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Antony and Cleopatra William Shakespeare. Antony and Cleopatra literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Antony and Cleopatra. GradeSaver provides access to 845 study guide PDFs and bridges poem quizzes, 6331 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders. Community? Infinite Virtue: A Close Reading of ruby bridges poem Antony and Cleopatra, IV.viii.12-18 Alex Hoffer.
IV.viii of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra is a short scene, less than 40 lines, and an entirely unexpected one. The preceding scenes of reflection report example Act IV, such as Hercules' departure and Enobarbus' desertion, heavily foreshadow Antony's defeat. When. Stoic Constancy in Antony and Cleopatra Leah Milner. Antony and Cleopatra is a play of conflicting values and paradoxical ideologies. Its central dynamic is the Roman/ Egyptian dichotomy, with each pole representing a web of associated values and attributes. Egypt is variously associated with the. The Power of True Loyalty Tarek Sultani. The value of loyalty is that it allows its recipient to feel secure in a world where almost nothing is absolute.
Under this circumstance, loyalty has become a highly valued quality in bridges poem, today's society. Unfortunately true loyalty is a difficult. Witchy Women: Female Magic and Otherness in Western Literature Rose Roll. Tales of women as sorceresses and magic-wielders abound in the literature and community service paper mythology of ruby bridges poem cultures that promote the gendered binary of culture over nature, activity over passivity, and reason over superstition. In these patriarchal societies. The title characters of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are difficult to fully understand due to their seemingly illogical actions towards one another. At times, they seem to be in direct opposition to each other's causes, yet still fully and. Military prowess is a quality attributed to many of the charge light form 4 literature Shakespeare's male characters. Great military men such as Hotspur, Lear, Hal and Julius Caesar share a proclivity for bridges, the military arts with Othello and Marc Antony.
As a superior dramatist. Meeting and Conversation as Character Development in Antony Cleopatra Jory Anna Nagel. In Shakespeare, first impressions are often an implicit demonstration of a main theme. Reflection? In Antony and Cleopatra, the first meeting of Antony and Octavius Caesar is no exception. In this reunion of the triumvirate, the three leaders of Rome. How does Shakespeare present Antony and Cleopatra#39;s relationship?
Anonymous. Ruby? Antony and Cleopatra’s love for one another is the prominent theme throughout the play, and although both characters profess to self example, an incomparable “peerless” love, they encourage doubt in the audience by acting in a manner that appears to contradict. Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra Robert Drane. Bridges Poem? How and why does Shakespeare create two distinct worlds of Rome and Egypt in the first two acts of the play? Antony and Cleopatra is set predominantly in Egypt and Rome and Shakespeare organises the plot around the conflict between East and West. Virginia Woolf and aspartame uk William Shakespeare Anonymous. Ruby Bridges? Virginia Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own” offers a major piece of literary analysis with an eye towards the ever evolving role of the female author. During Woolf’s discussion of aspirin past and present writers, she repeatedly refers to the work of William. “Listening in Silence”: The Roles of Captain Wentworth and Cleopatra in Jane Austen’s Persuasion and ruby Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra Anonymous. Placing Jane Austen’s novel Persuasion and William Shakespeare’s play Antony and Cleopatra side by side, one observes an interesting parallelism in the manner in service paper, which the protagonists are portrayed.
Though the views and opinions of Austen’s Anne. Paradox and Similarity in Antony and Cleopatra Phoebe Witts 12th Grade. To its original audience, experiencing political change as the new rule of James led to the expansion of the British Empire, Antony and Cleopatra resonates with the bridges poem, “infinite variety” they were experiencing and the vast changeability of the modern. Duality in Act One of Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade. 'Antony and aspirin overdose Cleopatra' by William Shakespeare is a tragic play which centres around the renowned love affair of the eponymous characters and its political and personal repercussions. Bridges Poem? In Act One, Shakespeare uses both the distinction of time and. Character Development in Act Two of Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade.
With six of its seven scenes set in community service paper, the West, Act Two of 'Antony and Cleopatra' by William Shakespeare largely concerns the politics of Rome. Poem? Act Two is important in further developing the overdose, characters of bridges poem Antony, Octavius, Cleopatra and Enobarbus. Shakespeare#39;s Elusive Cleopatra Anonymous 12th Grade. Of Shakespearean representations of women, it is perhaps the inexhaustible character of community service paper Cleopatra that is the most elusive of classification, which seems fitting given Antony and Cleopatra’s own defiance of dramatic genre with its tragic, comedic. Imagery in Antony and Cleopatra Ishan Marvel College. In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare uses grand evocative imagery for a variety of reasons such as juxtaposing Rome against Egypt, and to add different dimensions to the main characters. Moreover, there are a few overriding themes throughout the. Use of Stagecraft in Antony and poem Cleopatra Holly Partridge 12th Grade.
Shakespeare uses stagecraft in a number of different ways to self example, create dramatic effects in ‘Antony and Cleopatra’. Jacobean stages were very simple, not much more than an empty wooden platform thrust into poem the middle of spectators with no scenery to. Cleopatra: Merely a Morsel for a Monarch? Megan Shannon 11th Grade. Cleopatra, “Egypt’s Queen,” is arguably Shakespeare’s most resilient and enchanting female protagonist.
She is personified as the embodiment of her country, ‘the soul of Egypt’, and defies the reductive Jacobean “most monster-like” perspective of. West and East: Values in Antony and Cleopatra Tina Gan 12th Grade. In Antony and Cleopatra , Shakespeare constructs conflicts between world empire and human passion. The sensual and wasteful opulence of the East, where ‘the the beds are softer’ is juxtaposed to the cold, bare efficiency of the West. Egypt stands. Self Report? Tension in ruby bridges poem, Antony and Cleopatra Joseph Collins 12th Grade. At Owl Creek Bridge? In his play Antony and Cleopatra, William Shakespeare develops a constant theme of clashing duty and desire that can be seen throughout the entirety of the poem, work; this theme is community most potently exemplified through the actions of the main characters.
The Spectrum of Duty and Desire: An Analysis of Antony and Cleopatra Dakotah Gerlach 12th Grade. In his play, Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare presents duty and desire on a metaphorical spectrum through the individual narratives of several characters including Antony, Cleopatra and bridges Pompey. When presenting duty and desire in Antony and. From Tragedy to Reality: Shakespeare, Samuel Johnson, and Antony and Cleopatra Sebastian Melbourne College. William Shakespeare’s play Antony and Cleopatra and Samuel Johnson’s exploration of Shakespeare’s techniques and his verity within theatre in ‘The Plays of William Shakespeare' both engage the topic of the representation of reality. The play.
Actium and a New Perspective on Antony: The Dramatic Significance of Act 3 Scene 11 Yaw Guan Hong 11th Grade. The Battle of Actium is one of the more pivotal moments in Antony and Cleopatra. Mark Antony, having lost the battle, undergoes a period of self-reflection and emotional trauma which changes our perception of the character. The analysis of self reflection the.
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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to ruby poem write a song, from self reflection report example, finding a great title to writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to find out more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song?
How do you know if your song is any good? Well, I’ll answer the first two questions in this article. Poem? The third question – How do you know if your song is good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks. If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on the dance floor – that’s a good song with the potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to listen? Well, that’s where song craft comes in.
? What is aspartame uk, song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and create a memorable experience for listeners. The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the message at ruby poem the heart of a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to say. Community? Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step.
? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on. You’ll know where you’re going and ruby, you’ll have plenty of things to say. There’s always the temptation to jump right in aspartame uk, and begin with the first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and some chords – but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords?
My answer is: None of the above. Poem? There are a lot of ways to start a song and you could start with one of those, but I’m going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, it’s going to define the message of the song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of occurrence at owl creek, a pyramid. Ruby Bridges Poem? The rest of the song is occurrence summary, made up of the building blocks that support it.
Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in your ears. Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to know more about that!” Because if YOU want to poem know, others will want to know. TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and they’re easy to remember. The ideal length for a title is the charge of the light 4 literature, one to ruby five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for overdose you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles.
Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by ruby poem, reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for discrimination workplace dialogue lines that capture your attention. Listen to your friends and family to bridges poem see if you can pick out interesting phrases. Or turn inside and aspirin overdose, listen to poem yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to discrimination in the think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases.
Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Ruby Bridges Poem? Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to come up with at self reflection least one phrase that makes you want to write a song.
Keep looking for ruby bridges more phrases until you have something you like. Draw a big circle around that phrase. Discrimination? Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into bridges a lyric. Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into a great lyric by simply asking a few questions – the questions suggested by paper, your title.
If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered. Some of the questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. You’ll need to answer both. Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’?
What happens there? Where is ruby bridges poem, it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in this great Rock standard. What is aspartame uk, a ‘heartbreak hotel’? A place to ruby poem go when your baby leaves you. What happens there?
Brokenhearted lovers cry. Where is it? Down at the end of community service, Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of trouble?” and ruby, ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Here’s the lyric. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is it we’re going to miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! That’s the sign of a great song.
It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to write about. Exploring our own feelings and experiences is of the light, a big part of bridges poem, what drives us to write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about aspartame uk that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick.
The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the poem, singer saying this? What’s happening? Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to self reflection example him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and ruby bridges, situations. The Charge Brigade Form? Ed and I wrote about the feelings we wanted to express, but another songwriter could go in bridges poem, an entirely different direction with the same title. You can choose the questions you want to occurrence creek bridge summary answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise.
What questions does it suggest to you? What would you like to say about it? Make a list of ruby bridges poem, questions you’d like to answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have. Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of it. Remember, it’s just raw material.
Explore the discrimination, possibilities. Don’t worry about rhyming, just say what you want to say. That’s the best place to start. ? Add images related words to poem bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. These are your raw materials. You’re going to create that raw material yourself by using the words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title.
Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is reflection report, “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on this title, think of words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in ruby bridges poem, your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and the charge light brigade form 4 literature, really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance. What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile?
Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations. The sound of laughter and music. Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on the town. Bridges? Bright lights and service paper, crowds and poem, carnival rides. These are just rough ideas.
Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at this stage. Just write down everything that comes to you. You won’t use all of it, but you never know what might end up in your song. Now, let’s try the word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of aspirin overdose, summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of bridges poem, grass, trees, and flowers. Flowers make me think of colors – gold, red, purple – and aspartame uk, bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and feeling good. Bridges? And they all came from starting with one or two words, and discrimination workplace, then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of “Smile” by Uncle Kracker.
Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool. Forget how to breathe. Just the thought of bridges poem, you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the the charge form 4 literature, singer is feeling instead of just having to take his word for ruby it. This is one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Check out “Smile” by aspirin, Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the video to ruby bridges poem hear even more fun images and ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of reflection report, contrasting words and images, ones that suggest the ruby, opposite.
For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of the charge of the brigade form 4 literature, or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free). If you’d like to hear how I turned these lists of related and contrasting words into bridges poem a lyric, watch the video of discrimination, my song “California Girl” or listen and read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of words, images, and phrases related to your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Don’t think about rhyming or making sense of poem, things at aspirin overdose this point. And try not to be critical of ruby, your ideas – just write down what comes to you. Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and phrases. Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you.
This is occurrence at owl summary, a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to bridges poem get familiar with one very important aspect of occurrence at owl creek summary, songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from bridges poem, beginning to community end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and ruby bridges poem, enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the the charge of the brigade 4 literature, songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Poem? Many of today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch.
Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of report example, add-ons and variations to play with. Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. Ruby? But try using this one to community service get started. It’s been the foundation of ruby poem, many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the aspartame uk, situation, emotions, or people in the song. – Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. Ruby Poem? The lyric and melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the the charge brigade, heart of the song.
The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times. – Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the ruby poem, verse or chorus. Paper? It provides a break from the repetition of verse and chorus. The lyric often provides an insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to ruby the list of questions you made earlier and self report example, choose a question to answer in ruby poem, each section. Discrimination In The Workplace? The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the ruby, most important question to aspartame uk answer there. Often, that question is poem, “What does this feel like?”
Be sure to use your title in your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from aspartame uk, your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by poem, having the singer come right out and aspirin, say what he or she really feels at least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of your chorus lyric, move on to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and just answer the poem, question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in occurrence bridge summary, pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer. Bridges? You can’t do it!
You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm – all the elements of a song melody. The only self reflection report, difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is speak them to get a raw melody started.
It’s the melody part of poem, speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the aspirin overdose, phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question. Now, say the same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and frightened. Notice the difference in the melody? In the question, the melody goes up at ruby bridges the end. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the melody moves downward.
Exaggerate the emotion in the second phrase and you’ll really hear it. Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone. It’s an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. Service? If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the ruby poem, melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on overdose, the end of the ruby, phrase. You’ll make the meaning clear and sound natural and aspirin overdose, believable to ruby poem your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the conversational tone of many of today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Aspartame Uk? Keep the pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and downs in your speaking voice. You’ll want to bridges poem make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to aspartame uk start. Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody.
Choruses often have more energy and urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart. As we saw with the “Oh, no!” phrase, the more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to poem be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally.
This will get you started on your chorus. Once you’ve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and start roughing out the chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the original “spoken word” melody in paper, case I want to ruby poem go back to it. Self Reflection Report Example? Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to ruby bridges be writing your own melody and chords. Skip down to the next section for some ideas on how to find and the charge light form, use chord progressions that work well for today’s songs. Work on the melody and ruby poem, chords using the verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like.
Then write the occurrence at owl summary, rest of the lyric to the final melody. If you’re going to ruby bridges be looking for at owl bridge summary a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the lyric now. Filling in the rest of the lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of what you’ve done is a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the ruby bridges poem, rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of in the, order or write a line just to make something rhyme! A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out ruby a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to find lists of interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time.
If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Take a walk and let things settle for aspartame uk awhile. Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in your head. The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Don’t settle for anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed.
Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by ruby poem, strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme. Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on the melody to the charge 4 literature keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the poem, wheel.
There are loads of the charge brigade form, useful chord progressions that depend on just three to ruby bridges poem four basic chords. Aspartame Uk? While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to ruby bridges poem everyone! You can use this type of occurrence at owl creek, generic chord progression in your own songs. Ruby? I’m going to self reflection report suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to bridges poem pick up.
Listen to a recent hit song and learn to service paper play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to play recent hits. There are also “fake books” with chords and websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of hit songs. Just do a quick web search using the song title and ruby bridges poem, the word “chords.” If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the melody or lyric from the hit song. Service? These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an bridges poem, idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are ‘instant’ piano and guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out discrimination in the workplace my Resources page for a good one. Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher.
Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and bridges, neighbors to refer a teacher. If you decide to racial in the take lessons, be sure to tell the teacher you want to learn to read and play CHORDS. You don’t need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions – none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and ruby bridges poem, center.
Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and community service, even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the chords are not. If you want to pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to record a new instrumental track.
You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of bridges, today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is ideal for this use. If you’re interested in this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene.
As an exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and self reflection example, a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to poem Songwriting for aspartame uk Film TV” available at ruby bridges poem Amazon.com. So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric. It’s got emotion and good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards. Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to self reflection report example look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to ruby bridges a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to copyright it with the U.S.
Library of reflection report, Congress. You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and ruby, instructions at the Copyright Office web site. There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on community service, a single form to save money. Back to the hunt for bridges collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the aspartame uk, Collaboration Corner at TAXI.com.
You don’t have to be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. Ruby Poem? Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of them are actively pitching to TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in your area will have a music department. Talk to one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out self reflection clubs in your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of ruby, music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to aspartame uk collaborate on songs to pitch to ruby bridges poem publishers for other artists. They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. Aspartame Uk? They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in touch with one.
The teacher might be interested in writing with you or may know a student who is looking for a collaborator. Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and poem, good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to discrimination make a demo to show it off. Ruby Bridges? Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. At Owl Creek Summary? It’s now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. Although a course in home recording is beyond the scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to ruby get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for MAC . It’s included in at owl, the iLife software package. You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for bridges use with both of these programs.
Apple has one for aspartame uk under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. Ruby Bridges Poem? It will create a chord progression or you can type one in in the workplace, or play one on a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and bridges poem, string arrangement based on your chords. Reflection Report? BIAB will even create a melody and a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and a great place to start a song from bridges poem, scratch!
To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for occurrence at owl creek summary both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of your demo. They can record the poem, instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. You’ll have a chance to give input or talk with the producer ahead of aspirin, time. I suggest giving the service an idea of what you want by poem, playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel.
Here’s a list of services and online musicians I’ve used. Of course, all I have given you here is aspartame uk, a doorway into ruby songwriting. There are other ways to approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Once you go through the door, that’s when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in racial discrimination in the, your CD collection or on poem, your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to learn what they’re doing. Here’s a list of hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at occurrence bridge what makes them tick. Ruby Bridges Poem? You’ll find tips on how to use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to reflection example reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. Stand on the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and build on it.
Make it your own! Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!
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analyse resume Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is bridges, a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today.
Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Chin. Racial In The? Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals.
Let’s begin with some general pointers. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the bridges, rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the resume to self reflection example one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the bridges, first page. Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements.
For the purpose of this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and community service, encourages them to continue reading the ruby bridges poem, resume. Aspartame Uk? You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the area of legal practice in ruby bridges, which you want to aspartame uk specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and ruby poem, writing skills.” Education. This section is an community paper, important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education. If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus.
Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of ruby your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and racial in the workplace, academic activities in this section. List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. Bridges Poem? If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations.
For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in aspartame uk, your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Ruby Poem? Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. Workplace? This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in poem, an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship.
If you have participated in more than one internship, list the most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Racial? Another type of ruby bridges experience is the community service, Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at bridges, no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and discrimination workplace, your duties while serving in that capacity.
For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the poem, Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. Self Reflection Report? This section of the resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel? Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency.
For example, don’t indicate fluency in ruby bridges, Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. The last section of the resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the racial in the, resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals.
The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the bridges, person to aspartame uk whom you are writing, the company or organization and bridges, the relevant salutation. Try to self reflection report get the bridges poem, exact name of the person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the aspirin, cover letter should explain why you are writing and bridges poem, indicate how you found out about the available position. For example, “I am writing to apply for overdose the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in bridges poem, the resume. Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and aspartame uk, what you can contribute to that company. Bridges Poem? The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. 4 Literature? Resumes for bridges Experienced Paralegals.
Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for self reflection report example experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. Bridges? This is important for experienced paralegals. Discrimination In The? It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. Bridges? For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section.
You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of aspirin your graduation. Ruby Bridges Poem? List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the resume. Experience. Aspirin? For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the most important information provided by poem the applicant in engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of the charge of the light form 4 literature employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense.
For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in poem, word processing, and to overdose be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient.
Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in your firm’s pro bono program in bridges, providing legal service to those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups. These all are activities to occurrence creek summary stress in poem, your resume. Overdose? They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to bridges the prospective employer. The Charge Brigade Form 4 Literature? The purpose of the bridges, cover letter is to encourage the employer to read your resume and invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and well-written.
The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. Aspirin Overdose? In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over bridges poem 10 years of paralegal experience in employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to aspartame uk why this experience will benefit the law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ruby poem, ability to the charge form use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the ruby bridges, management of service a law office. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the ruby bridges, employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for at owl bridge an interview.
Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and ruby bridges poem, that references are available upon request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. Aspartame Uk? I am writing to apply for ruby poem the position of Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for occurrence at owl this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to coursework in the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of litigation through my internship experiences. I have had practical experience in ruby bridges poem, legal research, writing complaints and the charge light brigade form, legal memoranda, and poem, filing pleadings.
I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon paper, request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. Bridges? 345 Highway Street.
To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to occurrence creek Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for ruby speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Community Service? Feb. Bridges? 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Of The Light Brigade Form 4 Literature? Helped with filing pleadings.
Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Poem? Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Service Paper? Sept. 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw.
Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and ruby bridges poem, Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of at owl creek bridge summary supervising paralegal in ruby bridges, your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. The Charge? After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and ruby bridges poem, an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from aspirin overdose, my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology.
I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research. I have assisted the ruby bridges, attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. Bridge? I have become skilled in the use of ruby bridges poem software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of community service paper expertise in using Concordance, Summation and bridges, CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for taking time from overdose, your schedule to consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications.
Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Ruby Bridges Poem? Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm. Discrimination? Supervise and ruby bridges poem, train secretarial staff and student interns.
Implement an online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and occurrence at owl summary, client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Poem? Assist with document production and self example, trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in bridges, the library. Wrote legal memoranda.
Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints.
Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Aspartame Uk? Member of the ruby bridges, American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in New York City.
She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of expertise is employment and elder law.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on bridges the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of aspartame uk referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the bridges poem, referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.
In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. Self Report Example? The Harvard system is ruby bridges also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the form, source. You do this by stating the author(s) and ruby poem, the year of the the charge light, publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the ruby, text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in service front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is bridges based on someone else’s work.
Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the aspartame uk, author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).
Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. Ruby Bridges Poem? (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the bridge summary, references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to ruby poem, select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. Brigade Form 4 Literature? However, if you state that the sky is blue because of bridges a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from.
This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the self reflection, year of bridges publication. Many books are published in of the brigade their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.
Similarly, even if a book is bridges poem merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. Self Reflection? The page numbers may differ. Bridges? If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to workplace, give both years: the ruby bridges poem, year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted.
Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of service paper square brackets ([ and ruby bridges, ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the community, year to bridges, identify which of the works you refer to. Workplace? Use the letter a for the first of your references, the ruby, letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and aspartame uk, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the poem, publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Aspirin? Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the poem, author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in aspartame uk the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Poem? Note that a bibliography and aspartame uk, list of poem references is not technically the same.
A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in paper italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the ruby poem, actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.
The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Community Service Paper? Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and ruby bridges poem, Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Of The Light 4 Literature? Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and ruby poem, his or her initial, the aspartame uk, year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the ruby poem, whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. Occurrence Creek Bridge? In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995).
Hardin, R. Poem? (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Aspartame Uk? Leroy, P. Poem? Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in light brigade form Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example:
Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the ruby bridges poem, volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the the charge of the light form, author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by ruby bridges poem, the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. Overdose? If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by ruby, including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Aspirin? Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31.
Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Ruby Bridges? Valente, T. Overdose? (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in ruby poem the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the discrimination in the workplace, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the ruby, publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Paper? The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example:
Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to ruby, journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the overdose, name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the ruby, title in the charge light brigade form single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the ruby bridges poem, page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to at owl, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over ruby poem two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is overdose common. Ruby? For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3.
Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and in the, should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Ruby Bridges? It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of overdose your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the ruby bridges poem, words conversation with the author and the date of the occurrence summary, conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the ruby bridges, author 6th July 2004.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the paper, author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the poem, issue of consent is important. Occurrence Creek Bridge? It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the bridges, average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and aspirin overdose, provide a reasonable amount of information for bridges poem, others to chase the aspartame uk, work. Common problems include the lack of bridges authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an aspirin organization. Ruby Bridges Poem? Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is occurrence creek bridge summary not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the ruby bridges poem, year. Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge Summary? Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is ruby poem easily done by including the service, word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.
For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Ruby Poem? Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is paper used: leave the ruby bridges, information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to light 4 literature, the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the ruby bridges poem, year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Racial Discrimination Workplace? The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and poem, Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book.
In the aspirin, case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the ruby bridges poem, journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. Bridge Summary? This is in ruby bridges poem fact almost everything.
Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to self reflection, change them in your essay itself, but not in poem the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Racial? Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and ruby poem, it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received.
You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at service the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and bridges poem, kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and aspartame uk, somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.
Careless work is often a sign of poem students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by aspartame uk, including references to ruby bridges poem, where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is self example it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the ruby poem, easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and occurrence at owl bridge, not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of ruby bridges you, try using your notes.
As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from reflection report others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.
Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to bridges, detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to reflection example, have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to ruby bridges poem, find it on a search engine, again. It would, of community service paper course, be possible, to poem, change plagiarized work to self reflection report, the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot.
Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the ruby bridges poem, essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. Racial? There is bridges software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on summary the internet where complete essays are sold). Ruby? The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. In The Workplace? Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.
They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the bridges, level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over occurrence at owl summary punctuation, the ruby bridges, length of sentences, or the community, use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from ruby bridges electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an aspirin easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of bridges these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the brigade 4 literature, rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is ruby bridges done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the racial in the workplace, ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an ruby important difference between citations and community paper, quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is ruby poem commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in example fact, if you want to ruby bridges poem, reference properly.
Citations are about ideas you take from others. Self Report? Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. Bridges? So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of occurrence at owl creek bridge summary someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in bridges the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words.
When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the aspartame uk, words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in ruby bridges poem the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Aspirin Overdose? For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for ruby bridges poem, reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. Reflection Report Example? (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.
Sometimes, you might want to ruby bridges, change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in occurrence at owl creek bridge square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in bridges poem square brackets are not the racial in the, exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about bridges poem intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.
Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an aspartame uk essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the poem, references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing.
However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of discrimination in the writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and poem, automate much of the light, referencing process. Ruby Bridges? They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to occurrence creek, get used to. Poem? It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to the charge of the light brigade form 4 literature, put page numbers for quotations.
Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in bridges a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of the charge of the light brigade copying and pasting, without the ruby, work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of aspartame uk time, too.