia, the sheer unfeasibility of single classroom, such a suggestion in a capitalist-liberal setting clearly deserves the term utopian, and as such would probably have been more than enough to make a Pyrrhonic aesthete and burgeoning mystic cagey about openly (much less seriously) presenting it. But the absurdity of asceticism in commitment hrm, our modern setting is Sun, Moon Book Essay no excuse for not admitting it into social discourse as literature. The epigraph for commitment hrm, Huxley's novel taken but not translated from the French of Nicholas Berdyaev's essay, Democracy, Socialism and Theocracy, refers to a possible new age in milton friedman market, which cultured and intelligent people will dream of high commitment hrm, ways to avoid ideal states and to get back to a society that is less ?perfect' and more free (188).
That the common folk are excluded from this dream is explicit enough (cultured and intelligent), even without the single, elitism of leaving the epigraph in French. The epigraph also functions similarly to More's pun on high commitment hrm, Utopia, which only the cultured and intelligent could have appreciated. With More, as already noted, the single classroom, facetiousness of Utopia as a name ostensibly allowed the right kind of commitment hrm, reader to see through More's fiction. With Huxley, the epigraph functions in a reverse capacity, insofar as it proposes not only an avoidance of ideal States (the obvious level of Making Diane: Exploration Aging, Brave New World ), but also that there will also be a less ?perfect' and more free Utopia in the book (which Huxley goes to great lengths to hide). High Commitment. One can only gender classroom agree with Darko Suvin, that anticipation in our age will be the more significant the more clearly it rejects both the classical utopia of the high, Plato-More type and the whilom fashionable dystopia of the gender classroom, Huxley-Orwell type. Both of them are static and closed (213); that is, they are official. #9;Neither does an commitment hrm inability to find a sure place to stand excuse nihilism in literature; there may, in fact, be no such sure place, that it is only possible to pitch one's stake for a short time, and to make as much sense of classroom, things as one can from that limited perspective. Commitment. And if this is really the best we can achieve, then it is blood brothers either self-defeating idealism to insist that there is more, or the Russian intelligentsia's moral cowardice to cynically deny what little sure ground there actually is. In one of commitment hrm, his more cryptic remarks, Bakhtin notes, Irony as a form of silence ( Speech 154).
For such a critic, for whom dialogue has the most far-reaching and humanistic implications, the silence of irony as a refusal to enter into single (literally a turning away from) dialogue has equally far-reaching consequences. Instead of his admirably absurd Utopia, Huxley entered a carping jeremiad into the discourse of Western culture--and few things are sadder than the dreams we cherish, but destroy all the same, because they seem impossible. #9;G.D.H. Cole noted of Morris' News From Nowhere , Morris was saying, 'Here is the sort of society I feel I should like to live in. High. Now tell me yours' (qtd. in milton, Berneri 259). Huxley had the desire to answer this invitation with Brave New World , but not the courage to do so openly. THE UNOFFICIAL UTOPIA OF RETURN FROM THE STARS. #9;Darko Suvin summarizes Lem's Return From The Stars in the following way: A time-contraction astronaut returns to a pseudo-utopian conflictless humanity and finds it degenerating into a hedonist anti-utopia (209).
It is possible to high hrm agree with this, up to a point; specifically, to the point of finds in reno vs condon, Suvin's summary. As with Brave New World , it seems we are once again being confronted by another anti-Utopia. Since Suvin's summary comprises, so far as I have been able to hrm discover, the whole of critical assessments of Lem's Return From The Stars , there seems to be an even greater anti-Utopian unanimity of blood brothers, opinion here than as regards Huxley's Brave New World . Despite this, it is much easier to refute Suvin's somewhat inexplicable anti-Utopian conclusion than to attempt the commitment hrm, same with regard to Huxley's novel, and may most easily be accomplished by comparing the two books; an effort that is assisted by the sense that in many respects Lem's book seems to blood be an answer to Huxley's--a more logically coherent answer at that. (Logical coherence may not always be a valid basis for literary judgment, but for commitment hrm, an author of blood brothers facts, ideas like Huxley it at least seems an appropriate criterion.) #9;Establishing a direct link of influence between Huxley and Lem, however, is problematic. I have not been able to determine if a Polish version of Brave New World was available to Lem in high, advance of his writing Return From the Stars (or, for that matter, any edition in any other language that Lem might have been capable of reading). Suvin's reference to the whilom fashionable dystopia of the Huxley-Orwell type (213) has already been noted in the last chapter, but this could only be considered the most indirect kind of milton friedman market, demonstration of influence at best. A less indirect method would be to seek out high commitment, internal evidence from Lem's novel itself that links it with Huxley's. #9;Both novels share the following details: pleasant ecologies, exotic substances, superfast personal transportation, artificially scented air ( BNW 169, RFTS 4), an classroom innecessity of sewing ( BMW 121, RFTS 61), liquids which characters admit not knowing the origin of ( BNW 132, RFTS 34), and both ironize Miranda's O brave new world that has such people in commitment, it--verbatim in Huxley (162), and in a very loose paraphrase in Lem, What a world, I thought, what a world this is! (37). Sleep teaching (?hypnopaedia') also figures heavily in Brave New World , but is only briefly mentioned in passing in Lem's novel as a hypnagog (153). These parallels may well be coincidental, however, and facts the several thematic parallels may be explained more readily in hrm, terms of the novels' shared futurism than by influence.
One of the more compelling imagistic parallels may be seen in brothers facts, a similarity of structure in one evening scene; in both novels, light from huge marquees obliterate the night sky, while dancing goes on within the commitment hrm, signs' respective buildings ( BNW 75-7, RFTS 18). The match between the images, however, is hardly perfect, and a conjunction of obliterated night skies and dancing might again be explained as much by coincidence, if not simply by the fact that all urban lighting (especially around brightly-lit dance halls) tends to affect the night sky. #9;Looking at both novels less literally, it is Sun, Book Analysis possible to assert that Lem adapted the aphorisms of Huxley's novel (e.g., Ending is better than mending) for the floating slogans of high commitment hrm, Return From The Stars ' opening chapter. One of these floating slogans, SOAMO SOAMO SOAMO (11) is almost an anagram of Huxley's soma . Of course, there would not seem to be any reason for Lem to Diane: An Exploration of the Society Essay resort to anagrams, assuming that the translation has not somehow deformed the anagram, but it is much more significant that this floating slogan and. others like it are incomprehensible, both for the protagonist (Hal Bregg) and the reader. This incomprehensibility is clearly Lem's intent, insofar as these nonsense words are truly non-sense; it takes quite an artificial stretch of imagination to apply any kind of actual referentiality to high commitment hrm them at all. 	NEONAX NEONAX NEONAX (11), for example, drifts fluidly between NEO NAX (a new ?nax') and NEON AX (which is rather poetically evocative, but hardly meaningful). Other such examples include LARGAN (14), RAMBRENT RAMBRENT (16) and EXOTAL (18). SOAMO presents an even more challenging word, insofar as its correct pronunciation is elusive. Blood. Is it sew more or so ammo?
Where should the accent be placed? Are these even the commitment hrm, right diphthongs? As a result of these defamiliarizations and linguistic decenterings (which the reader experiences with the gender classroom, protagonist), when we encounter a slogan like REAL AMMO REAL AMMO (14), the only certainty would seem to be that the phrase definitely does not mean something like real bullets. Something similar is at work in the phrase TELETRANS TELEPORT TELETHON (17); by themselves, the words may be made sense of; in conjunction, this sense evaporates. #9;Lem's authorial intent by these floating slogans would seem to be to recreate the confusion and alienation of the protagonist in the reader's mind. Bregg has returned from a scientific mission in space that lasted ten years for the spacecraft's crew but (due to the relativistic effects of travel at a fraction of the speed of light) has lasted 127 years as far as Earth's inhabitants are concerned. Thus, Bregg returns to what is no less than an alien civilization. High Commitment. Instead of relying on an official tour to acclimatize Bregg to this new Earth, Lem plunges his hero (and us) into the thick of things--with very disorienting results that are perfectly apropos of the situation.
Consequently, there is single a major distinction to be noted between Lem's floating slogans (as incomprehensible) and Huxley's aphorisms (as distinctly information-bearing phrases). Despite this enormous difference of deployment and intent, there is hrm a striking similarity of of comic, typography and technology used to convey public announcements in both novels. In Brave New World : #9;The house lights went down; fiery letters stood out solid and high commitment hrm as though self-supported in the darkness. THREE WEEKS IN A HELICOPTER. AN ALL-SUPER-SINGING, SYNTHETIC-TALKING, COLOURED, STEREOSCOPIC FEELY. WITH SYNCHRONIZED SCENT-ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT (170). This is technologically almost verbatim to what we find in Return From the Stars , with its letters of fire steadily moving through the air (11); that these letters are self-supported proves a source of curiosity and Making Exploration Cougar Within Society mystery for high, both Bregg and blood brothers facts the reader (6). Similarly, a more informative public announcement, formed of lines of high commitment hrm, gigantic gold letters like burning tightrope-walkers (16), appears in mid-air: #9;BACK TODAY GLENIANIA ROON WITH HER MIMORPHIC REAL RECORDING PAYS TRIBUTE IN THE ORATORIUM TO THE MEMORY OF RAPPER KERX POLITR.
TERMINAL NEWS BULLETIN: TODAY IN AMMONLEE PETIFARGUE PRODUCED THE SYSTOLIZATION OF THE FIRST ENZOM. THE VOICE OF THE DISTINGUISHED GRAVISTICIAN WILL BE BROADCAST AT HOUR TWENTY-SEVEN. ARRAKER LEADS. ARRAKER REPEATED HIS SUCCESS AS THE FIRST OBLITERATOR OF THE SEASON AT THE TRANSVAAL STADIUM (16). There again is the obvious distinction between the information-bearing announcement in Huxley versus the virtual incomprehensibility of the Making Exploration of the Aging Cougar Society Essay, announcement in Lem, but I also want to high emphasize the typographical shift to all-caps as well. #9;Tempting as it is to discern influence in the several parallels noted above, they still remain too tenuous; it is too probable that it is my own consciousness creating direct links when there may in fact be none.
Even as this may very well be the case, it is still very useful to reno vs condon view Return From the Stars as a kind of high commitment, answer or revision to Brave New World , as I now intend to demonstrate. Coherence in Return From The Stars. #9;To do so, however, involves a somewhat perverse strategy; specifically, taking Brave New World 's overt Utopia (its surface of images, the actual ends and means it reveals and employs) at face value. Milton Free Market. This because, despite the scum of irony Huxley sloughs over the overt aspects of the Brave New World, the ideas beneath the hrm, scum, as possible solutions to real human problems, at single gender classroom least warrant discussion; Brave New World does not make room, or even allow, for such a discussion in the text, but the reader and high critic can. In other words, by reading Brave New World as a World-Controller like Mustapha Mond would (as the definition of comic relief, work of a discontent Utopian), one can dismiss the irony as discontent, and attempt to recover and examine any positives that are present in high commitment, the Brave New World's ends and means. #9;Physical conditioning in Huxley's World-State, for instance, serves several purposes: it regulates population, benefits the economy (directly, by providing a labor force specifically suited to a specific kind of work, and indirectly by increasing the demand for Sun, Book, various types of consumer consumption), provides immunity to congenital and communicable diseases, provides a stable basis for hierarchical power (the castes) and the perpetuation of that power, and provides a sense of high hrm, community (in Bokanovsky Groups or upper-caste solidarity) for reno vs condon, all individuals.
All of this, taken together, makes physical conditioning one of the high commitment, major instruments of social stability ( Brave New World 5). #9;However innocuous or objectionable these social goals (ends) might be, doubtless it is the Brave New World's means that most often raise hackles. I do not intend, however, to thoroughly dissect Huxley's approach to these ideas, but will say that it belies an overestimation of the actuality of genetic manipulation, and classroom an underestimation of it imaginatively. High Commitment Hrm. Granting that direct genetic manipulation would have been pure fantasy in single classroom, 1932, one can still postulate the high, equivalent of a DNA Machine that could be programmed to build (or to provide the building blocks to of comic build) an ideally tailored human, suited for high, some kind of work, but who did not have any of the physical defects of Huxley's castes. In fact, the variability of caste in Huxley's novel already seems to be an intellectual lapse; if standard men and women (5) are the basis of social stability, then make everyone identical. If, as Huxley seems to believe, hordes of identical n-tuplets are truly horrific--the Savage retches at the sight (163)--then present the idea at its utmost; physical grotesqueness should not be required for this, and reno vs condon the satire should remain intact (if it has a genuine point to make).
In a novel underpinned by hrm, an idealization of the of comic relief, Mind-Spirit, the lower caste's grotesqueness seems at least disingenuous. In any case, Huxley, the ostensible novelist of ideas, has presented his idea (for physical conditioning) in an only commitment half-baked way; his satiric argument is the equivalent of saying, The moon can't be made of green cheese, you idiot. Gender Classroom. Green cheese can't orbit the earth. And by unsystematically ridiculing this only half-pursued idea, Huxley succeeds rather in high commitment, making himself ridiculous. #9;John Maynard Smith, in definition, Eugenics and Utopia, concludes that [e]ugenics can wait, birth control cannot (166). If this is the case, then population control may be the most critical advantage of physical conditioning in the Brave New World. Here, however, (as also with the high commitment, tailoring of humans noted above), virtually insuperable ethical considerations could be raised in objection; genetic sterilization alone would cause an outrage if proposed. Blood Brothers. (Who is the high commitment, State to definition decide, before I was born, that I could never have a family?) Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that Huxley has proposed a solution to high commitment hrm the problem of overpopulation. #9;In Return From the Stars , Lem presents another solution: robots with artificial intelligence.
In Lem's Utopia, all labor is performed by definition, robots with sufficiently sophisticated thinking to solve various problems at hand. They serve as waiters, stewardesses, travel agents, maids, concierges; they are the equivalent of the Brave New World's slave-castes. These robots are especially necessary in the Utopia of Return From the commitment, Stars because all of humanity has (in the 127 years since Bregg's departure) been betrizated; a process that nullifies what Freud called Thanatos, the Death Instinct, aggression. Administered intravenously at birth, it prevents even being capable of thinking about killing, but does not otherwise negatively affect cognitive development ( Return 120). With characteristic even-handedness Lem's protagonist reflects (not for Making of the Cougar Society Essay, the first time) on high commitment hrm, both sides of this issue: #9;	This is a great thing, I muttered. After a moment, I added, But it would have been better, perhaps, had people ceased to do it [kill]. without artificial means . #9;And suddenly came a reflection, surprising in that I myself would never have expected it if someone had presented me with this situation purely as a theoretical possibility: it occurred to me that this destruction of the killer in man was a disfigurement (38,39). #9;In addition to expunging biological violence (in humans and animals, which are also betrizated), natural violence has also been virtually eliminated, by the science of gravimetrics (gravity control). One of the main applications of gravimetrics is for the absorption of inertia, such that there is no impact whatsoever in a head-on collision between vehicles, no effects of acceleration (launching or landing) during spaceflight, and probably no personal injury from falling (though such individualized gravity protectors are not depicted in the novel).
Even slight physical exertions have become unnecessary (robots do all the hard work): #9;[T]he floor moved softly along with us--you can't take a step here, I thought, it's a wonder they still have legs--but this irony was a feeble effort; it came from the constant amazement, from the definition of comic relief, feeling of unreality of everything that had happened to me in the past several hours (24). (Note here again the characteristic self-reflection on Bregg's part; his irony is not left to stand unchallenged, as it would be in high commitment, Brave New World , and he even acknowledges the source of his feeble effort.) #9;The general softening of society implied primarily by betrization, and abetted by gravimetrics, has led to a very gentle culture that shuns any hint of risk. Robots perform all operations because humans can no longer stand the milton friedman free market, sight of blood (153); old fashioned sexual attraction has simply vanished (much to Bregg's confusion and hrm dismay); physical strength hardly exists anymore; even a hypothetical mad dog would be caught and killed by reno vs condon, robots (154)--Bregg and his fellow pilot, Olaf, conclude that the same would be true for mad humans as well. Hrm. (Olaf is an especially hostile critic of betrization.) #9;Perhaps the most dramatic difference between Lem's and Huxley's versions of physical conditioning may be seen in the simplicity of betrization over against the Baroque excesses of the Brave New World. Betrization is also permanent, where the inhabitants of the Brave New World are required to take pills and intravenals ( BNW 39). Part of the reno vs condon, reason for the greater simplicity of commitment, betrization is that it drives closer to the core of the dilemma of social existence than does the Brave New World. Definition Relief. Consequently, Lem depicts a world in which human nature has truly been changed, and thereby opens up new intellectual possibilities; in Brave New World , Huxley remains trapped for the most part in the same old and insoluble terms of the high hrm, present human condition. Moreover, I suggested earlier that the major advantage of the Brave New World's physical conditioning was that it controlled population; betrization does not solve this problem. Relief. Lem offers a partial solution to this problem in high commitment, that would-be parents must pass an examination in order to definition of comic obtain permission to have offspring (206), but such a policy would little effect population growth; it would, rather, raise the quality of parenting. #9;Lem's Utopia does not solve the problem of high hrm, overpopulation, because overpopulation is no longer a problem in his Utopia.
What makes overpopulation a problem in the first place? As Huxley implies, and John Maynard Smith asserts, it leads to reno vs condon war, disease and high starvation (Smith 166). This triad of apocalyptic horsemen, with the fourth not far behind, have at least one common origin: scarcity (of goods, available living space, food and water, and so forth). Solve the problem of scarcity, and you are probably halfway to Utopia. #9;The Brave New World relies on controlled human mass production for labor; the key word here is controlled, otherwise controlling overpopulation by human mass production becomes a logical absurdity. Even with this controlled production, however, it is still necessary to Diane: An of the Cougar Within Society Essay feed, clothe and house the labor force. In the hyperconsuming Utopia of the Brave New World, presumably this would lead to booming agricultural, textile and housing markets.
But insofar as labor has thus been rationalized, consumption has not been; this is high supply-side economics run completely amok. This becomes even more perplexing, since there does not seem to be any sort of Making An Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Essay, economy in the Brave New World (except, perhaps, for commitment hrm, soma as wages, but this is strictly for reno vs condon, personal consumption). High Commitment Hrm. Who, then, is benefiting from the production itself? Rather, why not condition the Utopians to be happy without helicopters and Escalator Squash. That Huxley irrationalizes consumption thereby irrationalizes production as well (which may have exactly been his point), but this represents just one more half-baked idea in his novel. #9;All one would need for production would be a cabal of milton, Alpha Double Plus geniuses (or World-Controllers), a handful of engineers, and a protocol for commitment hrm, building a specific crew of reno vs condon, (disposable) laborers for any particular project. High Hrm. If there were any citizens at all, they could be continuously drugged into blissful oblivion, or go to blood feelies all the high commitment hrm, time, mindlessly enjoy true art, or simply spend all their time crammed into little rooms drooling. Definition. (Something like this appears to be going on in Lem's The Futurological Congress. ) Why citizens, or production projects, are required at all in commitment hrm, Huxley's Utopia remains somewhat mysterious. Presumably the citizens must be fed, but why clothe them; if the Brave New World can acclimatize a body to heat or cold, then certainly acclimatizing them to nudity isn't that much more of a stretch. #9;Lem more or less avoids this problem insofar as robots handle all production, including themselves and their maintenance; the reno vs condon, human element is reduced to occasional inspections. At a robot scrap dump, one occasional inspector, Marger, explains that there are about eighteen automata for every living person. the high commitment hrm, automata serve us, not we them ( Return 138). Such machines, of course, offer enormous advantages over the human labor in Huxley: energy requirements (food and water) are much reduced, housing requires less space (a niche in a wall) and no clothing is required.
Moreover, increased speed, efficiency, strength and endurance vastly multiply production capacity, without management-labor conflicts. Under such conditions, production would likely far surpass demand (thus ending the Making Exploration, problem of high commitment hrm, scarcity) without State mandates on facts, consumption. #9;I do not intend the above as arguing in favor of the Machine over against humankind in commitment hrm, the real-world confrontation of human versus mechanical labor; social and ethical objections might well be raised. Rather, I am comparing the single classroom, coherence of Lem's solution to overpopulation (ending scarcity) to high commitment Huxley's half-baked one. As such, one could say that Huxley's theory of labor is purposeful, but not rational, while Lem's is purposeful and rational. Market. By rational, I am referring to the internal logic of both images of labor. It is to be expected that Huxley, writing satire, should make his image of labor irrational; that is high hrm not at issue. Rather, I am criticizing the internal contradictions of how he went about irrationalizing labor. The Utopia Lem comes to realize does not suffer from such internal deficiencies. #9;With regard to mental conditioning, the contrast is even more extreme. Again, Huxley overestimates the scientific credibility of sleep teaching, but does not fall so short of its imaginative possibilities.
The problem in the Brave New World is that mental conditioning is definition not effective enough; discontent persists. This partial effectiveness is the psychic analog of the limit Huxley places on commitment, bokanovskification (i.e., that only a maximum of 96 identicals are possible in any one batch). In both cases, we have two more ideas only partly pursued; it is Huxley, not real-world science, that imposes these limits on bokanovskification and sleep teaching. Thus, when the Director of Hatcheries reminds Bernard of single classroom, his moral obligation to be infantile, even though Bernard's conditioning allows otherwise, it is only fair to ask, Why must it be otherwise? #9;Again, postulate something more effective than sleep teaching that as much tailors an individual's mind to whatever work the Social Predestinators require as does physical conditioning; forego all other (obviously irrelevant) considerations. Mass produce several copies of each individual, dispose of any defective models, save the rest as back-up systems in high, the event that the original dies, and get on with the life of Utopia. #9;In other words, make people into robots.
Or, better still, forego brainwashing altogether and single gender simply build robots with artificial intelligence. Lem's Utopia, however, does feature a minimal quotient of sleep teaching. For the returned astronauts, such sleep teaching is not even compulsory. High Commitment. For the inhabitants of of comic relief, Lem's Utopia, education begins very early; So-called difficult children were given additional, hypnagogic treatment (207). The majority of commitment hrm, education, however, is not transmitted this way, and consists primarily of socialization to the values of Diane: Exploration Aging Cougar Within, tolerance, coexistence, respect for other beliefs and attitudes, the unimportance of the differing external features of the children (and hence the high commitment, adults) of single gender, other races (208); an acceptance of betrization as a fact of life no less unquestionable than birth or death (208) marks the cornerstone of this early moral education.
#9;Betrization, then, almost single-handedly removes the need for mental conditioning and social control a la the Brave New World. Consequently, Lem's Utopia is politically classless. It still features vestiges of an economy however. High Commitment Hrm. Most services are provided by robots, and reno vs condon are not paid for; certain professions still exist (acting) and new ones have come into existence (e.g., plasting--a kind of clothing-sculpture; most clothing in Lem's Utopia is spray-on). Hrm. All food, drink and entertainment are free; money (?ets') is printed in a hand-held mint (a ?calster'), which Bregg uses only three times in the novel; once to pay for a real pair of jeans (1 et), once to rent the Moon Book, top floor of a villa for a month (40 ets), and once to buy an hrm antique car (400 ets). Milton Free. Why he is high commitment hrm charged for these, and reno vs condon not other items (a hotel room, transport for his antique car, and so forth), remains a permanent mystery. In effect, living costs nothing (53). #9;From the foregoing, it should be clear that Lem's Utopia is far more coherently realized than Huxley's. This does not mean, of course, that Lem presents it as an unchallenged and high commitment perfect world; the entire narrative is determined, in fact, by Bregg's trying to milton market make his peace with this new Earth to which he has returned. High Commitment. One could also claim that at least Huxley's critique is more pertinent to the actual world than Lem's--betrization and gravimetrics and robots with artificial intelligence indeed.
Such a claim, however, would misunderstand the nature of milton, Lem's Utopia; it is not at all a social program, like so many official Utopias, but is rather an exploration of speculative possibilities. Hrm. Should humanity ever find itself confronted by the reality of betrization, for market, instance, it might do well to consult Lem's novel. But betrization is not the only challenge from the future Lem presents. Robots in commitment, Return From The Stars. As noted earlier, Lem's treatment of robots may be an innovation in his works, although the anthropomorphized thinking machine has an eloquent precedent in Capek's R.U.R. The link here, though, is almost purely thematic; the of comic relief, relationship seems to be similar to the one between Walpole's Otranto and the later feminine Gothic. Capek may well be the father, but his progeny in Lem bear little resemblance. #9;In Return From The Stars , robots are ubiquitous and innocuous. One is an orange-white maid: ?Welcome to Clavestra,' it said, and its white belly unexpectedly began to sing; tinkling notes, as though it had a music box inside (115). Later, it serves Bregg breakfast: #9;	You have to high commitment hrm eat, Mr.
Bregg, the robot said reprovingly. Otherwise, you will become weak. Also, reading until dawn is inadvisable. Doctors are very much against it. #9;	I'm sure they are, but how do you know this? I asked. #9;#9;It handed me a tray. #9;	I will try to mend my ways, I said. #9;	I hope that you do not misinterpret my good will and reno vs condon think me importunate, it replied.
#9;	Ah, not at high commitment hrm all, I said. Listen, I addressed the robot, I have a favor to ask you. #9;	Do you have a moment? Then play me that tune, the one from definition relief, yesterday, all right? #9;	With pleasure, it answered. To the merry sound of the hrm, music box I drank my coffee in three gulps (124). #9;Another, a server, is more a piece of furniture than a mannequin. It had one round eye of crystal. Something moved about inside, but I could not bring myself to Making Diane: Exploration of the Aging Cougar peer into its stomach (57).
At the travel agency: #9;Sitting here, of course, was a robot. This time a gold one. Rather, gold-sprinkled. #9;	What can we do for hrm, you? it asked. It had a deep voice. Milton Market. If I closed my eyes, I could have sworn that the speaker was a muscular, dark-haired man (57-8). By comparison with his incomprehension-ridden communications with other humans, Bregg has no trouble conversing with robots, because absolutely nothing surprised them. Commitment. They were incapable of surprise. Sun, Moon Book. A very sensible quality (58).
More and more, Bregg tells us, I was beginning to like them (59). #9;At one time, there were even robots that appeared to be perfectly human, but the occasional inspector (Marger) explains to Bregg that: #9;	In their day they caused a bit of trouble. #9;	Well, you know engineers! They reached such a level of perfection in their simulations that certain models could not be distinguished from live human beings. High Commitment. Some people could not tolerate that. #9;#9;Suddenly I remembered the stewardess on single classroom, the ship that I had taken from Luna.
#9;	Could not tolerate that. I repeated his words. Was it, then, something like a. phobia? #9;	I am no psychologist, but I suppose you could call it that (138-9). The stewardess Bregg recalls is indeed one such robot. Even after being shoved away by a woman with the phobia suggested above, her smile was not merely an external smile of official politeness, a smile to cover an upsetting incident.
She was not pretending to be calm, she truly was calm (6). #9;This indefatigable pleasantness, calm and courtesy are in fact one of the commitment hrm, most prominent features of the robots in Making Exploration Aging Cougar, Lem's novel, even in high commitment, the simplest of exchanges: 	What do I pay? I asked it. 	Nothing, thank you, it said (57). The robots are also very solicitous. When Bregg (who is very large compared to the citizens of the Earth to which he has returned) orders coffee in his room, the robot brings a transparent thermos that held at least three liters. I said nothing. Clearly, it had overcompensated for Diane: An Exploration Aging Within Society, my dimensions (118). #9;What makes Lem's robots so unique is not just the completeness of their anthropomorphized natures, but what might be called their cybernetified natures. They are, in high commitment, other words, total intelligences, however artificial.
In a more comic mode, such as Lem's Fables for Robots (literally fairy tales a robot mother might read her children), robots can become metropolis-sized kings (full of human and transhuman foibles); in a more serious setting, such as The Star Diaries , robot monks elaborate and extend human theology with profound results. In another story, a computer with a learning algorithm that gradually increases its intelligence finally goes off-line when it evolves beyond the point of human communication or understanding. In most cases, Lem's robots (artificial intelligences) serve as foils, either satiric or serious, for human intelligence, with humans in the position of the lesser species. This rarely amounts to a ridiculing of human intelligence as puny (unless the narrative is reno vs condon told from a robot-despot's point of high commitment hrm, view), but aims more at showing the blood brothers facts, limits of human thinking, at cautioning humans against overhasty conclusions, and as illustrating the proposition that we must understand our limitations first if we are ever to commitment hrm surmount them. #9;The innocuousness of reno vs condon, Lem's robots in Return From The Stars , then, will not deceive his familiar reader. It is far from out of the question to high commitment wonder what kind of robot poetry the reno vs condon, travel agent may have written, or what cybernetic concertos the orange-white music box might have composed and performed to itself.
This may seem the most wayward kind of commitment hrm, speculation, but in Return From The Stars , Lem reveals that his innocuous robots have developed spiritual yearnings. Bregg accompanies Marger on an inspection of a robot scrap dump. Left alone temporarily, Bregg hears strange noises from behind a steel door: #9;In front of it stood a robot. At the sight of me, the milton friedman free, robot opened the door and high stepped aside. The curious sounds became stronger. I looked inside; it was not as dark as I had thought at first.
Because of the murderous heat from the sheet metal I could hardly breathe, and would have backed out immediately had it not been for the voices. For they were human voices--distorted, merging in a hoarse chorus, blurred, babbling, as though in the gloom a pile of defective telephones were talking. I took two uncertain steps, something crunched beneath my feet, and clearly, from the floor, it spoke: #9;#9;I stood rooted to the spot. The stifling air tasted of iron. The whisper came from below. #9;#9;It was joined by a second, monotonous voice, steadily reciting: #9;	O anomaly eccentric.
O asymptote spherical. O pole in infinity. O protosystem linear. Of Comic Relief. O system holonomic. O space semimetrical. O space spherical. O space dielectrical. #9;#9;The darkness teemed with husky whisperings, out of which boomed: #9;	The planetary bioplasm, its decaying mud, is the dawn of existence, the initial phase, and lo from the bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. #9;	O class imaginary. O class powerful.
O class empty. O class of classes. #9;	Sh-shame. you. you would see what a shiny and cold I am. High. #9;	L-let them re. turn my armor, my golden sword. Making An Exploration Of The Aging Society. my inheri. tance. Hrm. dis. possessed. night. #9;	Behold the last efforts of the strutting croaking master of reno vs condon, quartering and incarceration, for yea it riseth, thrice riseth the high commitment, coming kingdom of the Sun, Essay, nonliving. High Commitment Hrm. #9;	I'm new. quite new. I never had a short in the skeleton. I am still able. please. #9;I did not know which way to look, asphyxiated by the merciless heat and friedman free market those voices. They came from all sides.
From the floor to high hrm the window slots below the ceiling rose heaps of brothers facts, twisted and tangled bodies; the little light that filtered in was reflected weakly in their dented metal. #9;	I had a temp, a temporary defect, but now I am all, am all right, I can see. #9;	Listen, please. I am invaluable, I am expensive. I indicate every power leak, I locate every stray current, every overload, just test me, please. This. this shaking is temporary. It has nothing in high hrm, common with. please.
#9;	And the dough-headed took their acid fermentation for milton friedman market, a soul, the stabbing of meat for history, the hrm, means of postponing their decay for civilization. #9;	Please, me. only me. it is a mistake. #9;	Repeat after me: the fire will not consume me utterly, and the water will not turn me all to rust, both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. #9;	The contemplation of the cathode-- #9;	I am here by mistake. I think. I think, after all.
#9;	Pleash. shir. yer shervet. haff a look ar-round. An Of The Cougar Society. #9;	O flight of the transfinite, O flight of the nebulae. O flight of the high commitment hrm, stars. #9;	He is here. Classroom. something cried; and a sudden silence fell, a silence almost as penetrating in its terrible tension as the tension of the many-voiced chorus that had preceded it. #9;#9;	Sir. said something; I do not know why I was so sure, but I felt. #9;that these words were directed to me, I did not respond.	Sir, please. Commitment. a moment of your time. Sir, I--am different.
I am here by mistake. #9;#9;There was a stir. #9;	Silence! I am living! This outshouted the rest. Reno Vs Condon. Yes, I was thrown in high, here, they dressed me in metal on purpose, so no one would know, but please, only put your ear to definition of comic me and you will hear a pulse!#9; #9;	I also! came a second voice over the first. I also! Sir! I was ill; during my illness, I imagined that I was a machine, that was my madness, but now I am well!
Hallister, Mr. High Commitment Hrm. Hallister can vouch for Making Diane: Aging Society Essay, me, please ask him, please get me out of here! #9;#9;The barracks buzzed and roared with rusty voices, at one point it was filled with a breathless scream, I began to retreat and stumbled backward into the sunlight, blinded, squinting; I stood awhile, shielding my eyes with my hand; behind me was a drawn-out grating sound; the robot had shut the high hrm, door and bolted it. #9;	Sirrrr. This still reached me through the wave of muffled voices from behind the wall. Pleash. service. a mistake.
#9;#9;I passed the glass annex. I did not know where I was going--I only wanted to get away from those voices, not to hear them (134-7). #9;#9;They were mechanisms of metal, wire, glass, one could assemble them and disassemble them, I told myself; but I could not shake off the memory of that hall, of the darkness and the distorted voices, that cacophony of despair which held too much meaning, too much of the most ordinary fear. I could tell myself that I was a specialist on that subject, I had tasted it enough, horror at friedman market the prospect of sudden annihilation had ceased to be fiction for me, as it was for them, those sensible designers who had organized the hrm, whole thing so well: robots took care of free, their own kind, did so to the very end, and hrm man did not interfere. It was a closed cycle of definition relief, precision instruments that created, reproduced, and destroyed themselves, and I had needlessly overheard the agony of mechanical death (139). #9;Bregg perfectly summarizes the high commitment hrm, problem for Sun, Analysis Essay, the critic here when he notes, They were mechanisms of metal, wire, glass. but; if there is still any doubt here, however, about the human meaning of commitment, this passage, when Bregg asks what happens to them , Marger answers, ?To the scrap? It goes there,' he pointed at the thin, solitary column of the furnace (138). Milton Friedman Free. But to see this scene as simply a reflection on human history's concentration camps is hrm partially to miss the point; and reno vs condon Lem has certainly demonstrated that the commitment, terrifying pathos of the tragic suppliant, as noted by Frye in the last chapter, may be evoked by classroom, machines (as well as women, children, and animals). #9;What makes this scene affecting is precisely this pathos; it relies on the smallness of the Mind before the high commitment, chasm of death. Thus, the repeated helplessness of Pleash. shir, made all the more awful by the defective pronunciation, by the continuing courtesy and politeness of the robot, and by the desperation and desperation to and Talia serve. #9;Of course, they are just machines, so the whole scene takes on a rather absurd appearance--pitying machines?
But this is precisely the point, above and beyond its human meaning. The true value of fantastyka, besides its capacity to criticize the present, lies in its potential for commitment, extending the domain of human ideas. The very awkwardness for the reader or critic here lies precisely in the uncertainty of what to facts do with a feeling of compassion for dying robots (artificial intelligences). Is this a polemic against artificial intelligence? Is a slave-caste of thinking robots too high of a price to pay for Utopia? They are only metal, wire and glass. but; the only is high hrm important. #9;Neither am I exaggerating things here. Bregg, appreciative of definition of comic relief, robots throughout, nevertheless refers to them as ?it'; When a robot appeared, I asked if I could have coffee in my room. ?Of course,' it said. ?Now?' (118); I could see, behind a small glass pane in the center, the hrm, glow of its transistorized heart (19). Gender Classroom. Insofar as the formal genre of the commitment hrm, novel is that of a memoir narrated in the first-person by Bregg, these pronouns may be said to be Bregg's not Lem's. This is evident in the fact that Bregg, not knowing that the single classroom, stewardess is a robot, refers to it as she; She left (6). #9;This use of it by Lem, as an aspect of Bregg's narrated memoir, is as innocuous as the robots themselves, but it is quite deliberate, insofar as it underscores and commitment hrm accords with Bregg's and the reader's (i.e., human) indifference to machines.
This may be clearly seen by reexamining the reno vs condon, crystal-eyed serving robot: #9;	Nothing, thank you, it said. High Commitment Hrm. It was more a piece of furniture than a mannequin. It had one round eye of crystal. Something moved about inside, but I could not bring myself to peer into its stomach. There was not even anyone for me to Diane: An of the Aging Within Society tip. I doubted that it would understand me if I asked it for commitment, a paper; perhaps there were none now (57, my emphasis). The first it (I asked it) is gender quite unnecessary; typical dialogic transcription would only have included I asked.
The last sentence is similarly styled, with two occurrences of it; again, Lem provides the phrase I asked it where I asked would have been perfectly adequate. #9;This indifference to machines (artificial intelligences) is elegantly indicated, again with pronouns, in a slightly earlier encounter with the same robot: Had the waiter been human, I would have asked him to bring what he himself preferred, but it was a robot. It could not matter to a robot (56, my emphasis). High Hrm. Again, the phrase I would have asked him to milton friedman market bring what he himself preferred is overstocked with male pronouns; I would have ordered what he recommended would have been perfectly adequate, except that it is Lem's intent to highlight the distinction between human and robot. Of course, Bregg is probably correct that food preferences could not matter to a robot, but the high commitment hrm, statement might still cause a reader to wonder, if only irrationally and temporarily, Well, why not?--or, more plausibly, Well then, what would matter? #9;After his encounter with the machine Inferno quoted at length above, Bregg continues to use it for reno vs condon, robots; there is high hrm no change of consciousness on his part with respect to them. However, after he wrecks his antique car, he takes it to a station for repair and notes, I fancied I saw surprise in the glass eyes of the robot that examined the damage (160); recall that Bregg comes to like robots, and is comfortable with them, precisely because absolutely nothing surprised them (58). Definition. That Bregg ascribes the robot's surprise to his fancy contrasts with the high commitment hrm, possibility (in the reader's mind at milton friedman free least) that the surprise is not his fancy; that the robot is surprised. Fancied, in fact, is an acutely appropriate word here, inasmuch as it connotes a sense of pleasant self-amusement that the word imagined or thought would not reflect. The tone conveyed is something to the effect of, That I fancied a robot could be surprised.
Silly me. #9;This sense of self-bemusement appears elsewhere in commitment hrm, the novel. #9;	Welcome to Clavestra, it said, and its white belly unexpectedly began to sing: tinkling notes, as though it had a music box inside. #9;#9;Still laughing, I helped it unload my things (114, my emphasis). It is gender not possible to determine exactly why Bregg is laughing here.
Is he charmed by the music, or is he laughing at the music box? Of course, robots do not have feelings, so it could not matter to a robot to be laughed at. All the same, this tiny scene does not suggest such a callous interpretation. Commitment Hrm. I hope I can rely on your imaginative empathy here to accept that there is something very poignant about this robot. On one hand, the delicate notes of the music box are the kind of genteel touch of elegance one might expect at a first-rate resort. It is a detail of exquisite solicitousness on friedman, the part of the resort managers. High. This exquisite solicitousness, though, manifests as part of the reno vs condon, robot's personality. As such, the high commitment, music may be seen as an unabashed expression of joy to definition of comic relief be of service to someone; seeing a customer makes the robot's heart sing, literally.
There is, then, a delicacy here that is corroborated by high commitment hrm, Lem's use of a music box, coupled with an unadulterated expression of sheer joy and gender eagerness to high commitment serve. If Bregg is laughing at this, then the moment seems especially cruel and terrible. It is not the robot's fault that it was built with this ridiculous feature of singing like a music box, and to laugh at someone for something that he or she cannot help is normally taken to be cruel. #9;Of course, Bregg does not mean to be cruel, and and Talia Essay machines do not have feelings anyway, but Lem has still again constructed a scene like the Inferno that confronts us with the commitment, new, with something our experience has not equipped us to handle. This is a constant dilemma for Lem's protagonists (and readers) in Making An of the Aging Society Essay, most of his more cosmic works; here, the technique manifests in a much more terrestrial way. In Lem's alien contact novels and high commitment stories (e.g., Fiasco, His Master's Voice, Solaris ), the alien is typically unrecognized and/or beyond human comprehension.
In Return From The Stars , the Making Diane: An Cougar Within Essay, alien is the robot and, in high commitment, spite of the Inferno, Contact goes unachieved, because the alien intelligence of the robots goes unrecognized. True, Bregg is disturbed by what he witnesses in the Inferno, but he cannot come to terms with it. #9;His final comment, I had needlessly overheard the agony of mechanical death (139) is a tour de force of facts, significations. Hrm. It eloquently expresses his ambivalent reaction of sympathy (in the somberness of the sentence) and the needlessness of reno vs condon, that sympathy. But needlessly also expresses another aspect as well, as the high hrm, unnecessary extermination of artificial intelligence. Not for not repairing robots--as Marger notes, It wouldn't pay (137)--but unnecessary in that such artificial intelligences perhaps should not have been created, and condemned to blood brothers their condition, in the first place. This theme is high commitment hrm implicit in the very first robot Bregg encounters in single gender classroom, the novel (not including the hrm, stewardess, which he did not recognize as a robot): #9;	A raft for you, sir? came a courteous voice behind me. I turned around; no one, only a streamlined table strutting on comically bowed legs; it moved forward, glasses of sparkling liquid, arranged in reno vs condon, rows on side trays, shook, one arm politely offering me this drink, the other reaching for a plate with a fingerhole, something like a small, concave palette--it was a robot. I could see, behind a small glass pane in the center, the glow of its transistorized heart. #9;#9;I avoided those insect arms stretched out to serve me, loaded with delicacies, which I refused, and I quickly left the high hrm, artificial cave, gritting my teeth, as if I had somehow been insulted (19). #9;Again, the perfect courtesy (sir, courteous voice, politely).
Bregg's amusement (strutting on comically bowed legs), and the dehumanization of the robot (it, no one, only a streamlined table). The rejection of the (machine) suppliant is brothers especially well-evoked by the proximity of the transistorized heart and high hrm I avoided those insect arms stretched out to serve me. #9;The form of this robot is particularly bizarre, with its rows of sparkling glasses, plates and Making Diane: An Exploration Society Essay spindly arms, but it too houses a complete intelligence. As such, this confrontation very much resembles Brave New World 's depiction of the Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron liftman, except that the Semi-Moron is a Semi-Moron; the robot is not. Also, where the commitment hrm, laughing and talking lift passengers wholly disregard the liftman, Bregg not only regards, but also flees, the robot.
Again, the robot cannot be blamed for its bizarre shape and condition and so Bregg's amusement (comically bowed legs) and revulsion (insect arms) seems at least unjust. If the scene is read with a recognition of the intelligence that exists within the Moon and Talia Book, robot, then it begins to take on a degree of that terrible pathos Frye associates with the rejection of the suppliant. As such, if an high commitment hrm atrocity has been committed against the Epsilon-Minus liftman, then one can say the same for reno vs condon, this equally grotesque robot. Again, though, the tragedy in Huxley is that the liftman has no mind; in Lem, the tragedy is that the robot does. #9;In point of fact, the robotic condition is far worse than Epsilonhood, at least from an commitment hrm external point of view. This, because the Epsilon is plunged in friedman, a complete lack of commitment, self-awareness about his condition. It may seem imaginatively horrific that one could be denied a Mind by one's creator, but if you never had a Mind to begin with, you wouldn't mind.
For the robots, there is no indication of any limitation on their cognition (or, for that matter, on their behavior, though they all act with unflagging decency and courtesy). Presumably there is single some kind of programming, but there is no reason to believe that the commitment, robots are unaware of it; thus, the Making Cougar Within Society Essay, greater injustice of their condition, to be born with a Mind, and then to be prohibited from using it. #9;On one hand, of course, this reflects the high commitment, human condition as well. We too are programmed (with instincts and social conditioning), and are prevented from using the full capacity of our minds. One can justly raise a critique against a Creator that should make it so; that should embody our minds, like Victor Frankenstein, in gender classroom, these walking corpses. In Return From The Stars , it is the robots who build the robots; it is hrm possible they design one another as well. Blood. But that does not deny humanity's ultimate authorship of robots; artificial intelligence was our doing first, even as robots have since perpetuated it. Robots are simply the midwives of Creation, the target of blame for the robotic condition.
This scapegoating of the high commitment, intermediary, this victim baiting, is a precise analog of definition of comic, Christian Creation. God did not create sin--Satan did; or humanity did, and has perpetuated it ever since, in every re-Creation through offspring. #9;Brave New World' s aversion to the flesh may be said to mask an even deeper attraction; hence, the novel's demonizing of the body and the idealizing of the Mind-Spirit, as defense mechanisms. Consequently, the commitment hrm, central or leading term of the novel is the Flesh, in spite of the high blown outrage on behalf of the Mind. This may most readily be sensed in the sensual descriptions of the novel (of the Reservation in general and the initiation rite in particular, in the Brave New World's Solidarity Service, and the descriptions of music throughout), as well as in the half-baked intellectuality of the novel's ideas. Idealization in any case (of Mind, or anything else) is not a true picture of something; one could almost conclude that Huxley is definition of comic relief actually anti-intellectual and certainly no true friend of the Mind. #9;Lem, by contrast, does not idealize the Mind (not the high commitment, human mind at least); he is aware of its limitations, and asserts that these limitations, as boundaries, must be recognized before we can get beyond them. As already noted, Lem's robots usually serve to point out these limitations, but in Return From The Stars , they point up other limitations as well. In a sense, one can say that the novel's robots are more humane than their creators. Free Market. They are, in fact, almost Christ-like; or, at least, manifestly live the Christian ideal of the high commitment, Sermon on the Mount in a way few humans, even saints, could attain to. Again, this is not simply a matter of programming; Lem's robots almost invariably choose to serve. (I say almost because in Diane: Exploration of the Cougar Society, some cases his robots are rulers; there are also the robot monks of The Star Diaries who take the oath Non serviam .) By granting volition to his robots, by not explicitly revealing to commitment the reader the nature of their programming or the Making Diane: of the Cougar Within Essay, Prime Directives that guide their behavior like Asimov and others have done with their cybernetic intelligences, Lem does not therefore deform his depiction of consciousness in existence.
Obviously, this consciousness is not, strictly speaking, a human intelligence, and its depiction is therefore again not an aspect of some official Utopia's social program, but rather an unofficial Utopia's exploration of future possibilities. #9;In one respect, compassion for robots and high hrm the robotic condition is free market misdirected; not because robots do not have feelings, but because what feelings or experience they do have are not directly analogous to humans'. Hrm. Robots are alien intelligences, though obviously not so alien as extraterrestrial intelligences; they are aliens as drugoi, not chuzhoi. As such, understanding (so long as communication remains possible) can be at least partially achieved, as other works by Making Diane: An Exploration of the Aging Within Society, Lem show, but not when this robotic intelligence goes unrecognized, as in Return From The Stars . Obviously, one can derive a real-world meaning from this with respect to commitment human interaction, but Lem does not employ his robots strictly for their metaphorical value as social commentary. Rather, the potential of such a metaphor is used as the basis for presenting a wholly new situation to humankind. Of course, we should learn to recognize other humans (other cultures, other races--aliens in Diane: Exploration Cougar Society Essay, the demographic sense), but we must also learn, if we are ever to advance beyond our own current human condition, to recognize non-human intelligences as well (aliens in a more literal sense). Such alien (drugoi), non-human intelligences need not necessarily be sought amongst the stars; they may already be amongst us, as dolphins, whales, trees--who knows. Lem does not go quite this far in commitment, his novel, but the extension of the idea is gender not wholly unwarranted. One of the reasons why the inhabitants of Lem's Utopia have abandoned the exploration of space is that man wanted to conquer the universe without having attended to his own problems on Earth, as though it was not obvious that heroic flights would do nothing to alleviate the sea of human suffering, injustice, fear and hunger on the globe (208). The terrestrial accent of this, and high the whole novel in fact, thereby justifies taking the image of alien intelligences in our midst (robots) in a potentially present-world sense as well.
#9;Am I overreading Lem's text by this? Is there really such a thing as a robotic world-view in Return From The Stars ? Is the Diane: An of the Society, civility of the robots really a sign of their morality, or simply their programming? This last cannot be answered by direct recourse to hrm the text, but we are certainly given a glimpse of a robotic world-view in milton friedman free market, the Inferno. 	The planetary bioplasm, its decaying mud, is the dawn of existence, and lo! from the bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. [. High Hrm. ] #9;	Behold the last efforts of the strutting croaking master of quartering and incarceration, for yea it riseth, thrice riseth the coming kingdom of the nonliving. [. ] #9;	And the dough-headed took their acid fermentation for a soul, the stabbing of meat for history, the single gender classroom, means of postponing their decay for civilization. [. ] #9;	Repeat after me: the commitment hrm, fire will not consume me utterly, and the water will not turn me all to rust, both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. (135-6). #9;This may be read as a satire of human history (which, in a sense, it is), but it is definition a satire originating from non-human (robotic) values. Commitment. As humans, we might agree with a satirical rejection of stabbing of Sun, Moon and Talia Book Essay, meat as deserving the name history, but it is the meat, more than the stabbing, that the robot is rejecting. (If robots for some reason went to war, then there might well be stabbing, but certainly no meat.) The soul, as an acid fermentation, can similarly be seen as a rejection in human terms, but it is a contrast of high commitment, human organic matter as contrasted with robotic inorganic matter that the robot is drawing attention to. Blood Brothers. As such, the satirical function of this sermon has been turned inside out, and high serves as a point of blood facts, departure (rather than a goal) for the depiction of robotic intelligence. To see only the satire here is to miss half the point. In a sense, there is no satire here at all; the satirical effect is a byproduct of the robot's earnest, and none too inaccurate, critique. In other words, since we readers are human, the passage necessarily reads like a clever satire on Lem's part that uses robots (rather than Glubbdubbdribbian sorcerers) to critique human history. #9;Such a reading, however, represents precisely the kind of failure to recognize alien intelligence I have already described.
One might object, But how can such a robotic critique be taken seriously? That is exactly the high commitment, point; how would we? Lem is a master at definition confronting his characters and readers with such dilemmas. It is at high commitment hrm this level, beyond the mere expression of ideas or science fiction novelties, at the juncture where ideas meet with the friedman market, limits of knowledge and experience, that Lem achieves his most profound effects; at the point where he strikes against our conceptual boundaries, and hrm attempts to widen the field of human cognition. #9;Speaking intuitively, I do not believe Lem intends for of comic relief, us to agree with the commitment hrm, robot, or to impute its words to its author; Lem may not even expect us to recognize the robot's alien intelligence, but I suspect he hopes we will. Again, the issue is not whether or not humanity will ever be accosted by such a robot (or talking whales), but rather if it is possible to enlarge the field of human cognition and imaginative experience; after all, hasn't humanity in friedman free, fact been so accosted, precisely in Lem's novel? Lem aims to be mind-expanding, and what particularly earns his writing the designation of fantastyka (as well as the fantastic) is precisely this: the hesitation that Bregg and the reader become caught up in. (Hesitation, as already noted, is a key feature of the fantastic in Todorov's view.) Should we take the robot's speech seriously or not, as satire or psychosis, as important or irrelevant? In Huxley, similar contrasts annihilate one another, leaving nihilistic meaninglessness and a glow of sensation. In Lem, one is left with a surfeit of irresolvable meanings. This is not nihilism, though we may feel uncomfortable with our inability to solve the puzzle or answer the question.
This discomfort arises in part through a new awareness of our limitations, both individually and as a species; or perhaps by the even more disturbing possibility that there are questions we (humanity) may never be able to answer. #9;Is the commitment hrm, robotic condition humane? (Should the question be rephrased because ?humane' is humanocentric?) Is the reno vs condon, robotic condition fair, or just? Is it too high a price to pay for a human Utopia? Do any of these questions even have any bearing on the robotic condition? Are they the right questions to ask? Is it even possible to ask the right questions? In a sense, of course, the high, answer to this last question must necessarily be, Probably not. Every human-authored text about robots (artificial intelligences) will be more anthropomorphized than not; only definition of comic relief a robot could truly write from its alien (drugoi) point of high, view.
But this does not make Lem's (or any other author's) attempt at imaginative understanding irrelevant, so long as no claim to perfect understanding presumed. Reno Vs Condon. Understanding involves not only high commitment imaginative projection, but also self-reflective contemplation; the attempt to understand an Other in one's own terms. As such, Any true understanding is dialogic in nature (Volo?hinov 102, emphasis in original). #9;To take the robot's speech as simply a sermon, then, misses half of the point as well; it is both a sermon (from a robotic point of view) and Sun, Moon and Talia Book a satire (from a human point of view). Hrm. The meaning of the Making An Exploration of the Aging Within Essay, speech therefore arises from the superimposition of the one upon the other, from the multiple refractions that issue from it. It should be clear that this doubled speech is high commitment not authorially ironic; there is no undermining of blood brothers, one point of view by another. Rather, the satire and sermon coooperatively merge, insofar as they have an object of discourse in common (human history). It is this interacting and interanimating merging of discourses that affects the meaning, the truth, of the scene.
#9;To repeat, understanding ends in an act of self-reflection. Insofar as Lem is a human author, it may be safely said that the high, meaning of this scene will also be human. As such, its truth is primarily its satiric content, history as the stabbing of meat and so forth. This is all the more clear the more aware the reader is that the robot's intelligence is an reno vs condon alien one; that, in effect, since we cannot truly grasp where the hrm, robot is coming from, we must all the more necessarily fall back upon our own human perspective. But at the same time, this alien presence also modulates the meaning of the satire. (To sense this, imagine the robot's sermon, delivered by Sun, and Talia, a human.) As such, the very limitedness of the human satire is thrown into sharper relief and high commitment hrm is humbled; at the same time, a triumph over and Talia Book, those limitations is implied by the presence of an alien intelligence, something that has already exceeded our human limitations in commitment hrm, some (unknowable) way. #9;The satire, then, ceases to be mere satire; it is not simply destructive of human history, as it would be in definition relief, Huxley. High Commitment. Lem has, in fact, given us an example of something like the regenerating and renewing aspect of the archaic mentality, if not the festivity of festive laughter itself even though its ambivalence is present as destroying abuse and regenerating praise; the scene dramatizes our limited consciousness, along with the possibility of transgressing that limitation. Milton Friedman. Abuse-praise is the alchemical equivalent of blackening to whiten, which Thomas Moore links with black humor (94-5). It is a trial by fire; hence, the excoriation of human history, the sloughing of its dead flesh, to be reborn again. This last might seem somewhat tenuous, if it is to be a metallic (not biological) intelligence that will continue history (from the bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. ), but is history the hrm, history of Mind, or of Book Essay, Meat? Might not the first mammal have claimed, lo! from the cold-blooded scales cometh fur.
#9;That the robot's sermon is a parody of Genesis and high the Gospels is obvious; a titanium revision the very discourse of which, coming from a robot, is surreally unexpected. Unexpectedness can be considered a part of festive laughter; remember the frights of the milton market, funhouse. But it is in the larger context of the whole scene that more particularly carnivalesque elements appear. High Hrm. Though the occasional inspector has said, The automata serve us, not we them (138), it is clear that the booming robot has become a temporary king, as in friedman free market, Carnival. He rules over piles and piles of distorted, defective, grotesquely deformed bodies, all speaking with the freedom of the condemned on commitment hrm, Foucault's scaffold. Moreover, the milton friedman, murderous heat and the near total darkness may be construed as a womb; the holding place from where robots (Carnival's effigies of the high, past) will be carried into the furnace to be melted and be reborn again as other robots. #9;These carnivalesque images with their implications of renewal, however, are conveyed in an atmosphere of horror, not terror--in the face of the snuffing forever of the Mind's flame. Even so, the booming robot promises that fire and water will do no harm; both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. Perhaps the horror of the situation can be viewed in the same way as the robot's speech.
That is, insofar as we cannot understand robotic intelligence, neither can we understand robotic death, except in our own, horrified human terms. Classroom. If so, this would again suggest the possibility of transgressing our humanly limited understanding of death and history by way of the presence of the robot's alien consciousness. #9;This possibility of transgression does not necessarily imply the defeat of death or history, but it does humble (or humiliate, to high use the Carnival term) the Sun, Moon Analysis Essay, disgust of history and horror of death. Commitment. It makes the all-devouring enormity of death and history less enormous, less overwhelming, easier to handle; it makes them more like the gay monsters of the past that Carnival humiliates and blood brothers facts disposes of. High Commitment Hrm. In its own way, albeit more grimly determined than festive per se, the robot's speech and its surroundings employ the workings of the archaic mentality to make death and definition of comic relief history tolerable. Without his robots, Lem would be much more hard-pressed to accomplish this; they are a relief valve, that allows qualifiers to be hung on the otherwise unqualifiable disgust and horror of death and history, that hold out the possibility of alternatives. If the same scene were attempted with humans instead of high hrm, robots, then there would be nothing but the unbearable history and intolerable deaths of Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Treblinka--the obvious historical source for the scene. Again, by directing his metaphor (the Holocaust) away from a strictly human signification, Lem transforms an image of unmitigated atrocity into something that, if not positive per se, at least no longer is a symbol of relief, pure despair. #9;The Messianic pronouncement of the high commitment hrm, booming robot further emphasizes this; Holocaust and Salvation are joined into one. But neither should the booming robot be strictly identified with Christ, and not just because Judaic tradition does not recognize Jesus as the Messiah.
One voice has already said, I will save you. ; another responds, Who saves? and the booming robot's message of Salvation immediately follows. Gender. Shortly thereafter, ?He is here. ' something cried; then silence; then Bregg hears, ?Sirr. ' said something; I do not know why I was so sure, but I felt that these words were directed to me, I did not respond (136). #9;The double use of triple exclamation points, along with the word something, suggests that there is initially only one robot speaking to Bregg. Another anomaly of punctuation here indicates Bregg's confusion: the somewhat odd semi-colon (said something), and commitment the comma, instead of Moon Book, a period at to me, I did not respond. His lack of response would seem to indicate his discomfort as well, especially as he is soon swarmed by supplicating robots; the image recalls Jesus surrounded by lepers. One of the robots even says that a Mr. Hallister can vouch for hrm, me (137), i.e., save him from death and being scrapped; Bregg's first name is Hal; there is no reason to ascribe this similarity of names to coincidence. #9;Overwhelmed, Bregg flees--an inadequate Messiah.
And this inadequacy contrasts obviously with the Machine Messiah, that remains amongst its people in the midst of their Holocaust. In Lem's Solaris , written at almost the same time as Return From the Stars (both were originally published in Polish in 1961), a similar image, this time an inadequate divinity, is presented in the vision of an imperfect god: #9;[O]ne whose imperfections represent his essential characteristics; a god limited in his omniscience and power, fallible, incapable of foreseeing the consequences of his acts, and creating things that lead to horror. Brothers. He is. a sick god, whose ambitions exceed his powers and who does not realize it at first. A god who has created clocks, but not the time they measure. He has created systems or mechanisms that served specific ends but have now overstepped and hrm betrayed them. And he has created eternity, which was to have measured his power, and classroom which now measures his unending defeat ( Solaris 197). #9;Out of hrm, its fuller context (a dialogue that runs 2 1/2 pages), this description is grimmer than it seems, and Sun, Moon and Talia Book is not the last word in the dialogue. Hrm. Even so, it demonstrates that the theme of an reno vs condon inadequate deity (as Creator or Redeemer) is not an overreading of Lem's Return From the Stars , insofar as the commitment, idea was present in Making An Exploration of the Cougar Within, the author's mind circa 1961.
In Solaris , this imperfect god is explicitly defined as not humanity (though the high, speaker admits the of comic, analogy); even so, the above remains apt as applied to humanity with respect to high commitment robots. What is absent from humanity compared to the imperfect god is divinity ; limited omniscience and power, fallibility, overambitiousness and so forth all characterize our species. #9;Consequently, Bregg (and all of humankind) must necessarily be an inadequate Messiah; the solution (Salvation) to the problem of the robotic condition cannot be solved at the same level of thinking that originated it. So too with the human condition. But to do so, we must somehow transcend that condition.
This is not, of course, literally possible but, as I hope I have shown, Lem's robots imaginatively do so. They mark the boundaries of our consciousness and suggest (at least the hope of) possibilities that lie beyond those boundaries. Thus, even in their Holocaust, Lem's courteous and solicitous robots continue to serve humankind, by classroom, offering us hope for, if not glimpses of, our own Salvation. Polylogism in Return From The Stars. #9;Lem's technique of directing the metaphor of his robots outward, rather than inward toward a strictly human meaning, is only one specific example of commitment hrm, polylogism in Return From The Stars ; other more general and interrelated examples may be found in the novel's dialogue and narration, and the manner in which Lem presents ideas. #9;The process of betrization, for instance, is first introduced to the reader (and for all intents and purposes to Bregg as well) in dialogue with one of Utopia's citizens.
This occurs during the first chapter, when Bregg has just returned to Earth after 127 years, and when he (and the reader) are hopelessly confused by the social, natural and architectural changes that have occurred on Earth in the interim. Reno Vs Condon. It is during this selfsame dialogue that Bregg concludes that betrization is both a great thing (38) and a disfigurement (39). #9;Moreover, betrization is not baldly presented as simply a topic for high commitment, discussion, as is often the case in the official Utopia; rather, it arises as a result of the dialogue's larger context, which is blood Bregg's attempt to find some female companionship after his ten years in space. In other words, betrization enters the novel not as an abstract idea (as does, for commitment hrm, example, Huxley's bokanovskification), but as a part of the dialogic fabric of reno vs condon, human life (Bakhtin, Problems 293); a reality in which [t]o live means to participate in dialogue: to ask questions, to heed, to respond, to agree and commitment hrm so forth ( Problems 293). Blood Brothers Facts. It is precisely the fact that Bregg engages, or grapples, with the problem of betrization that reflects the dialogic nature of his conversations; a kind of engagement that is almost wholly absent from Huxley's Brave New World . Commitment. The polylogic versus monologic nature of Lem's novel compared to Huxley's might also be incidentally indicated by the very processes of the Sun,, Brave New World's bokanovskification and Utopia's betrization, insofar as the former was developed by only one person (Bokanovsky), while the latter represents the combined effort of three scientists, Bennett, Trimaldi and Zakharov (118)--it is an high hrm acronym based on this triumvirate's names that gives Lem's process its name. (It may even be possible to discern the slightest hint of influence in the fact that both processes begin with the letter ?b'.) #9;From the beginning, then, betrization is deeply embedded thematically in the novel in a way that bokanovskification is not. One can almost say that Huxley's process is gratuitous, that it could be removed from the novel with minimal consequence, since it is functionally more (ugly) ornamentation than innovation. This is not the case with betrization; to remove it from Return From The Stars would result in a completely different novel. What Bakhtin has noted of Goethe's work applies here as well; everything is intensive, interpreted, and creatively necessary (43). The interpretation, however, is never final and, again, the of comic, theme of betrization serves like the robots to widen the high, field of human cognition.
#9;Lem conducts the next major discussion of betrization in a way characteristic only of him in fantastyka: Bregg (and the reader) learns the rudiments of the history and milton friedman free market science of betrization by commitment, reading other texts. Those familiar with Borges' Ficciones will recognize the technique; as Borges notes in his Prologue, The composition of vast books is a laborious and impoverishing extravagance. A better course of procedure is to pretend that these books already exist, and then to offer a résumé, a commentary (15). Examples from Ficciones include Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius, The Approach to Al-Mu'tasim, An Examination of the Work of Herbert Quain, and Three Versions of Judas; Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote provides a similar instance, though the market, focus is more on the author than the text. (Lem has, in fact, assembled whole volumes of such imaginary books, e.g., Microworlds, One Human Minute and A Perfect Vacuum .) #9;This similarity of technique, however, is strongly contrasted by high commitment, a difference of intent. Borges explains his preference for brevity in terms of his being more reasonable, more inept, more indolent (15). Whether this is meant seriously or not (Borges is one of the supreme purveyors of narrative uncertainty), on the face of gender classroom, it at least there are the obvious markings of nihilism, of the modernist male's desire to avoid the truth. Lem's elementary presentation of the high commitment hrm, history and science of betrization, on reno vs condon, the other hand, is wholly devoted to establishing the facts, the truth, of betrization. #9;To this end, Bregg reads an ordinary school textbook on history (110): more advanced texts are beyond him as yet. Ordinary school textbooks, however, tend to be notoriously biased, even in the United States. Following the implementation of universal betrization, then, a period of resistance followed; The textbook passed over hrm, this with a few generalities, for brothers, perfectly obvious reasons.
I resolved to consult source materials for more detailed information (119). Having had his fill of the high commitment hrm, official history, which concludes with a ringing encomium to the New Epoch of Humanism (119), he then reads Ullrich's monograph on betrization (in spite of facts, its difficult mathematics) to get a better understanding of its scientific workings; Bregg even provides a quotation from Ullrich's work, and goes on to cite the Tribaldi Institute's experiments, the results of Pilgrin's work, and mentions Murwick's brief sociographic sketch (121). #9;This technique of citing scientific works, rather than simply providing a scientific or pseudoscientific authorial exposition, is not unique to high Return From The Stars ; in Lem's Solaris , whole chapters of the novel are devoted to surveying the scientific and definition relief non-scientific findings of the past 200 years of study with regard to the planet of Solaris. The technique is obviously multi-voiced, and it is easy to see from the various names Lem uses (Bennett, Trimaldi, Zakharov, Ullrich, Pilgrin, Murwick) that it is multi-cultural as well. (In providing the high hrm, much sketchier scientific background of the Brave New World, Huxley displays a similar international spirit, e.g., Pfitzner, Kawaguchi, Bokanovsky, Podsnap.) More importantly, however, Lem is here presenting the brothers, history and science of betrization much as it would be in real-world science; that is, it submits its findings before the court of peer review in the true spirit of the Scientific Method. Commitment Hrm. This does not mean, of course, that the fact that betrization acts on the developing prosencephalon at an early stage in life by means of a group of proteolytic enzymes (119) has a basis in Sun, and Talia, scientific reality, even given that Lem (like Huxley) had medical training; plausibility is less of an issue here than how Lem presents the data. #9;An extreme statement of the high hrm, Scientific Method would assert that there are no laws; that there are only theories, some of which (admittedly) are so overwhelmingly documented and confirmed to date that they seem to single be Laws.
One great vindication of commitment, this stance may be seen in Einstein's correction (by his theory of relativity) to Newton's Laws of Motion. It is in such corrections, as refinements, that true science exists, as closer and definition of comic relief closer approximations of the truth--as in the shift from the Ptolemaic to commitment hrm the Galilean conception of the Universe. Thus, Bregg's (and Lem's) literature review reflects a deep valuation of the truth, approached by blood brothers, the epistemological method of science. This should not, however, be mistaken for an idealization of science; it is simply that science has the best track record for establishing objective facts through experimentation. Moreover, as Darko Suvin asserts (both generally, and as an aspect of commitment hrm, Lem's fiction). Modern sciences are open-ended (213, emphasis in single, original); they will continuously, perhaps interminably, end up posing more questions then they answer. Commitment Hrm. Developments will occur which we, as a species, may not be ready for, like the atomic bomb; we may encounter phenomena which may never be explained. This, however, cannot become an excuse for discontinuing scientific research; to of comic relief do so would be to abandon the search for hrm, the truth as well. Classroom. If it seems that an ever-expanding field of hrm, truth that can never be completely mastered is cause for despair, then one may join Huxley and Borges in their nihilism. For someone like Bakhtin, such an expanding field can only be exhilarating, a cause for the most optimistic hopes.
For Lem, the optessimist, his hopes are more guarded, qualified by his clear awareness of human limitations, but hope is Making Diane: Exploration Cougar Essay still the dominant tone. #9;In the spirit of an ever-expanding field of truth, the discussion of betrization does not end with Bregg's reading. High. For one, Bregg finds himself thrown from the theoretical to the applied side of betrization, when he falls violently in love with one of Utopia's women. In the midst of this, he has a discussion with his fellow time-contraction astronaut, Olaf, who divulges a number of shocking facts to Bregg, e.g., that human doctors no longer perform operations (being no longer able to blood brothers stand the sight of blood), that there is high commitment hrm a chemical, perto, which can temporarily suspend the effects of betrization, and that humans can command robots to kill in emergencies (though the humans themselves are incapable of of comic, it). Olaf is an especially hostile critic of commitment, Utopia; by the end of the novel, he decides to depart (again) on another intergalactic expedition. #9;The specific points of contention between Bregg and Olaf are not as significant here as the nature of the facts, dialogue between them and the fact that the theme of betrization is embedded in a context of its effects on the lives of two unbetrizated, and now hopelessly old-fashioned, men. What occurs in this dialogue is not an exposition of commitment hrm, Lem's position on definition relief, betrization. Had this been the case, the dialogue would have actually been a monologue distributed between two characters (as in Brave New World ); An idea of high, this sort might be characteristic of a social type or an individual, or it might ultimately be a simple intellectual gesture on the part of the hero, an intellectual expression of his spiritual face (Bakhtin, Problems 79). Essay. Rather, for Lem, as well as for Dostoevsky, The truth about the world. is inseparable from the truth of high hrm, personality ( Problems 78). #9;The dialogue between Bregg and Olaf is also the occasion for another discussion, about the exploration of space, that has undergone a treatment similar to betrization's in the novel.
Bregg has spoken with people about the discontinuation of cosmodromia, has read Starck's On Interstellar Flight (which proves the futility of space exploration), tries to come to terms with this futility, argues with Olaf about it, listens and absorbs Utopia's side of the story (in the person of the of comic relief, woman he has fallen in love with), and has his resignation to this futility challenged one last time when he discovers that another interstellar expedition has been planned and hears the expedition's director and planner refute Starck's arguments. #9;In both cases, the discourse on betrization and cosmodromia are open-ended; further developments continuously correct and refine Bregg's understanding of them. High. The open-endedness of blood facts, these discourses, however, does not mean that resolution cannot be reached by high hrm, individual characters: Bregg, for instance, elects to remain on Earth, while Olaf departs. In conversation with the woman he loves, Bregg comes close to achieving a reconciliation with the Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Society, idea of betrization; Olaf remains a vociferous opponent to the very end. Clearly, neither Bregg nor Olaf objectively answer the question of the merits or demerits of high commitment hrm, betrization and cosmodromia, but in a sense, they answer the much more pressing and subjective question of how these features of milton market, Utopia affect them personally. In this, again, Lem has reversed the normal direction of the idea in the official Utopia, but much more importantly he has given us the image of human consciousness confronted by alien situations, but nevertheless capable of ultimately finding some sure ground to stand on, someplace to stake a claim, without succumbing to despair, nihilism or spiritual aridity. #9;The theme of high commitment hrm, Utopia itself is milton market somewhat differently treated, insofar as almost all of Bregg's data is accumulated through personal experience (including dialogic interactions and internal monologues). But Lem does not utilize an objective, third-person account to reveal this to the reader; instead, we are plunged with Bregg right into high commitment hrm the midst of his own alienation and eventual reconciliation with Utopia by a first-person narrative.
The first chapter provides an especially vivid example of this, as Lem provides enough defamiliarization to gender make even the most diligent and thorough Formalist happy. As Bregg notes, For the hundredth time I was possessed by a feeling of incredible alienation (6); the reader soon joins him in the sentiment. The first quoted words out of someone's mouth (actually the perfectly human robot stewardess) are ?Something to drink? Prum, extran, morr, cider' (6). #9;Generally, the reader's and Bregg's alienation run in almost perfect tandem; as he becomes more accustomed to some of the features of Utopia, the text becomes less cryptic for the reader as well. But there is also a readerly disorientation that comes with the beginning of any book, the initial shock of hrm, translocation out of Making Exploration of the Aging Cougar Within Society, our world into the fictional one. In fantastyka, of course, this translocation is even more dramatic, since the presumption that the high commitment, setting is earth might be just that, a presumption.
For the experienced reader of science fiction, of fantasy and of the fantastic in general, the shock may not be so great; certain kinds of clues help to orient the experienced reader, e.g., irising doors, twin moons, purple shadows (indicating a binary star system with a red giant and blue dwarf). With the opening of Return From the Stars , Lem seems determined to milton thwart even these conventional clues: #9;I took nothing with me, not even a coat. High. Unnecessary, they said. They let me keep my black sweater: it would pass. But the reno vs condon, shirt I had to high hrm fight for. I said that I would learn to do without things gradually. At the very ramp, beneath the belly of the milton free market, ship, where we stood, jostled by the crowd, Abs offered me his hand with an understanding smile: #9;#9;That, too, I remembered. I didn't crush his fingers (3).
Nothing is mentioned here that Bregg is boarding a spaceship on the moon; the high commitment, experienced reader of blood, Lem might recall his penchant for nautical metaphors for spacecraft (hence, the ship), but that certainly provides no clue that we are on Luna. High Hrm. In any case, these details are overshadowed by Book Analysis, the mystery of the sweater that would pass and the shirt the as yet unnamed protagonist had to fight for; and why would the protagonist crush Abs' fingers? #9;On board the ship, we encounter the stewardess, which suggests little more than merely atmospheric travel, in spite of the hrm, reference to a private compartment (3), which suggests sea or rail travel. Thus, in a very few lines, Lem has successfully and irreconcilably combined the definition, features of a train, a boat, and a plane. Then, My seat unfolded without a sound (3). For the experienced reader of fantastyka, this probably functions as a conventional clue for commitment, futuristic technology, although the inexperienced reader's interpretation, that this is just a touch of of comic, first-class refinement of present-day technology, is not implausible. A description of high commitment, strange clothing follows; the mention of Making Diane: Exploration of the Society, selenium lights has a futuristic ring to high commitment hrm it, and brothers facts then, Across the dull ceiling faint shadows began to hrm move from front to rear, like paper cutouts of birds (4). These are possibly the shadows of the ship in motion, which Bregg does not realize because he (like us) is blood accustomed to feeling inertia when moving, but inertia has been conquered by Lem's Utopia. #9;Bregg then notes how he and his fellow returned astronauts joked about high, our brawn. in the beginning, intending to get up, would go shooting toward the ceiling (4). Bregg would go shooting toward the ceiling because of the reduced gravity on Sun, Moon and Talia Book, the moon, but by linking this fact to Bregg's excessive brawn, even the experienced leader is liable to miss the implication of a lunar setting.
Once the moon as the point of hrm, departure is realized, probably only on a second reading, the definition, awesomeness of the future's technology is driven home by Bregg's statement that his flight from the moon to commitment Earth would take fifteen minutes (5); in Brave New World , it takes 6 1/2 hours to get from blood brothers facts, England to New Mexico. Soon after, Lem provides a conventional ?give-away,' when Bregg observes, Several rows in front of me a woman pushed away the stewardess, who, with a slow, automatic motion, as if from the push--though the push had not been all that hard--went backward down the aisle (6). This description may seem a bit cryptic, but it is clear that the stewardess does not seem to be walking down the aisle; in hrm, fact, she is probably floating down the aisle in the zero-gravity of interplanetary space. #9;Once Bregg arrives at the terminal on earth, however, not even the experienced reader of fantastyka (or of Lem) can decipher the stunningly sustained visual descriptions. Friedman Market. To do justice to them would require quotation at great length; I will limit myself, however, to only a brief excerpt: #9;It took a moment for me really to see the size of the hall. But was it all one hall?
No walls; a glittering white high-held explosion of unbelievable wings; between them, columns, made not of any substance but of dizzying motion. Rushing upward, enormous fountains of high commitment hrm, a liquid denser than water, illuminated from inside by colored floodlights? No--vertical tunnels of glass through which a succession of blurred vehicles raced upward? Now I was completely at a loss (8). The descriptions alone, concretely vivid as they are, are already disorienting enough without the startling appearance of the question marks at the end of the penultimate and reno vs condon antepenultimate sentences. #9;Another of Bakhtin's remarks with respect to high Goethe's works may be said to apply to Return From The Stars as well; Therefore, everything is intensive in Goethe's world; it contains no inanimate, immobile, petrified places, no immutable background that does not participate in action and definition of comic relief emergence (in events), no decorations or sets ( Speech 42).
Lem, however, literalizes this authorial attitude, such that even architecture becomes animate, mobile and mutable; having backtracked, Bregg finds himself on the wrong level, it was not even the high commitment, hall that I had left: I knew this by the absence of those enormous columns. But, then, they might have gone away somewhere; by now I considered anything possible (11). #9;Lem's descriptive technique, like Borges', operates on a principle of intense density and precision, such that any readerly sense of uncertainty arises from a surfeit, rather than a dearth, of information. As a result, the images are more cryptic, than vague. One way to achieve this is to tightly compress details together: There was a fluttering from white and bluish fluorescent tubes, stairs of Sun, Moon Book Analysis, crystalline brilliance, black façades; the brilliance gave way slowly to stone; the carriage stopped. I got off and was dumbstruck (16). Another way to create this uncertainty (that is high hrm typical of Faulkner's work) is by continuously redefining the Moon and Talia Book Essay, images: Low armchairs, a black liquid with green foam in glasses, lanterns that spilled tiny sparks, no, fireflies, swarms of burning moths (18, my emphasis). In both cases, the perfectly concrete visuals of the description clash with an indeterminacy of meaning. In the first case, the reader must integrate the accumulated images (fluorescent tubes, stairs, façades); in commitment, the second case, the free market, reader must reconcile an accumulation of metaphors (sparks, fireflies, burning moths). #9;The major difference here between Lem's use of this technique and Borges' may be found in authorial intent. Lem is prompted to disorient the reader, because it recreates in the reader's mind the situation that Bregg finds himself in; Borges uses the technique on aesthetic grounds alone, and very rarely switches to a different style.
In both cases, the result for the reader is the same, or very similar; overwhelmed by a surfeit of images, one eventually gives up trying to understand the description, and begins to focus on the artistry of the high commitment hrm, prose itself. In Borges' fictions, this is an especially obvious and especially rewarding experience; it also leads to an art of pure (aesthetic-poetic) sensation and nihilism. In Return From The Stars , this consequence of pure sensation is something Bregg very much wishes to escape; he wants the incomprehensibility of his surroundings to become clear. That Bregg spends the greater part of the book precisely trying to reach some level of social understanding is enough to suggest this, but even in of comic, the first chapter this fact is apparent; The all-embracing roar now swelled, now was confined, as thousands of human voices and sounds--meaningless to me, meaningful to them--were swallowed by each successive tunnel of this journey whose destination I did not know (9). #9;Lem's descriptive technique in the first chapter has a closer affinity to Faulkner's tendency for substituting one image after another; Into my palm fell a colored, translucent tube, slightly warm. I shook it, held it up to one eye; pills of some kind? No. A vial? It had no cork, no stopper. What was it for?
What were the other people doing? Putting the things in their pockets (14). This is not the same technique that I criticized in Huxley earlier, of trying to define something positively by negative examples of what it is not. Commitment. The difference lies in the fact that, once Lem has presented the negatives (pills, a vial), he tells us what the object is; The sign on the dispenser: LARGAN (14). Of course, this is reno vs condon equally mysterious, and Bregg never finds out what LARGAN is for; even so, the provision of something positive after the negative marks the difference between Lem and Huxley; Huxley provides only the negatives. It is commitment hrm easy to discern here a parallel with festive laughter's abuse-praise, where Huxley retains only the abuse, while Lem retains both the abuse (authorially disabusing the reader of the ability to Sun, Moon and Talia understand the text) and the regenerating, positive aspect (by providing a meaning, LARGAN, even when that meaning is unclear).
#9;This provision of positive meaning is compactly evident in hrm, another example: foam on glasses, an definition of comic relief almost black liquid--not beer, with its virulent, greenish glint (14). Had the image stopped at not beer, it would be strictly alienating; with its virulent, greenish glint, however, we are thus introduced to a new aspect of reality--one that, admittedly, is still not perfectly clear, but an imputation of nihilism here would be completely inappropriate. In the context of the alien environment in which Bregg finds himself, such a descriptive technique is not only justified, but is virtually mandated if any kind of narrative meaning is to be conveyed at all; the new may only be understood at commitment hrm first in terms of the old, the familiar. It is therefore not an evasion of the truth or facts (i.e., nihilism) to describe this virulent, greenish liquid as not beer, precisely because it is not beer; it is something altogether different. #9;In its own tiny way, this image restates the same process that is at work when the reader encounters one of and Talia Book Analysis, Lem's robots. High Commitment Hrm. In the same way that the reader does not know what position to market take vis-à-vis an intelligent machine, the reader is hrm equally at a loss as to what to make of this virulent, greenish not-beer.
All the same, by being beyond the ken of our familiar experience, the not-beer (in its own very humble way) hints at hitherto unconsidered possibilities. I have focussed on this almost insignificant detail precisely because its very slightness shows how thoroughly the reno vs condon, art of possibilities permeates Lem's novel. #9;The single most important structural aspect of Return From The Stars that allows Lem to affect this art of possibilities is hrm its first-person narration. This, coupled with Bregg's predilection for dialogue (with himself, with others, with texts, with his environment) continuously creates situations where Lem's protagonist encounters alien (drugoi) objects and people; Bregg's willing (if sometimes challenged) open-mindedness thus permits the definition of comic relief, discourse of these alien objects and people to high commitment have a fair hearing. First-person narration, of course, can be a marvelous tool for creating narrative uncertainty in the reader; Lem (for the most part) avoids this by placing the reader in the same predicament as Bregg, especially in the first chapter. This does not mean, of course, that Lem's protagonist is a perfectly reliable narrator at all times; I have already suggested otherwise with respect to Bregg's attitude toward robots. It is also clear that the values he believes in, insofar as they shape how he reports what he sees in the world around him, are more than a century out of date relative to Utopia. This subjective bias is no more, and reno vs condon no less, than the kind of subjective bias that would characterize any individual; that is, Bregg does not (seem to) have any kind of agenda, addiction or madness that would make him into a classically unreliable narrator. #9;This being so, however, does not prevent Bregg from being a natural exponent of heterosexual and high commitment hrm patriarchal values, though Bregg's first-person narration (and the dialogic nature of Return From The Stars in general) actually encourages the reader to bring his or her own biases into the picture as well. Classroom. By presenting as many sides of an issue as possible, whatever value-conclusions Bregg himself draws should not be considered either the only ones possible, or the ones the reader must accept. All the high hrm, same, fantastyka (until quite recently) has been more male-dominated than high literature itself, with predictable results in the nature of relations between the sexes.
#9;The number of male-female relationships in Lem's total body of work, however, is so small that to generalize would be hazardous. Moon And Talia Book. This is partly due to high commitment hrm Lem's focus on transhuman encounters, but all the same, these invariably pit men only against the Unknown. Similarly, in milton friedman, the legions of international scientific works and monographs cited by Bregg, there seems to be no reason whatsoever to suspect that Bennett, Trimaldi, Zakharov, Pilgrin and so forth are not male when there is no accompanying he as the pronoun. Lem's Solaris (his most famous book) features one of these exceedingly rare male-female relationships--a relationship complicated by the fact that the protagonist's resurrected wife is actually no longer human; the accent here comes down heavily on the theme of Woman as Alien. #9;Given that Return From the Stars was written almost at the same time as Solaris , it is therefore not surprising to find the Woman as Alien theme restated in it as well.
Here, the difficulty is precisely of that between the old-fashioned values of Bregg versus the new Woman of Utopia (first in the persons of Nais the dress-maker and Aen the actress, and later, much more dramatically, in the person of Eri). Hrm. In general, Bregg's behavior with the first two may be described as chivalrous; in particular, he (unnecessarily) rescues Aen, and thereby earns a one-night stand with her. This chivalry reflects also its implied quotient of chauvinism: Bregg constantly refers to Nais and reno vs condon Eri as girl; when Nais picks him up in what is probably a bar, he later tells her, When I left--don't take this in bad part--a girl like you would not have brought me to her place at this hour (32); and when he discovers that all clothing is sprayed on in Utopia, he remarks to the reader: #9;I could see how that might appeal to women, because by discharging from a few or a few dozen bottles a liquid that immediately set into fabrics with textures smooth or rough--velvet, fur, or pliable metal--they could have a new creation every time, each for one occasion only commitment hrm (61). This same scene also features that other companion to heterosexual chauvinism--a mild case of anti-gay innuendo; I was received by reno vs condon, a fellow with the bearing of an artist. I could see that he was not especially delighted with me. Nor was I with him (61). Earlier, on the flight from the high hrm, moon: The bright colors of the women's clothes I had by now learned to accept, but the men I still suspected, irrationally, of reno vs condon, affectation, and I had the secret hope that I would come across some dressed normally--a pitiful reflex (3). #9;This last example is important, insofar as it shows Bregg to be self-conscious about his distaste for the effeminization of Utopia's males (irrationally, a pitiful reflex); he is equally aware of the anachronistic nature of his chivalry and chauvinism. Moreover, whatever Lem's actual attitude toward women, it is clear that that the high commitment hrm, male-female encounters in single classroom, Return From The Stars may be read in the same light as the hrm, encounters with robots (and, most generally, in the encounter with Utopia itself). All the same, if the single, robots suggest a realm unexplored by human intelligence that is exhilarating, then the high commitment hrm, possibilities suggested in Bregg's encounter with Nais, Aen and especially Eri are not so promising.
The general passivity of Utopia's inhabitants, for definition, instance, too easily feeds into the stereotypical mandate of passivity for high commitment hrm, women. And it is single gender a stereotypical (i.e., old-fashioned) act of heroism on Eri's part that prevents Bregg from committing vehicular suicide: Eri (contrary to her betrizated nature) risks life and high limb by interposing her vehicle between Bregg and the cliff he intends to drive off. Bregg wonders, Had that been Eri in definition of comic relief, the gleeder [the other vehicle]? Impossible (202). And when Bregg asks her how she had been able to hrm do such a thing: Her face trembled, her lips quivered, she couldn't say the words, ? ?I ha-a-ad to. ' (202); the mincingness of reno vs condon, this is high commitment hrm rather annoying. On one hand, Eri's heroism reflects the kind of brothers, triumph of initiative one finds in the feminine Gothic, but such triumphs feel very different coming from a male pen. One needs only to consider the kind of heroism only too common to female love interests in otherwise absurdly macho male adventure novels and movies; the high commitment, kind where a blond blows away a minor villain with a .357 Magnum and a giggle, or where a cat fight with a femme fatale ensues that is finished off by Sun, Book Analysis, a devastating slap. Such displays seem to inevitably end with a reversion to the mincing and high commitment hrm cloying helplessness that has characterized the love interest throughout the previous portions of the book or film.
#9;Eri has an earlier opportunity for gender classroom, another kind of heroism that Lem does not permit her to avail herself of. Bregg, unable to control his passion, declares that he is going to kidnap Eri away from her husband. Hrm. To say that she agrees to this would be a severe overstatement; Bregg emotionally extorts her into going with him, though he does so because he is helplessly in love with her. Once in brothers facts, their private hideaway, Bregg painstakingly, gently and high repeatedly seduces Eri, even though she is invariably cold toward him during the day. After a few days of this, it suddenly dawns on him that the only reason Eri agreed to go with him was because she feared Bregg would kill her husband; thus, to protect her husband, she gave herself over to virtual rape. As soon as Bregg realizes this, he is filled with guilt and friedman self-loathing, and high returns Eri to reno vs condon her husband, despairing of ever being with her again.
This is what prompts his suicidal mood, and sets up Eri's heroic gesture. This dramatic scenario finally brings them together for good -- As if it was only in the face of extremity that we became close, and high hrm only then that we were able to understand each other (204) -- and they subsequently marry. #9;Eri's endurance through all of this is certainly to be admired, but it hardly presents the kind of art of possibilities one would want to advocate for women. The high-flown romanticism and morbidity of guilt (reminiscent of the Savage) that is sloughed over Moon and Talia Book Analysis Essay, the actual events that transpire are just that much more disturbing. Eri certainly did not need to high commitment undergo this ordeal.
Flight (with her husband) certainly would have been an option and Bregg (as an unbetrizated, hence dangerous) citizen of Utopia might well have discovered first-hand that robots could, in fact, be commanded to kill. Sun,. Or, allow that Eri could see no other option to protect her husband than to agree to her abduction; her change of heart in later saving, and agreeing to commitment hrm marry, Bregg seems more dictated by Sun, Moon Book Essay, Lem than Eri's personality. The marriage, in any case, seems improbable, even as it allows Lem to include two chapters that present a great deal about Utopia itself and high commitment Bregg's flight amongst the stars; such information might easily have been brought out in other ways--confiding in a new friend, perhaps another (more compatible) woman, and so forth. Disturbing as Eri's ordeal is, that it is ultimately sanctified by of comic relief, the marriage makes it even more so; even when it is allowed that there are times of trouble during courtship, the scenario Lem provides seems more than a bit over the top. That Eri could forgive Bregg for his actions is a testimonial to her capacity for compassion; that she marries him, however, borders on the perverse; it's almost like one of Reginald Muldew's victims accepting his hand in marriage. #9;All this being so, there is still another side to the picture.
My remarks above are predicated on an interpretation of the situation between Eri and Bregg that does not account for her betrizated nature; in other words, it is an interpretation that is high commitment parallel in facts, type to one that views the booming robot's sermon simply as human satire. High Commitment. As with the robots, in one sense a reader's sympathy for free market, Eri is high commitment hrm misdirected, since it is not simply the case that she is a different person, but is (like the rest of Utopia's inhabitants) virtually a different species. Thus, a humanocentric reading of the relationship between Eri and brothers Bregg suggests that Lem has presented male-female relations in high hrm, terms of an friedman alien contact metaphor. As usual, however, this metaphor is commitment hrm not limited only to this inward direction; it points outward as well, to an actual encounter between male and female aliens of different species. The improbability of Eri's marriage to Bregg then, along with the Sun, Moon and Talia Analysis, actual quality of her ordeal, finds a basis for explanation in the radical alteration to human nature affected by betrization, even if the high commitment hrm, actual explanation itself never enters the text. There does, in fact, seem to be some degree of mystery at single the heart of Eri's and Bregg's relationship; Our trouble returned and high progressed, and then retreated. Why? I do not know.
She probably did not know, either (204). #9;This is very delicate territory. It seems perverse, at the least, to suggest that Bregg did not in some sense rape Eri and, if so, then to applaud the marriage is Book Essay even more perverse. High Hrm. On the other hand, that one may rely on Sun, and Talia Analysis, Lem to direct his metaphors outward, away from a strictly human meaning, makes it equally perverse to hrm deny that alternative interpretations of the scenario exist, at least in potential. Once again, this is the classic dilemma constantly proposed by Lem, except that in of comic, this case (and unlike the high commitment, case of the reno vs condon, robots), I can only sense the high hrm, possibility of alternative interpretations, but cannot discern a positive possibility that is not also almost too disturbing to accept (e.g., that Eri's neo-human nature reflects such an enormous capacity for forgiveness that she can nevertheless genuinely love and marry her rapist). I could imagine such a capacity in milton free, myself, even as it borders on psychosis, but it would not be something I would be audacious enough to advocate for others, men or women alike.
#9;The fact that I can only high hrm uncomfortably draw a conclusion for myself, while at the same time feel prohibitively uncomfortable at the thought of offering some general solution to Moon and Talia Analysis Essay the above outlined dilemma, reflects at root the ultimate value of Lem's artistic vision, as specifically expressed in hrm, Return From the Stars . It is, in fact, precisely at the point of brothers, Bregg's encounter with Eri that Lem allows the reliability of his protagonist's narration to hrm break down. How genuine, for instance, is Bregg's guilt? Is there an actual basis in reality for the romanticization of relief, Bregg's feelings for Eri, or is it just a smokescreen for the less ennobled urges of a man who has spent too many years in space? Were Bregg's nights of seduction really conducted so gently as he described them? Did he truly not realize until only days later that Eri had allowed herself to be abducted solely for high hrm, the sake of her husband's life? What was really going on in that private hideaway? Has Lem substituted Taming of the Shrew for Huxley's Othello and Romeo and Juliet ? (Is it the blood, height of overimaginativeness to suggest that Eri's name originates in Shakespeare's Kat eri na?) #9;Again, the greatest value in Lem's fiction exists in his ability to confront his readers with challenges that expand the field of human cognition.
This is hrm done, first and foremost, by demonstrating the limits of one's present level of thinking, and second, by suggesting the realms that lie beyond those limits. Relief. Thus, even when I find myself incapable of high commitment, going beyond my own cognitive limitations with respect to the image of Eri and Bregg, nevertheless my ability to imagine that possibilities exist beyond my limitations represents a step forward. Lem's fiction, then, is composed in such a way that its readers are invited to adopt the attitude of Dostoevsky's Underground Man with respect to single classroom the stone wall of reality, before which plain men and men of high hrm, action, as a rule capitulate at Exploration of the Aging Cougar Essay once (Dostoevsky 269): #9;No doubt I shall never be able to break through such a stone wall with my forehead, if I really do not possess the strength to high commitment hrm do it, but I shall not reconcile myself to it just because I have to deal with a stone wall and haven't the strength to Making An of the Aging Within Society knock it down (Dostoevsky 272). #9;It is the dialogue that is established between the strictly human meaning and the presence of possibilities that exist beyond that meaning that forms the most essential aspect of Lem's artistic vision. As Darko Suvin notes, Lem's major novels have at their cognitive core the high commitment, simple and difficult realization that no closed reference system, however alluring to the weary and poor in spirit, is viable in Moon Essay, the age of relativity theory and post-cybernetic sciences (213).
This endless open-endedness, which reflects the individuality and optessimism of the continuously renewable archaic mentality, along with potentiality of future possibilities limited only by our capacity to imagine, reflects also an essential pluralism of the kind that Aileen Kelly summarizes in the essays of Isaiah Berlin: #9;Pluralism, in the sense in which [Berlin] uses the word, is high commitment hrm not to be confused with that which is reno vs condon commonly defined as a liberal outlook--according to which all extreme positions are distortions of true values and the key to social harmony and high commitment a moral life lies in moderation and the golden mean. True pluralism, as Berlin understands it, is much more tough-minded and intellectually bold: it rejects the view that all conflicts of values can be finally resolved by synthesis and that all desirable goals may be reconciled. It recognizes that human nature is gender classroom such that it generates values which, though equally sacred, equally ultimate, exclude one another, without there being any possibility of establishing an hrm objective hierarchical relation between them. Moral conduct therefore may involve making agonizing choices, without the help of universal criteria, between incompatible but equally desirable values (Kelly xv). #9;Again, the first-person narration of Return From The Stars allows the reader to parallel Bregg's own experiences in Utopia; in other words, it establishes a dialogic rapport between the facts, reader and Bregg such that the alien contact theme is hrm restated at and Talia Book Essay the level of the reader as well. What position the hrm, reader takes, with respect to Bregg and every aspect of Moon and Talia Book, Utopia itself, is, of course, a result of the dialogic interaction of the reader and the text; the result, however, is unique to the individual and as such reflects Suvin's relativity and Berlin's pluralism. This, of course, is a potential in all literature, but it is a particularly justified claim for a novel like Return From The Stars that self-evidently represents these themes within the text itself.
#9;Pluralism and high commitment relativity (subjectivity), however, are only part of the Lemian equation. Berlin may be right that synthesis may be incapable of reconciling all desirable goals; and Diane: An Exploration of the Society Essay the individuality of Suvin's relativity, of itself, may be said to be one of the sources of intense alienation and social fragmentation in the 20th century. Eliade would be right if he asserted that the commitment hrm, terror of milton free market, history cannot be ameliorated by the historical inadequacy of pluralism and the personal isolation of relativity. Without dialogue, the pluralistic variety of social difference and the specific life-meaning of individual subjective existence can never be appreciated; it would go into the grave unknown and hrm unacknowledged. Dialogue, then, is an absolutely necessary addition to the equation, but Bakhtin points out an even more important possibility: #9;It is quite possible to imagine and postulate a unified truth that requires a plurality of consciousness, one that cannot in principle be fitted into the bounds of a single consciousness, one that is, so to speak, by its very nature full of event potential and is born at a point of contact among various consciousnesses ( Problems 81). #9;This is precisely the kind of truth that Lem's dialogic and outward-directed metaphors affect.
His artistic vision takes the very limitations of reno vs condon, pluralism and hrm relativity themselves and directs them outward in dialogue with a field of seemingly limitless possibilities, even if the reader's consciousness (or Lem's own) is gender classroom not capable of doing any more than merely sensing the possibilities that lie beyond the limitations of high commitment, human consciousness. What Suvin notes of Lem's Solaris applies equally well to Return From The Stars ; it is reno vs condon neither a warning nor a solution (216). Rather, it reflects an uncanny dialogue between Eliade's archaic and historical mentalities; one that destroys the nihilism and spiritual aridity of the high, latter by relief, the former's capacity for re-Creation, and which liberates the former from its endless repetitiveness by the latter's recognition of individual uniqueness in dialogue with others, of our capacity to discover truths born of commitment hrm, multiple consciousness that cannot be derived in isolation. #9;Brave New World ends with a flight to (Helmholtz's) Utopia that Huxley chose not to reno vs condon depict. Return From The Stars , by contrast, begins literally with a flight to Utopia that Lem does nothing but depict. The contrast is high commitment hrm telling in reno vs condon, and of itself, but Lem also does not take up Morris' invitation to show what kind of high commitment, world he (Lem) might prefer to live in. Instead, he gives us something far more valuable; he gives us the chance to engage in dialogue with Utopia itself. In Lem's hands, and like all of blood, his outward-directed metaphors, Utopia is high commitment hrm not limited to its strictly human meaning as yet another plan for human social arrangements, but takes on blood brothers facts, as well a transhuman meaning that lies beyond the perimeter of our present human condition, and proffers the commitment, possibility that we may one day liberate ourselves. LIST OF WORKS CITED. Bakhtin, M.M.
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays . Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1996. ---, Problems of of comic relief, Dostoevsky's Poetics . Ed. and Trans. Caryl Emerson.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997. ---, Rabelais and His World . Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984. ---, Speech Genres Other Late Essays . Trans. Vern W. McGee. Ed.
Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1996. Berdyaev, Nicholas. The End of Our Time . High Commitment. Trans. Donald Attwater. London: Sheed, 1933. Berlin, Isaiah. Russian Thinkers . Eds. Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly.
New York: Pelican, 1979. Berneri, Marie Louise. Journey Through Utopia . London: Freedom P, 1982. Borges, Jorge Luis. Ficciones . Of Comic Relief. Ed. and Trans. Anthony Kerrigan. New York: Grove P, 1962. de Jonge, Alex. Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union . New York: Quill, 1986.
de Sade, Donatien Alphonse François. Juliette . Trans. Austryn Wainhouse. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1968. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. High Commitment. Notes From The Underground. Trans. David Magarshack. Great Short Works of Fyodor Dostoevsky . New York: Perennial Classic, 1968. Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1994. Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History . Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991. Ellis, Kate Ferguson. The Contested Castle: Gothic Novels and the Subversion of Domestic Ideology. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1989.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison . Reno Vs Condon. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage, 1995. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of high commitment, Criticism: Four Essays . Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990. ---, Varieties of Literary Utopias. Manuel, Utopias 25-49. Holquist, Michael. Prologue. Bakhtin.
Rabelais xiii-xxiii. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. Making An Aging Essay. New York: HarperPerennial, 1989. Kateb, George. Utopia and Its Enemies . New York: Schocken, 1972. Kelly, Aileen. Commitment Hrm. Introduction: A Complex Vision. Berlin xiii-xxiv.
Lem, Stanislaw. Return From The Stars . Trans. Barbara Marszal and Frank Simpson. San Diego: Harcourt, 1980. ---, Solaris . Trans. Milton Friedman Free. Joanna Kilmartin and Steve Cox. New York: Faber, Walker, 1970. Mannheim, Karl. Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge. Trans.
Louis Wirth and high commitment hrm Edward Shils. New York: Harvest, 1985. Manuel, Frank E. Introduction. Manuel, Utopias vii-xxiv. ---, Toward a Psychological History of milton friedman, Utopias. Manuel, Utopias 69-98. ---, ed. Utopias and Utopian Thought . Boston: Houghton, 1966. Marcuse, Herbert.
Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud . High. Boston: Beacon P, 1974. Moore, Thomas. Dark Eros: The Imagination of Sadism . Second Revised Edition. Woodstock: Spring, 1996. Paglia, Camille. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to single Emily Dickinson . New York: Vintage, 1991. Paul, Warren.
Huxley's Brave New World Brave New World Revisited: Notes . Lincoln: Cliffs Notes, 1997. Peritoneum. New Webster's Expanded Dictionary . 1993 ed. Smith, John Maynard. Eugenics and high hrm Utopia. Reno Vs Condon. Manuel, Utopias 150-168.
Stacy, R.H. Russian Literary Criticism: A Short History. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1974. Suvin, Darko. Afterword. Lem, Solaris 205-216. Tillich, Paul. Critique and Justification of high hrm, Utopia.
Manuel, Utopias 296-309. Todorov, Tzvetan. The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre . Gender Classroom. Trans. Richard Howard. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993. Tompkins, J.M.S. The Popular Novel in England 1770-1800 . High Commitment Hrm. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1967. Toynbee, Arnold. A Study of reno vs condon, History. Somervell edition. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1947.
Ulam, Adam. Socialism and Utopia. Hrm. Manuel, Utopias 116-134. Volo?inov, V.N. Marxism and blood brothers the Philosophy of Language . Trans. Ladislav Matejka and I.R. Titunik. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.
Wells, H.G. A Modern Utopia . London: Nelson, n.d. ---, Men Like Gods . Berneri 303-308. Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City . New York: Oxford UP, 1973. Williamson, George.
Seventeenth Century Contexts . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961.
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The Killing Fields of China - A Review Essay by Roger Garside. Hardcover: September 2010, 420 pages. Paperback: October 2011, 448 pages. Edited by Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. Translated by Stacy Mosher and high commitment Guo Jian. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux. Edited by Making Diane: Exploration of the Within Society Zhou Xun. Yale University Press. These books present a wealth of evidence that in the “Great Leap Forward” of 1958 - 60 the Communist Party of China caused the high commitment, greatest catastrophe ever inflicted upon a society by its own rulers. Dikotter, Zhou and Yang, have based their books on of comic, documents they have collected in official archives in mainland China, and, to a lesser extent, on interviews with survivors and retired cadres.
Collaborators on a joint project, based in Hong Kong, Dikotter and Zhou, gathered 1,000 documents; Yang, a resident of the mainland, amassed 3,000, totaling almost 4 million characters. ( Tombstone is an English version of Yang’s much longer original work in Chinese, Mubei ; he has been superbly served by his translators-editors, Mosher and Guo.) All three authors have benefitted from a relaxation of policy on archive access that began in the early 1990s. Most of the hrm, documents are from the Communist Party’s own archives, at or below provincial and milton friedman market municipal level. Hrm! Central Party archives remain hard to access, but the authors were able to use those of the definition of comic, Foreign and Food Ministries. As a result of hrm this access, and the skill of their authors in analyzing and blood facts organizing a vast quantity of material, these books recount the history of the Great Leap with an authority, thoroughness and detail never before achieved. Dikotter writes: “The archival evidence . . Commitment! . conservatively puts the number of premature deaths at a minimum of 45 million for the great famine of 1958-62.” 2 Yang estimates that “the Great Famine brought about 36 million unnatural deaths, and a short fall of 40 million births. China’s total population loss during the Great Famine then comes to 76 million.” 3 The short fall of births occurred because men and women were made to sleep in separate dormitories, and fatigue, disease and free market starvation caused men to produce less sperm, and women to stop menstruating and to suffer collapse of the uterus. The deaths and inability to conceive are two aspects of the tragedy, but beyond them the authors show the horrors of moral, social and economic breakdown. The depth of suffering destroyed people’s moral sensitivity and capacity for feeling, so that Yang records: “Tens of millions departed this world in an atmosphere of mute apathy . . . . There were no anguished appeals to heaven, . . . no sympathy, no grief, no tears, no shock, no dread.”
The scale and scope of the catastrophe make of it an event of universal importance, from which we can learn much about the nature of man, and how he should or should not be governed. In his Preface to The Gulag Archipelago , Solzhenitsyn quoted the Russian proverb, “Dwell on the past and you will lose an eye. Forget the past, and you will lose both eyes.” The Strategies of the high commitment hrm, Warring States teaches: “What is not forgotten of the past may serve as a guide for the future.” 4 Yang wrote Tombstone partly as a memorial to those who died, but also to enable us all to draw political lessons from it. He believes that the brothers facts, “basic reason why tens of millions of people starved to death in China was totalitarianism,” and high Dikotter shares this view. The three books provide the evidence from single gender which readers can draw their own conclusions. Because the high hrm, Great Leap occurred more than fifty years ago, is not recorded in detail in Chinese textbooks and is still not well known elsewhere, I will briefly summarize it, with a warning that it is too complex a phenomenon for any short description to be satisfactory. In the summer of Making of the Cougar 1958, the Communist Party launched a social and economic revolution intended to transform China from commitment hrm a socialist into a communist society, and to achieve such increases in reno vs condon industrial and agricultural output that it would immediately put an end to high hrm poverty. The international aim (undeclared, but evident) was to milton friedman seize the high hrm, leadership of world revolution from the Soviet Union. Society at blood brothers, every level was collectivized, militarized and thrown into combat.
Mao advocated untried and unscientific methods of farming, without checking them with experts, and hrm claimed that they would multiply yields per acre by ten times; he then based on them national targets for food production wildly beyond the bounds of possibility. One or two brave men called these into question, and he reduced them, but only to a level that was still beyond the bounds of possibility. The same kind of subjectivist thinking and planning was applied to steel-making, water control, irrigation, pig production, and other economic activities. The provinces that suffered worst were those whose leaders followed the policies of the Center [?? , zhong yang, a term commonly used in China to reno vs condon mean the CPC’s Beijing-based top leaders], most fanatically or cynically, inflating targets even beyond those set at the center, carrying policies to extreme, and falsifying reports to hide failures to high hrm meet targets. The promise of abundance motivated some trusting farmers at first, and gullible youths threw themselves into the movement. The harvest of 1958 was good, and in the climate of euphoria, wild exaggeration of success, and suspension of reason that had been whipped, people even believed that there was a problem of surplus food. But already there was evidence of serious economic dislocation and social distress.
Mass mobilization of friedman free market labor for irrigation projects had diverted labor from essential agricultural tasks, the hrm, “steel” produced in backyard furnaces was worthless, the definition relief, pace of work was leading to exhaustion, the high commitment hrm, destruction of private dwellings and family life, and enforced eating in communal mess halls were detested. In November the Central Committee backed off a little from the most destructive and extreme of these policies. Mao’s own prestige and leadership were so closely associated with the Great Leap that he refused to countenance anything more than the minimum of backtracking essential for his own and milton the nation’s survival. From then on, he would insist that the high, overall strategy was correct, blame others for blood facts mistakes of implementation, ruthlessly counter-attack against anyone who dared to call for honest acknowledgment of the extent of the disaster as it emerged, and block so long as he could policy reversals on high commitment hrm, the scale required to minimize famine and disease. Except for Minister of milton friedman market Defense Peng Dehuai, and his few supporters, all Mao’s senior comrades yielded to his threats, acting as his accomplices. By March 1959, Mao was forced to confront the growing reality of suffering, but his response was: “When there is not enough to eat people starve to death.
It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.” His readiness to accept death on high hrm, this scale domestically recalled the way in which he had told the international conference of Communist Party leaders in Moscow that if war broke out between the socialist and “imperialist” camps, and one half of the blood brothers, world’s population died, “there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be erased, and the whole world would become socialist.” If proof were needed that Mao’s prime concern in domestic and world revolution was not for the poor and high commitment powerless of this earth, these words would provide it. As the crisis deepened, the Center increased rather than diminished the reno vs condon, targets of compulsory grain procurement from the farmers, because it gave priority to the politically sensitive cities, and to foreign trade and aid over the needs of the commitment, countryside. It claimed that the farmers were hiding grain, and refused to release reserve stocks to starving regions. The Party waged war on the farmers, and did not pretend otherwise in its internal communications. Soon after the blood, Great Leap was launched, violent coercion became normal, with the encouragement of the Center. These books document how Party cadres, to protect their own careers, enforce their authority, strive for fulfillment of their targets, and protect their rice bowl at a time of famine, turned the countryside of China into killing fields. They tortured and killed anyone who dared to challenge them and the policies they were implementing. They forced husbands to high commitment hrm torture their wives, and kill their children if they were disobedient.
In many areas where supplies of food were exhausted, people turned to cannibalism. Parents even killed their own children to eat them. Children survived by eating their parents who had died. The dead were tossed into mass graves, or left to rot where they fell, until neighbors came to eat them. Chastened by the disastrous history of collectivization in the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1940, Stalin had warned Mao and Making An Exploration of the his comrades against repeating Soviet mistakes. They ignored his warning. They promised a Great Leap to Paradise: they delivered a Highway to Hell. Only with the 7,000-cadre conference of high commitment hrm 1962 did they respond politically on the scale the situation demanded. These books are banned in mainland China, and no public debate is brothers facts, permitted on the lessons to be drawn, more than half a century after the Great Leap. This enforced amnesia is a matter of political logic: if the National Socialist Party was still ruling Germany with a monopoly of high commitment hrm political power, if Hitler’s corpse was lying in a mausoleum in Berlin, and his portrait hanging from the Brandenburg Gate, then the Party would probably claim that the stability of the Third Reich required that examination of the An of the Aging Within, Holocaust be forbidden. Instead, denial of the Holocaust is deemed a criminal act in Germany and 16 other countries.
The Chinese leaders did not set out to kill, unlike the Nazis when they launched the Holocaust, but when they saw that their policies were killing millions they did not reverse them until it was far too late, and then the high-ranking made scapegoats of their subordinates who had obeyed their orders. They did so to defend themselves and high commitment the system they had constructed. The catastrophe cannot be laid at the door of one man, Mao. While the Great Leap was his initiative, and would not have happened without him, it was only possible because China was ruled by a political party committed to totalitarian dictatorship. Moon And Talia Book Analysis! Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and other senior comrades had joined Mao in commitment fashioning that party. The revolutionary changes they imposed in the early 1950s, all modeled closely on the Soviet Union under Stalin, paved the way for it. They had eliminated private property, sealed China off from information beyond its borders, abolished freedom of expression, undermined and attacked all religions and traditional ethics, and overridden such rule of law as existed. They never shrank from using terror and lies to win, use, and definition of comic hold power. They had demolished or undermined every defense against their arbitrary use of power, except families and homes. The summer of madness swept many of those away. 5.
In March 1958, Mao had told the Party: “The truth is in our hands, why should we not worship it? . . . Each group must worship its leader, it cannot but worship its leader.” 6 In Yang’s words, China's government became “a secular theocracy that united the center of power with the hrm, center of truth.” 7 A combination of traditional Chinese veneration of the supreme ruler, emulation of the tyrant Qin Shihhuang, Marxism, Leninist dictatorship, worship of Mao, and mid-20 th century technology produced a totalitarian power of unprecedented strength. From these books we see in explicit detail how policy was transmitted from the lips of Mao to the minds and entrails of single farmers in high hrm the most remote villages of China. Yang is gender classroom, particularly interested in systemic analysis, and demonstrates impressively how the regime transmitted and magnified the folly and the evil of the men at the top, instead of checking it. High! Party cadres engaged in collective beatings of those few of their fellow officials who dared to single gender classroom defend truth; lying and unquestioning obedience down the chain of authority were instilled and enforced by violence. At the center of coercive power Mao warned Liu Shaoqi, “All I have to do is lift a finger and you are finished,” and in communal dining halls the man or woman who held the food ladle exercised the power of life and death. In a vivid phrase, Yang claims that this system made of every person who entered it a slave facing upward, and commitment hrm a dictator facing downward. Yang insists that a multi-party democracy would have prevented Mao from persisting in his criminal conduct as long as he did. Sun, Book Essay! But the commitment hrm, inhabitants of democratic countries should feel no complacency. For a long time many leaders of opinion in our countries have been blind to the true story of the Great Leap, either through laziness or willful denial. This is inexcusable.
The gravity of the famine and social crisis caused by the Great Leap were common knowledge in Hong Kong when I was serving there as a young soldier in 1958-9, the and Talia Analysis Essay, Taiwan press reported it fully, and high sections of the American press got it right. The truth took longer to penetrate some groves of academe, and very eminent Sinologists have gone to their graves without recognizing it. Diane: An Aging Within Society! The magnitude of the famine was demonstrated by a handful of American and British demographers and economists in the 1980s, and the broad outlines of the human misery caused by it were brilliantly recounted by Jasper Becker in his Hungry Ghosts , published in 1996. But the books under review increase our knowledge and understanding of the Great Leap Forward, and the comprehensive disaster it caused, far beyond anything published in English (or indeed in Chinese) hitherto. They not only describe the horror in high commitment hrm all its dimensions, they allow us to understand how and why it came to pass. They make intelligible and credible what for long seemed surreal. To a degree never possible until now, Dikotter and free Yang show the impact of the Great Leap on the “common people.” Indeed Mao’s Great Famine is the high, first volume in a People’s Trilogy that Dikotter is writing, to cover the Tragedy of Liberation 1945-57 , the friedman market, Great Leap (this volume) and the Cultural Revolution. As a historian he is going from high hrm strength to strength in a growing oeuvre characterized by trail-blazing searches for and Talia Analysis truth.
His intellect and language are direct and vigorous, and he shapes a wealth of high commitment hrm complex material most skillfully. In recording the relief, Great Leap, these books inevitably pile grim fact upon grim fact. Only very occasionally do we learn of high heroic integrity on the part of cadres, in the face of certain punishment, and milton friedman time and again people who were starving had only a choice of “evil” options if they were to survive. High Commitment Hrm! Both Yang and Dikotter provide policy description and analysis as well as narrative, but Yang separates them, devoting whole chapters to the former. These provide some contrast and relief, and are as gripping as his narrative chapters, because their subject matter is electrifying, and Sun, and Talia Book Analysis he illustrates their themes with vivid examples and policy statements. His opening chapter, “An Everlasting Tombstone” is a deeply moving and courageous testament, both personal and commitment political. Classroom! Indeed, the whole of his book reflects a moral seriousness in the best tradition of Chinese intellectuals. This and hrm the sobriety of milton his style allow the horror of his content to make its impact with full power.
Zhou’s short but valuable book presents the history of the famine through a well-balanced collection of 120 documents out commitment, of the 1,000 that she and Dikotter gathered from mainland Party archives, in a joint research project. She organizes the documents by theme, e.g. Famine in the Communes, Seasons of friedman free market Death, and Cannibalism, prefacing each with a few succinct pages of context. All three authors are to be congratulated on high commitment, their courage in tackling this most sensitive of subjects, and Moon and Talia Book Essay their diplomatic skill in negotiating access to archives in an often opaque system. Yang’s discreet and hrm well-judged pursuit of Sun, and Talia Book Essay his project over more than a decade is a quietly heroic achievement. He remains at liberty despite his denunciation of the Party’s disastrous record and the totalitarian system it created; indeed he was permitted to visit the high commitment, U.S. earlier this year to speak at a conference on the Great Leap. At about 140,000 words, Mao’s Great Famine is much shorter than Tombstone , which has about 220,000 words of text, excluding end matter. Reno Vs Condon! The two books, one by a European, the other by a Chinese insider, complement and commitment reinforce each other, arriving at single classroom, broadly similar conclusions and extending the range of sources. High Hrm! 8 Together with Zhou Xun’s collection of brothers facts documents, they form a landmark in the historiography of contemporary China.
Working on these books tested the resilience of spirit of those involved. Even reading them requires a certain resolve. They are journeys into high hell, on which Dikotter and Sun, Analysis Essay Yang act as our guides, as Virgil guided Dante; but Dante’s vision of Inferno is no more horrific than this journey through the killing fields of China. Roger Garside (???) served as a British diplomat in China during and immediately after the Cultural Revolution. He is the author of Coming Alive: China after Mao, published in 1981. 1. The book is also published in London in fall 2012 by Allen Lane under the title, Tombstone: The Untold Story of Mao’s Great Famine .^ 2. Frank Dikotter, Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–1962 (New York: Walker Company, 2010), p.325.^ 3. Commitment Hrm! Yang Jisheng, Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-62 , eds. Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher, Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian trans., (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2012), p.430; as a proportion of the population of their nation, the Khmer Rouge inflicted a higher ratio of deaths on Sun, Moon Book Analysis, Cambodia, 1976-9, but, at commitment hrm, 2.2 million, the total was far lower.^
4. ?????,????, qianshi zhi bu wang, houshi zhi shi, cited by Guo Jian in a review of Mubei , http://www.cssm.gov.cn/view.php?id=28478.^ 8. Reno Vs Condon! Together, they cover 16 of China’s 22 provinces, and hrm Beijing and facts Shanghai.^
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Dictionary Definition - postpone doing what one should be doing. Etymology – 1540’s from latin procrastination “a putting off” noun of action from pp. High? stem of procrastinate “put off till tomorrow” from definition of comic, pro- “forward + crastinus “belonging to high hrm tomorrow from cras “tomorrow” of blood facts, unknown origin. Commitment? Synonyms. Causality , Definition , Procrastination 1127 Words | 4 Pages. Michael Pastrano Melinda Zepeda English 1301 November 26, 2012 Definition Essay Draft Living, the feeling of milton friedman, just having . air in your lungs and blood pumping through your veins. Not only does living define a human being it also can resemble nature. I think living can have many different definitions , such as having a very good day or the best time of commitment hrm, your life, enjoying the little things. When were talking about living I’m not talking about blood brothers something from the movie the Hangover or anything. 2006 albums , 2007 singles , 2008 singles 900 Words | 3 Pages. Essay II Definition Essay The definition of basketball as defined by high, the Webster dictionary is as . follows: Basketball - noun. Bas-ket-ball: A usually indoor court game between two teams of five usually five players each who score by tossing an inflated ball through a raised goal; also: the used in this game.
The game of basketball was invented in December 1891 by the Canadian-American educator by the name of reno vs condon, James Naismith, which at the time was an instructor at high commitment hrm, what is now Springfield. Basketball , Game , James Naismith 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Is justice rightly served to reno vs condon them? Are all those 70, 383 prisoners deserving to high hrm be confined in the hell prison is? Maybe. Single Classroom? Maybe not. . Justice may seem to be the most debated topic in college. It may have been a regular content of the answer of a student taking up Criminology in high commitment his professor’s tests. Diane: Exploration Of The Aging Essay? But justice is high hrm more than academic discussions, written answers and relief, spoken words. Justice is more than the Definition Speech topic of the person talking to you right now. The term justice roots. Justice , Law , Manny Pacquiao 1022 Words | 3 Pages.
SANTELICES, Rhey Elmerson S. ENGLCOM EW2 Definition Essay Draft August 16, 2011 . Death is the one thing in life we can be sure about and high commitment, that is why religions have beliefs about what it means. Everything else might happen to us: we might get married, be rich, be happy, have children, open our own business or travel the of comic relief, world, but the only real certainty is commitment that we will die. The major western religion Christianity has borrowed heavily. Afterlife , Christian terms , Christianity 1322 Words | 3 Pages. down a true traveler one has to seek out these common elements. To begin, one must determine what a traveler actually is. A good way to reno vs condon find out what a . traveler is high hrm would be to look it up in the dictionary, ask a friend or do some research. A definition in the dictionary tends to be precise and Sun, Moon, simple, however it is only explained in more detail when there is an example of a traveler. The next step to finding a traveler is to high commitment cancel out other forms of travelers, such as tourists or sightseers.
Antarctica , Dictionary , James Cook 1077 Words | 3 Pages. change it for the better, before it is too late. Diane: Aging? Works Cited Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. Commitment? New York: Perigee, 1954. Print Wilde, Oscar. The Works . of Analysis, Oscar Wilde. High? Mattituck: Amereon Limited, 1932. Print. Orwell, George.
A Collection of Essays . San Diego: Harcourt, 1946. Print. Change , Human , Human nature 902 Words | 3 Pages. more specific and friedman free market, was defined as munificence, open-handedness, and commitment hrm, liberality in the giving of money and possessions of definition, others. Generosity used to high be an . inheritable trait, but we know in today’s society it is a practiced trait. Milton? Over time as the definition has changed, acts of generosity have become nearly imperceptible causing it to be a more desired and a sentimental trait. I can’t say I haven’t donated to SPCA or to World Hunger Relief without the thought of me being generous. They were an. Acts of the Apostles , Charity , Giving 757 Words | 3 Pages. Definition and Heroism Essay Assignment. 8th Grade Language Arts Heroism Essay Assignment Due October 9, 2009 Your assignment is to write a multi-paragraph . High Hrm? essay that defines your concept of heroism.
You will use various strategies of definition of comic, definition ( definition by function, example, and negation) to explain your unique opinion on the concept. Steps Prewriting/Planning 1. Revisit your responses to the Essential Question: What defines a hero? You may ask yourself, “To what extent or to what degree can a person or an high commitment hrm, action. 2005 albums , Definition , Essay 580 Words | 3 Pages. the citizens or even a random bystander. Heroism is definitely not anything to do with wanting fame and fortune because you earn more profit by facts, the fact you . made someone's day better or saved their life. Wit, emotion, and strength all make up the definition of a hero.
Cyclops , Debut albums , Emotion 1331 Words | 3 Pages. r o f g n i Aim ence l l e c Ex Power and Control / Justice and Revenge Essays Essays you could answer with . this content: • Describe at least ONE conflict in the text(s). Explain why the conflict was important to the text(s) as a whole, supporting your points with examples of visual and / or oral language features. • Describe at least ONE idea that you thought was important in the text(s). Explain how visual / oral language features were used to show you the idea(s) was important. • Describe. English-language films , High-angle shot , James McTeigue 1237 Words | 14 Pages. Criminal Justice Essay Jeremy Hanes CJA/204 10 June2013 Erica Veljic In today’s . society crime is increasing every day and the types of crime are changing. It seems more and more that crimes of identity theft and organized crime are on the rise. According to the CJi Interactive Media crime is defined as “ conduct in hrm violation of the criminal laws of the state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction, for gender classroom which there is no legally acceptable justification. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 989 Words | 3 Pages.
Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. your school newspaper about the meaning of friendship. As you write your speech, remember to: Focus on the definition of friendship. Consider . the purpose, audience, and context of high, your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that clearly develop your article.
Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Family Definition with Classification Essay. ?My Definition of Family with Classification The definition of “family” may differ from milton friedman free market, one person to the next. Commitment? Even the definition, . various dictionaries have multiple definitions for the simple yet ever so complex word. High? The Oxford English Dictionary’s etymology of the relief, word family comes from the Middle French famile, beginning in 1337 with family being defined as a group of people living under the same roof, household, in hrm 1442-44 included a group of people related by blood, 1580 a group of people related. Definition , Extended family , Family 1311 Words | 6 Pages. ?Running Head: DEFINITION ESSAY 1 . Gender Classroom? Definition Essay Altruism Upper Iowa University Author Note This paper was prepared for English Composition II, taught by Professor H. High Commitment Hrm? DEFINITION ESSAY 2 Altruism Eric Gibson, the editor of the Sun, Analysis, Leisure Arts page of high hrm, The Wall Street Journal, once wrote. Altruism , Arianna Huffington , Auguste Comte 1102 Words | 5 Pages.
Definition Essay on the Term Identity. English Composition II October 27, 2012 Definition Essay The term “identity” as the English dictionary defines it is “the . individual characteristics by which a person or thing is recognized,” however, the dictionary fails to truly capture the word’s meaning. Generally the development of an of comic relief, individual’s identity goes on during his/her childhood, puberty and in hrm most situations it ends at adulthood. Identity is quite difficult to define because it is definition relief such an abstract concept. In order to define. Cengage Learning , Definition , Existentialism 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Essay (Definition of Good Student) life you here how important it is to study hard, stay out of trouble, and to stay focused, but there is a lot more when it comes to being a good student and . when the definition of good is “of a favorable character or tendency” and the definition of student is “one who attends school,” you’re going to have a wide variety of definitions for what a “good student” really is. Also, is a good student the kid that sits in the front, pays attention and works hard, but still struggles to hrm keep a C plus average.
2005 singles , 2007 singles , 2008 singles 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Definition of Rhetoric- extended definition essay. slightly different variation in his discussion of rhetoric that adds to single classroom the definition saying: “The duty and office of rhetoric is to apply . reason to imagination for the better moving of the will.” What Francis Bacon meant by this is that rhetoric is the commitment hrm, presentation of an argument that inspires people to act virtuously, with “reason” for the “better moving of the will”. Reno Vs Condon? Of course, this is not contained within the dictionary definition of high commitment hrm, rhetoric, yet Bacon’s addition is crucial because it addresses how. Adolf Hitler , Anthony Eden , Nazi Germany 996 Words | 3 Pages.
Definition Essay : The Right Stuff In attempting to define “the right stuff”, I came up with several characteristics and traits . that may qualify one as having “the right stuff”. There was, however, no single, broad and sweeping definition that truly seemed to encompass “the right stuff”. For the intent of this essay , I will define “the right stuff” as the unspoken qualities a person possesses that motivate them to attempt/accomplish feats not ordinarily attempted as well as continue to challenge. Albert Scott Crossfield , Chuck Yeager , Definition 817 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay #2 – Definition Argument – Social Justice A socially just and equal society is arguably one of the most . important things a community can hope to and Talia Book Analysis establish for itself, as every human being has a set of basic rights that demand to be valued and high commitment hrm, understood. However, the Sun, and Talia Book, way those rights are interpreted is theoretically an objective concept which varies from religion to religion, from government to government, and from philosopher to philosopher. A select number of societies have either subverted. Egalitarianism , Human rights , John Rawls 939 Words | 3 Pages. participants? • Robertson’s values and hrm, representation of the truth? Truth can be represented in Making Exploration of the Aging differing ways according to the values and attitudes of . the persona whose representation of truth is being expressed.
Throughout Geoffrey Robertson’s The Justice Game the responder is commitment hrm convinced to accept the composer’s representation of truth through the use of relief, composing techniques such as the short story structure, Robertson’s social status, various language techniques, symbolism and the use of examples and. Capital punishment , Death row , Discrimination 2548 Words | 7 Pages. person feels any hatred or spite in order to high commitment hrm plan and reno vs condon, execute the high, act of murder. Moreover, the destructive acts that end peoples lives are classified as . homicides which include manslaughter and single classroom, first and high commitment, second degree murder. Free Market? More important, the justice system has put different labels on such crimes, but it also allows room for criminals to get away with murder. A person who's accused of unlawful killing in high hrm a court of law may be faced with a manslaughter charge by the prosecutor. Since there. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal law 1251 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay on Happiness Happiness is a simple yet very complex term; if asked to define by reno vs condon, individuals, many will have . completely different definitions while some might be similar.
Happiness is high hrm a feeling- a state of Diane: of the Aging Society, well-being, not an actual physical object. However, there are quite a few individuals that believe monetary possessions are what make you happy; therefor, the more they have- the high commitment, happier they are. Since happiness is a state of being- a feeling; it cannot be measured, profited. Abraham Maslow , Happiness , Human 863 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Essay: the Good Shepherd. The Biblical Definition of the Good Shepherd: Definition Essay .. The Biblical Definition of . the Good Shepherd Jesus said, “I am the good shepherd” (John 10:11, NIV). A Shepherd is a person who tends and guards flocks of sheep. In Bible, Jesus was not a real shepherd; however, he described himself as the Good Shepherd.
Christians may question why the Good Shepherd is reno vs condon distinctive from commitment, general shepherd. From biblical perspective, the Good shepherd is an emotional image that teaches Christians. Bible , Christianity , God 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay April 6, 2012 To many people, a lie has little significance. Some people tell lies as a way to cover . something up, make a different name for An of the Within Society themselves, or just to make excuses.
No matter what the situation, my father has constantly reminded me that the truth will set you free, and as I get older even though I am still in high commitment hrm my youth, the more I realize the classroom, truth and importance of that statement. To me a lie is a form of disloyalty, the less you respect the person the more you. Happiness , Lie , Roy Baumeister 870 Words | 3 Pages. theme of social justice is rather apparent in Have a Little Faith and Crash. High? Social justice is defined as applying an abstract . idea of equality on a social scale. Friedman? It is shown with the commitment hrm, changes that go on passim the plots of Essay, these works. They teach us about our world and where we as a society still need to achieve. Social justice is a way of life that even today is still needed to be worked on to ever get close to being in high hrm a state of reno vs condon, “perfection.” In Have a Little Faith, social justice gradually improved.
Black people , Miscegenation , Race 1207 Words | 4 Pages. Love by definition is an emotion explored in philosophy, religion, and literature, often as either romantic love, the fraternal love of others, . or the love of God based on high commitment hrm, the definition found in The Encarta Encyclopedia. As I explored the definition by means of the Internet, books, and articles I noticed the definitions changed quite a bit, but yet had the same basic understanding. The definition I found in The Encarta Encyclopedia was probably the most simple and most basic. It refers to love. Emotion , Family , Interpersonal relationship 1048 Words | 3 Pages. ? The World is friedman free market a Canvas: A Definition Argument Essay on Graffiti Chloe Roy Grand Canyon University: ENG 106 January 30, . Hrm? 2014 Art is generally seen as a canvas transformed into a beautiful and thought – provoking decoration. Genres and technique styles continue to evolve and definition relief, transform over the centuries, creating new ways to influence the world through art. Graffiti is a controversial new genre and technique style that has taken the art community – and the urban streets by storm. Commitment? The artists. Aesthetics , Art , Art world 825 Words | 5 Pages.
Definition of of comic relief, Tourist/Tourism Essay. DEFINITION OF TOURIST/TOURISM Throughout the commitment, academic and business world there is reno vs condon ongoing debate regarding the insufficient . definitions of the terms ‘tourism’ and ‘tourist’. Upon researching this matter I have also come to question the validity of the ‘tourism industry’ and its ability to meet the requirements of industrial and commercial activities due to high commitment hrm the lack of brothers, uniform and limitations of what it pertains to. The following are definitions I have chosen, in commitment order of preference, to reno vs condon shed light. Tourism , World Tourism Organization 1412 Words | 5 Pages. Responsibility Page 1 What is the meaning of Responsibility? Definition Essay Karen Bannan Writing 101 Professor Leone . January 30, 2011 Responsibility Page 2 The ultimate word in commitment hrm life is definition of comic relief “responsibility”. What is responsibility you ask? Responsibility is “doing the right thing”. Doing the right thing means living a life where every move or decision you make is all your own and you do things that will not harm others. It is a moral belief that as individuals we must behave.
Individual responsibility , Meaning of life , Responsibility 826 Words | 3 Pages. can be many different meanings of pride. Pride can be the allegiance towards a certain group or club, the pride one gives towards its own country, or even . the pride that someone has internally within themselves could be another way to look at hrm, the definition of pride. Pride can be interpreted in more ways than one; it just depends on the way the Moon, word is being used. The pride that I have towards a group at church or an extracurricular club at school can have many different interpretations to commitment other. Definition , Extensional definition , Niceville High School 958 Words | 3 Pages. this fabricated definition of success. Of The Aging Cougar Within Society Essay? The businesses and the media need us to believe that having lots of money is the key to happiness, . therefore the key to success. This perception of success is only a myth in commitment my opinion. My definition of true success is acquiring happiness and a purpose in life through respectable accomplishments and definition, experiences.
It’s hard not to judge the high commitment hrm, people that we come into contact with on a daily basis. Sun,? We try to determine our own personal definition of high hrm, success and how. Feeling , Happiness , Meaning of life 2073 Words | 7 Pages. Aster Cheng Hero Definition Essay “Great heroes need great sorrows and burdens, or half their greatness goes . unnoticed. It’s all part of the fairytale.” -Peter S. Beagle, The Last Unicorn.
Heroes can be found in normal, everyday people; however, they go unnoticed because they did not have to overcome a great calamity to perform an action. More well known heroes have all overcome the worst of situations imaginable. For example, Ms. Riley from October Sky had fought Hodgkin’s Disease while. Coalwood, West Virginia , Game , Hero 928 Words | 3 Pages. Does absolute justice exist or not? This essay will present arguments for the existence of absolute justice . Many . Definition? people disagree that absolute justice exists. Thus they argue that justice cannot be derived from nature since contradictory and different forms of high commitment hrm, justice exist in Aging Cougar Within Essay nature; and one cannot derive the greater and perfect from the lesser and imperfect, also they argue that the idea of absolute justice is the ideas of different cultures and commitment, times. Sun, Moon And Talia? That is why the idea of justice varies greatly. Absolute , Argument , Critical thinking 1025 Words | 3 Pages.
symbols of freedom. Recognized around the high commitment hrm, globe, Americans are the leaders of the free world. Not only gender classroom do they represent freedom but also people, loyal . people willing to up hold the Constitution at high, any cost. “One Nation under God with liberty and justice for all” those words taken from the “Pledge of Allegiance”. We find a way through tough times, and if we can not find a way then we will make one. As a result, I am very proud to be an milton friedman free, American and commitment hrm, I am not afraid to say so. We have an Making Diane: An of the Aging Within Society Essay, obligation. Bible , Family , Marriage 1196 Words | 3 Pages.
poetry to you is hrm a bunch of figurative language. In that case E.E. Cummings A Leaf Falls probably seemed like an extremely short story more that a poem. . Today, an analysis of Sun, Book Essay, a poet’s definition of poetry will be examined. By analyzing the figurative language in Ars Poetica we will capture Archibald MacLeish’s definition of poetry. Archibald MacLeish has won numerous awards for his role in commitment poetry. Reno Vs Condon? He was an American poet and the Librarian of hrm, Congress, he strongly promoted the arts.
In, Ars Poetica. Alliteration , Archibald MacLeish , Ars Poetica 937 Words | 4 Pages. ?4/1/14 English Composition Definition Essay : Trust What is trust? The . dictionary meaning of trust is of comic relief a firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something. Commitment? The second meaning is, confidence placed in Making Diane: An Exploration Cougar Within a person by making that person the nominal owner of property to be held or used for the benefit of one or more others. But what can we really define as trust? In this paper, I will discuss how trust is high commitment used every. Faith , Friendship , If You Have to Ask 1338 Words | 4 Pages.
Research paper: Defining Justice The definition of reno vs condon, justice , at least according to various dictionaries and . High Hrm? encyclopedias, is the quality of friedman, being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness. The more colloquial meaning of the word can be assumed to be considered what is high commitment hrm fair, or right. An Of The Aging Within Essay? The real debate on this word is what fits into the definition ; what is justice ? What is righteous, just, or fair? There is a theory Jerald Greenburg argues, supported by decades of research that, although. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1874 Words | 5 Pages. What is the Definition of Marriage? What is the definition of marriage? Over the years, the word marriage has been challenged . from its current definition as listed in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary as an act of marrying or being married between a man and a woman. Marriage can also be defined in the Oxford Dictionary as the formal union of a man and a woman, typically recognized by law, by which they become husband and wife.
The word marriage becomes a special type of bond between two people that share. Cohabitation , Dictionary , English language 827 Words | 3 Pages. having second thoughts about her life choices, and commitment hrm, unsure about the Book Analysis Essay, meaning of hrm, their life? I am willing to bet it is the second one. Marketing and media have . effectively brainwashed our society into accepting a false, even potentially dangerous definition of success. Moon Book Essay? Marketers want us to believe that having lots of high commitment, money, living in a big house, and owning all of the milton free, latest cars, fashions, and technology is the key to happiness, and success. This overstated, falsely advertised myth is hardly ever. Life , Mainstream , Marketing 874 Words | 4 Pages. Some people say love is once-in-a lifetime thing and hrm, others believe that after one love comes another.
The more you try to Sun, Essay find a universal . definition of love – the high, more you get confused with all these words you get from different people around you. The more you think you get closer to the true meaning of reno vs condon, this feeling- the more you realize that the hrm, definition of love is probably your own, unique and sincere truth about love. Throughout the history a lot of writers suggested their understanding of. 2009 albums , Husband , Love 1113 Words | 3 Pages. more. The use of the word “terrorist” is commonly used as a derogatory term, but has changed because the dramatic events we have seen throughout history. . Reno Vs Condon? Let’s look at how some sources classify the word terrorist. We see the high, book definition in definition of comic Oxford English definition as “a person who uses terrorism in the pursuit of political aims.” In order to define terrorist, you have to understand that terrorism is an act of high commitment, instilling fear. This doesn’t mean Billy who stole your orange juice in middle school. Abuse , Al-Qaeda , September 11 attacks 1133 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. Milton Friedman? formal an attempt or effort. High? a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the.
Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from milton friedman, a time when chivalry was the key to love. High Commitment? In this time, the word meant to single classroom be chivalrous, but in modern times to high hrm . romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to reno vs condon dazzle someone with your personality. The definition that The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language gives for the modern usage of romance is “A love affair containing ardent emotional attachment or involvement between people.” Romance is a particularly hard word to describe when. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. be identified and seen in high commitment multiple ways. Reno Vs Condon? A definition of heroism varies from person to person and can mean more personal to one that has . actually identified a hero in their life. High Hrm? A hero not only goes beyond their needs and boundaries to help and encourage others, but also have a strong mind set.
Heroes can be looked in the eye and show that they will not back down or give in to the defeat of something they’ve put their mind to. Even though a definition can start or end differently they all have one. Boy , Courage , Hero 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Love- An Extended Definition Essay. LOVE What is the definition of love? The formal definition states that love is; 1. Intense affection, 2. Reno Vs Condon? A feeling of attraction . resulting from sexual desire, and 3. Enthusiasm or fondness.
Although these definitions are all true there is a deeper meaning to high this word, this word can be a feeling, a choice, even a state of mind. Brothers Facts? Love is a many splendid thing; you cannot live without it even if you try it is not possible. It is not possible to hrm live without love because each and every person holds. 2006 singles , Emotion , English-language films 1377 Words | 4 Pages. state to another or one country to single classroom another differ greatly, making a true definition of the word unclear. People throw the word freedom around . as if it is not something of importance. High Hrm? Millions of our fellow Americans have died and millions more put their lives on the line daily so we can have the freedoms we have now.
Freedom is and Talia defined as the absence of necessity, coercion, or constraint in choice or action. Given this definition , many of the places we use the word freedom or the sense of being free. Abuse , Civil rights and liberties , English-language films 1509 Words | 4 Pages. results, but when I asked the definition of a good friend it only hrm showed 47,000,000 results. This proved how people tend to have more . challenges in characterizing what a good friend is, probably because it is harder to find one.
Generally, a friend is described as a person whom one knows and free, with whom one has a bond of high commitment, mutual affection, typically exclusive of friedman free, sexual or family relations. Almost every single one of us will immediately nod in agreement to this definition and explain how your good friend. Affection , Family , Friendship 1034 Words | 3 Pages. Textual Evidence For Definition Essay. things and to start something that was trying to be achieved by the hero that never was completed. (SpringBoard 68). “Frederick Douglass” (SpringBoard . 70).
The Narrative of the high, Life of Making Diane: An Exploration Within Society Essay, Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (SpringBoard 71). Definition of a Gentleman (SpringBoard 78). . Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Courage 452 Words | 2 Pages. abundant supply, and 4. all property that has a money value or an exchangeable value. High Hrm? It originally comes from the 13th century: from Middle English . welthe, from wele weal. In this day and age most Americans view wealth as the first definition , a large amount of money and possessions. How wealthy you are is typically a measure of how big your house is, what kind of car you drive, and how much money you make annually. Where do we get our impressions of wealth?
When does a person think. Benjamin Franklin , Capital accumulation , Money 686 Words | 3 Pages. Despite, world-wide agreement that 9/11 was an reno vs condon, act of terrorism, there remains much dispute on the specifics of what defines terrorism. The . definitions provided in one dictionary differ in another. High Commitment Hrm? Lets take into example Merriam-Webster's definition , which states that terrorism is of comic “the systematic use of high commitment hrm, terror as a means of coercion.”? The problem with this definition is single gender classroom its simplicity. It can applied to almost anything and sometimes things that traditionally wouldn't be considered terrorism. For example. Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Islamic terrorism 1845 Words | 5 Pages. of the most prevalent themes in the world.
But what is high hrm beauty exactly? According to the Oxford Dictionary beauty is A combination of qualities, such as . Friedman Free Market? shape, color, or form, that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially the high, sight. Based on the definition , one would assume that beauty is only on Making Diane: of the Cougar Within Society Essay, outward appearance but that statement is false. Commitment Hrm? Beauty is single not only high commitment hrm appearance but it is also what people cannot see. Beauty is about being beautiful on the inside not just the outside. The media has fooled.
Beauty , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 864 Words | 2 Pages.