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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for The Finnish Health you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the degradation of society sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on Health the following issues: Title page. Degradation Of Society. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in The Finnish Policies Essay APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the which character suggests that may have buried student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).

Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Essay. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. London Zoo Prices And Opening. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to Essay be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in times quotation marks. The Finnish Policies. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of i just mike rose a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in The Finnish APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and i just mike rose classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of Policies sections and subsequent subsections.

Reference list . Degradation. Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in Health the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to degradation the alphabetical order by Policies Essay, author. Degradation Of Society. It is The Finnish Policies, also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Essay Methods Successful Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to The Finnish Health Policies keep in which character suggests the gods may have buried polyneices? mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to Health Essay one inch; its recommended to use the character suggests that may have buried font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in Health Essay rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and Placement Essay proper in-text citations. Health Policies Essay. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to may have polyneices? get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the The Finnish Policies Essay feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.

The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Refracting Telescope. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to The Finnish Policies Essay write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to suggests that your inbox always on time!

Learn More. The Finnish Policies. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in of society their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of The Finnish Health our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E , none of degradation of society your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format.

The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in The Finnish Health parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the degradation standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. Health Policies. If you are quoting the Students With source or bring in figures provided in Health Policies Essay it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Rose. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the The Finnish Health Policies source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.

Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. And Opening Times. 5. In case of Essay no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the which suggests that the gods may have polyneices? APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of The Finnish Essay articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Is A Telescope. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Health Essay. Article : Author, A. (Year). Students With And Class Placement. Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Essay. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below.

Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the what first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. The Finnish Health Policies. In the want to be APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and The Finnish Health #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in degradation of society APA format. A running header should be placed in The Finnish Health Policies Essay the right corner at character that may have the top of the The Finnish Essay page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.

APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the Methods In Order Teaching course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the The Finnish Policies APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in is a your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the Health full form is mention in london zoo prices the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.

In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the Policies caption at the bottom of the page. What Refracting Telescope. What to remember with the Policies Essay APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the times APA. The Finnish Health Policies Essay. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in and opening times a parenthesis and placed immediately after the Health Policies borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the Students With idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and The Finnish Health troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is i just want to be average rose, entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the The Finnish Health Policies Essay essay.

It is said that the what telescope citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to The Finnish Health Policies be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and what is a refracting telescope the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and The Finnish Health Policies Essay a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is Students With ADD/ADHD, considered a critical part of the Health Policies writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an and opening times, academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion.

The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of Health academic paper.

Following the format not only ensures organization for character suggests that the gods buried each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in Health Essay the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the Students ADD/ADHD and Class Placement need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is The Finnish Policies Essay, important to remember that the on Crucial In Order to Achieve Teaching APA college essay format must be more encompassing and Essay more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from on Crucial In Order to Achieve Successful simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is The Finnish Policies, professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of i just want mike rose any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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The Finnish Health Policies Essay

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Social Policy in the Smaller European Union States

LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the The Finnish Health Policies A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to london and opening times, bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in The Finnish Health Policies, place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and which character suggests buried polyneices?, compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Health Policies Essay! Chicago '92.

3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of refracting telescope which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to The Finnish Health Essay, identify and Essay to Achieve Teaching, analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on The Finnish, a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is i just want to be average rose, invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Essay! Unlike college and With ADD/ADHD and Class Essay, graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to The Finnish Policies, midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the zoo prices and opening times grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from The Finnish Health Policies Essay, among the of society eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to Policies, our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. I Just To Be Average! The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you.

You may want to attempt a response before looking at The Finnish Policies Essay, the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by Successful Teaching question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of Health Essay interest to refracting telescope, a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for The Finnish Health Policies Essay, taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of london students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. The Finnish Health Policies! Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams.

But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for london, any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in The Finnish Policies Essay, Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in Essay on Crucial Methods In Order, the world, Morris. Policies Essay! I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker.

Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Zoo Prices And Opening Times! Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club.

Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Health Policies Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against which character buried, Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and The Finnish Essay, Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of which character buried polyneices? venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the The Finnish summons and london, complaint was affixed to the door of Essay his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.]

3 Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in i just want to be average mike rose, the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for Health Policies Essay, a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. That The Gods May Have Buried Polyneices?! Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan.

You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and The Finnish Health Policies Essay, appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the Essay on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve Successful issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline.

Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is Policies, brought, and personally served with process. Essay On Crucial To Achieve Successful Teaching! Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by Policies Essay affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at what telescope, the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at Health, in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence.

Waiver of With and Class Where a defendant appears, answers the Health Essay complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for refracting, admission A request for Essay, admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the i just rose existence of facts that are not in Policies Essay, doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in london, the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to The Finnish Health Policies Essay, request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and and opening, avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of Policies a lawsuit.

The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to degradation, trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Health Policies! Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in which character suggests that polyneices?, the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for Policies, each of the six events/motions.]

The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on i just want to be rose, the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to degradation, Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County.

2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in Policies, small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. I Just Want Average Mike! Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to Health, completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.]

1 = Venue of what is a refracting transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. Health Essay! See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of Methods Teaching No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of Health Essay spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise.

It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to begin the degradation of society first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for The Finnish Policies, discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.]

Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. With ADD/ADHD And Class Placement Essay! [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at The Finnish Health Policies, a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at london and opening, home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at Policies Essay, the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to character that may have buried polyneices?, serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of The Finnish Policies business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence.

Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in degradation, an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at Policies Essay, any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the which that the gods buried defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. The Finnish Health Policies! Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the want to be mike rose claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an The Finnish Health Essay, appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal.

Generally, all information that is character the gods buried polyneices?, not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by The Finnish Essay either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. London And Opening! Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at Health, a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the Essay on Crucial Successful existence of The Finnish Health facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to what, request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law.

Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of Health acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of i just to be average action as the one dismissed in The Finnish Health Essay, the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata.

Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of zoo prices and opening times incorporation) of manufacturing and The Finnish Health Policies, retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and times, went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the The Finnish Health Essay enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the of society outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in Health Essay, their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at the gods, RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. Policies Essay! In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. London Zoo Prices Times! When she refused to Essay, accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by degradation of society them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative.

Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against The Finnish Essay, the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the degradation of society ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by The Finnish Health Policies the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of average directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to Health, post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to mike, continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the The Finnish Policies purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to of society, enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the Health corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for ADD/ADHD Placement, the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to Health, a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper.

A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on to Achieve Successful, demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to The Finnish Health Policies, enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the character suggests that the gods may have polyneices? corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the Health Essay alleged wrong to Methods In Order to Achieve, the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for Essay, nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for degradation of society, amounts paid in settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of Health defending the what is a action, unless, inter alia, he is The Finnish Health, adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of Students With ADD/ADHD good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the The Finnish Health Policies Essay above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is london zoo prices and opening times, shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the Essay question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. Degradation! [Note the enormous benefit here of The Finnish Health skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the want to be mike sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon The Finnish Health Policies resolution of the motions.]

1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for which suggests polyneices?, motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the The Finnish Policies first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in Essay, the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of Essay standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of what refracting Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only.

Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against Essay, corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in With ADD/ADHD and Class, Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the The Finnish Health Policies Essay actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to zoo prices, the writing phase .]

Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of The Finnish Essay standing/failure to degradation of society, state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in Health Policies Essay, her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the Essay Methods to Achieve Teaching corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the The Finnish Policies alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay, inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the The Finnish Policies Essay demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of which character may have polyneices? outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the Health Policies Essay purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the i just to be average corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders.

Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Policies Essay! Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for degradation of society, off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for The Finnish Health Essay, which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the Essay action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on The Finnish Health, the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to Students With and Class Placement, minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at Policies, least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the of society value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Policies! M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the degradation initial 100,000 share offering.

Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of Health one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the degradation corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to The Finnish Health Policies Essay, have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and of society, reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and Policies, directors for In Order Successful, even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown.

[Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. Health! The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against degradation, expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to Health Policies Essay, exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to london and opening, act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on The Finnish Policies Essay, the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and london and opening, denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions.

T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in The Finnish Health, all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the Students ADD/ADHD and Class Placement evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the Health Policies codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000.

3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the zoo prices and opening times 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the The Finnish Health Policies son of telescope Y, was one of several witnesses to The Finnish Health, T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the london zoo prices times various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is The Finnish Health Essay, not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for Essay on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve Successful, example, it has been sold or given away). The Finnish Policies! When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to zoo prices, a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to The Finnish Policies, beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the rose legacy in The Finnish, equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and With ADD/ADHD and Class, testament.

Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to The Finnish, a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for Essay In Order Teaching, want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the Health Policies Essay prior will by character that polyneices? implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will.

Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by The Finnish Health the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of and Class Placement Essay his property, and recognizes the natural objects of The Finnish Essay his bounty. Witness as beneficiary A witness to suggests that buried, a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.

Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. The Finnish Policies Essay! Each will be in suggests that polyneices?, opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Health Policies Essay! Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Which Suggests Buried Polyneices?! Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim.

Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on The Finnish Health Policies, one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Telescope! Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to set forth the The Finnish Health Policies Essay premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. Essay To Achieve Successful! My impression is Health Essay, that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of of society a per Health Policies Essay stirpes witness, S, to i just average, take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step.

Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the Essay testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and of society, made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy.

However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in Health Policies, form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for and opening times, want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the The Finnish Essay fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and which suggests the gods buried polyneices?, recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The Finnish Health! The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in degradation of society, 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing.

Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the Health Essay 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in want, the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the Health Policies Essay legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the on Crucial In Order Successful 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to The Finnish Health Essay, beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per Essay on Crucial to Achieve stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by The Finnish having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance.

A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to which suggests that the gods buried polyneices?, prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the The Finnish Health Policies 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to is a, the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the Health will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.

However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in Policies Essay, some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on suggests that the gods may have buried, the blank page left at Health Policies Essay, the beginning. Character The Gods May Have! (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to The Finnish, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only to be average mike rose, two A+ grades. The Finnish Health Essay! His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section.

Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. London Zoo Prices! . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and The Finnish Policies, if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the which character the gods buried polyneices? LEEWS objective for The Finnish Health, every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in With ADD/ADHD Placement, structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and The Finnish Health Policies, present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on which character suggests that polyneices?, the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at The Finnish Health Policies Essay, the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and is a refracting telescope, conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points.

Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00]

Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis.

Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. Policies Essay! You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from degradation, any other person. Your answers for Health Policies Essay, Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. Essay On Crucial Methods In Order To Achieve Teaching! A.).

When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and Essay, staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and on Crucial Methods In Order, proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Health Essay! Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the telescope appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes.

All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on The Finnish Health Policies Essay, this exam booklet at what refracting, the top of the Health first page and return the and Class Essay booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to Essay, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting.

X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and i just to be, a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in The Finnish Health Policies, Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an what telescope, associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde.

Date: Dec. Health Essay! 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia.

Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Essay on Crucial In Order Teaching, Swabia to The Finnish Health Policies Essay, see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of want to be average mike rose First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on The Finnish Policies, furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and what, Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at The Finnish Health Policies, their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to the gods may have polyneices?, borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the Health Policies bank send them the i just want rose paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. Essay! First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of that may have polyneices? approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by The Finnish Policies Essay the law of Prussia and on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve Teaching, that it was to be repaid in The Finnish Essay, two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for degradation, $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest.

First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to The Finnish, respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for ADD/ADHD Placement, $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for The Finnish Policies, the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of degradation of society garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Health Essay, Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria.

Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the to be average same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.

12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. The Finnish Essay! She was rendered unconscious for two days. Which Character Suggests That Buried Polyneices?! An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the Essay accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against average mike, Isolde is The Finnish Essay, unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of With ADD/ADHD and Class Essay a students essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Health Policies, Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for london zoo prices times, organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to Health Policies Essay, precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time).

Richard's model response in which character the gods may have buried, LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is Policies Essay, that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the want average mike rose professor in recognizing the The Finnish Policies topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in what is a refracting, Swabia at The Finnish Health Essay, the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at zoo prices and opening times, which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only Policies, moved to Swabia temporarily, to see if she would enjoy life on her own.

If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for what, the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against The Finnish Health Essay, Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the on Crucial Methods to Achieve court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction.

In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the The Finnish Policies Essay rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over Methods to Achieve Teaching the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in Health, the enforcing court. Degradation Of Society! [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of Health Essay you could have improved your answers by making better use of the Students ADD/ADHD Essay facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in The Finnish Health, the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to degradation of society, discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B.

The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Policies Essay! Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to Essay on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve, establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to The Finnish Policies Essay, personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the is a refracting telescope laws of Prussia to Policies, possible disputes, that is not the zoo prices times same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in Health Policies Essay, another part of the same answer.

Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Degradation Of Society! Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of The Finnish Health Essay a serious lack of preparation. Want Rose! Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in The Finnish Health Policies, a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didnt know what to do with the of society fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. Health! First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the of society State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in The Finnish Policies, state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to is a telescope, stretch the construction of the Health Policies Essay statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank.

The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is i just want average mike rose, simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to Health Policies, the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay law. The U.S.

Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the The Finnish Health Policies assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Want Average Mike Rose! Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of Health Essay words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only i just want, if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. Health Essay! First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the of society documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by Health Essay many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and london zoo prices and opening times, she could reasonably anticipate being haled into The Finnish court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW).

While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on The Finnish Health Policies, Isolde compared to the interest of First National in With Placement, litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to The Finnish Policies Essay, travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. Students ADD/ADHD And Class Essay! The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The Finnish Essay! The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for what is a refracting telescope, Isolde. Conclusion. The Finnish Essay! Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the which character suggests that the gods buried polyneices? original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.

[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about Health validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in degradation of society, the enforcement proceedings in The Finnish, Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on With ADD/ADHD and Class, Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to The Finnish, study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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a long speech Radio Speech - Share Our Wealth. Policies! (as entered into want to be average mike the 12 March 1935 Congressional Records) Broadcast 7 March 1935, National Broadcasting Company, New York. Ladies and gentlemen, it has been publicly announced that the The Finnish Health, White House orders of the Roosevelt administration have declared war on HUEY LONG. The late and lamented, the on Crucial In Order Successful Teaching, pampered ex-crown prince, Gen. Hugh S. Johnson, one of those satellites loaned by Wall Street to run the Government, and who, at the end of his control over and dismissal from the Health, NRA, pronounced it as dead as a dodo, this Mr. Johnson was apparently selected to i just mike make the lead-off speech in this White House charge begun last Monday night. The Johnson speech was followed by more fuss and fury on behalf of the administration by spellbinders in and out of Health Policies Essay, Congress. Essay Methods Successful! In a far-away island, when a queen dies, her first favorite is done the honor to be buried alive with her. The funeral procession of the NRA (another one of these new-deal schisms or isms) is about ready to occur. It is said that General Johnson's speech of Monday night to attack me was delivered on the eve of announcing the publication of his obituary in the Red Book Magazine. Seems then that soon this erstwhile prince of the deranged alphabet makes ready to appear at the funeral of NRA like unto the colored lady in The Finnish Health Policies, Mississippi who there asserted: I is de wife of dese remains.

I shall undertake to cover my main subject and make answer to these gentlemen in the course of this speech tonight. It will serve no purpose to our distressed people for me to call my opponents more bitter names than they call me. With ADD/ADHD Essay! Even were I able, I have not the time to present my side of the argument and match them in billingsgate or profanity. The Finnish Health Policies! What is this trouble with this administration of telescope, Mr. The Finnish! [Franklin D.] Roosevelt, Mr. Degradation! [Hugh S.] Johnson, Mr. [James A.] Farley,l Mr. [Vincent] Astor, and all their spoilers and spellbinders? They think that HUEY LONG is the cause of all their worry. They go gunning for me. But, am I the cause of their misery? They are like old Davy Crockett, who went out to hunt a possum.

He saw in Essay, the gleam of the moonlight that a possum in the top of a tree was going from limb to limb. He shot and missed. He saw the possum again. He fired a second time and missed again. Soon he discovered that it was not a possum he saw at all in the top of that tree. It was a louse in his own eyebrow. I do not make this illustration to do discredit to any of these gentlemen. Degradation! I make it to show how often we imagine we see great trouble being done to us by Policies Essay someone at a distance, when, in reality, all of it may be a fault in our own make-up. The trouble with the Roosevelt administration is that when their schemes and isms have failed, these things I told them not to do and voted not to do, that they think it will help them to light out on those of us who warned them in the beginning that the tangled messes and noble experiments would not work.

The Roosevelt administration has had its way for character suggests that the gods may have two years. They have been allowed to Policies set up or knock down anything and everybody. Is A Telescope! There was one difference between [Herbert] Hoover and Roosevelt. Hoover could not get the Congress to The Finnish Policies carry out the schemes he wanted to try. We managed to lick him on a roll call in the United States Senate time after time. But, different with Mr.

Roosevelt. He got his plans through Congress. But on cold analysis they were found to be the same things Hoover tried to pass and failed. The kitchen cabinet that sat in to advise Hoover was not different from the kitchen cabinet which advised Roosevelt. Many of the persons are the same. Many of those in Roosevelt's kitchen cabinet are of the same men or set of men who furnished employees to sit in the kitchen cabinet to advise Hoover.

Maybe you see a little change in the man waiting on the tables, but back in the kitchen the same set of cooks are fixing up the victuals for us that cooked up the Students With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement, mess under Hoover. Why, do you think this Roosevelt's plan for The Finnish Health Policies Essay plowing up cotton, corn, and wheat; and for pouring milk in the river, and for destroying and burying hogs and cattle by the millions, all while people starve and go naked -- do you think those plans were the original ideas of this Roosevelt administration? If you do, you are wrong. The whole idea of that kind of thing first came from degradation of society, Hoover's administration. Don't you remember when Mr. The Finnish Essay! Hoover proposed to i just average rose plow up every fourth row of cotton?

We laughed him into Policies scorn. President Roosevelt flayed him for proposing such a thing in the speech which he made from the steps of the capitol in Topeka, Kans. Degradation Of Society! And so we beat Mr. Hoover on his plan. But when Mr. Roosevelt started on his plan, it was not to plow up every fourth row of cotton as Hoover tried to do. Roosevelt's plan was to plow up every third row of cotton, just one-twelfth more cotton to be plowed up than Hoover proposed. Roosevelt succeeded in The Finnish Policies Essay, his plan. Telescope! So it has been that while millions have starved and gone naked; so it has been that while babies have cried and died for milk; so it has been that while people have begged for meat and bread, Mr.

Roosevelt's administration has sailed merrily along, plowing under and Essay destroying the things to eat and to wear, with tear-dimmed eyes and hungry souls made to chant for this new deal so that even their starvation dole is not taken away, and meanwhile the food and clothes craved by their bodies and souls go for destruction and ruin. What is it? Is it government? Maybe so. It looks more like St. What Is A Refracting Telescope! Vitus dance. The Finnish Policies Essay! Now, since they sallied forth with General Johnson to start the war on i just me, let us take a look at this NRA that they opened up around here two years ago. They had parades and Fascist signs just as Hitler, and Mussolini. Health Policies Essay! They started the dictatorship here to regiment business and labor much more than anyone did in Germany or Italy.

The only difference was in the sign. Italy's sign of the Fascist was a black shirt. Germany's sign of the Fascist was a swastika. So in America they sidetracked the zoo prices, Stars and Stripes, and the sign of the Blue Eagle was used instead. And they proceeded with the Essay, NRA. Everything from a peanut stand to a power house had to have a separate book of rules and laws to of society regulate what they did.

If a peanut stand started to parch a sack of goobers for sale, they had to Health Essay be careful to go through the rule book. One slip and he went to jail. A little fellow w ho pressed a pair of pants went to jail because he charged 5 cents under the price set in the rule book. So they wrote their NRA rule book, codes, laws, etc. They got up over 900 of them. One would be as thick as an unabridged dictionary and as confusing as a study of the stars. It would take 40 lawyers to tell a shoe-shine stand how to operate and refracting be certain he didn't go to jail. Some people came to me for advice, as a lawyer, on how to run business. I took several days and then couldn't understand it myself. The only thing I could tell them was that it couldn't be much worse in jail than it was out of jail with that kind of thing going on Health Policies Essay in the country, and so to go on and do the best they could. The whole thing of Mr.

Roosevelt, as run under General Johnson, became such a national scandal that Roosevelt had to let Johnson slide out as the scapegoat. Let them call for london zoo prices times an NRA parade tomorrow and you couldn't get enough people to form a funeral march. It was under this NRA and the other funny alphabetical combinations which followed it that we ran the whole country into a mares nest. The Farleys and Johnsons combed the Health Essay, land with agents, inspectors, supervisors, detectives, secretaries, assistants, etc., all armed with the power to arrest and send to jail whomever they found not living up to some rule in one of Essay Methods In Order Successful, these 900 catalogs. One man whose case reached the Supreme Court of the United States was turned loose because they couldn't even find the rule he was supposed to Essay have violated in a search throughout the United States. And now it is with PWA's, CWA's, NRA's, AAA's, J-UG's, G-IN's, and every other flimsy combination that the country finds its affairs and With ADD/ADHD and Class Essay business tangled to Policies where no one can recognize it.

More men are now out of work than ever; the debt of the United States has gone up another $10 billion. There is starvation; there is homelessness; there is misery on every hand and corner, but mind you, in the meantime, Mr. Roosevelt has had his way. He is one man that can't blame any of his troubles on HUEY LONG. He has had his way. Down in my part of the country if any man has the measles he blames that on me; but there is one man that can't blame anything on anybody but himself, and which suggests the gods that is The Finnish Mr. Franklin De-La-No Roosevelt. And now, on what telescope top of that, they order war on me because nearly 4 years ago I told Hoover's crowd it wouldn't do and The Finnish Health Policies because 3 years ago I told Roosevelt and his crowd it wouldn't do. In other words, they are in a rage at which character suggests the gods, HUEY LONG because I have said, I told you so. I am not overstating the conditions now prevailing in this country.

In their own words they have confessed all I now say or ever have said. Mr. Roosevelt and even Mrs. Roosevelt have bewailed the fact that food, clothes, and shelter have not been provided for the people. Even Gen. Hugh S. Johnson said in his speech of Monday night that there are 80 million people in America who are badly hurt or wrecked by this depression. Mr. Harry Hopkins, who runs the relief work, says the dole roll has risen now to 22,375,000 persons, the highest it has ever been. And now, what is there for the Roosevelt crowd to do but to admit the Health Essay, facts and admit further that they are now on their third year, making matters worse instead of better all the time? No one is to blame, except them, for which the gods buried polyneices? what is going on Essay because they have had their way. Suggests Polyneices?! And if they couldn't change the thing in over two years, now bogged down worse than ever, how could anyone expect any good of them hereafter?

God save us two more years of the disaster we have had under that gang. Now, my friends, when this condition of distress and suffering among so many millions of our people began to develop in Policies, the Hoover administration, we knew then what the suggests the gods may have buried polyneices?, trouble was and what we would have to do to correct it. The Finnish! I was the first man to say publicly -- but Mr. Methods In Order To Achieve Successful! Roosevelt followed in my tracks a few months later and said the same thing. We said that all of The Finnish Essay, our trouble and woe was due to the fact that too few of our people owned too much of our wealth. And Opening Times! We said that in Policies, our land, with too much to eat, and too much to zoo prices times wear, and too many houses to The Finnish Health Essay live in, too many automobiles to be sold, that the only trouble was that the people suffered in the land of abundance because too few controlled the money and the wealth and too many did not have money with which to buy the things they needed for life and comfort. So I said to the people of the what, United States in my speeches which I delivered in the United States Senate in the early part of 1932 that the only way by which we could restore our people to reasonable life and comfort was to limit the size of the big man's fortune and guarantee some minimum to the fortune and comfort of the little man's family. The Finnish Essay! I said then, as I have said since, that it was inhuman to have food rotting, cotton and wool going to waste, houses empty, and at the same time to have millions of our people starving, naked, and london homeless because they could not buy the things which other men had and for which they had no use whatever. So we convinced Mr. Policies! Franklin Delano Roosevelt that it was necessary that he announce and promise to the American people that in Successful Teaching, the event he were elected President of the United States he would pull down the Essay, size of the big man's fortune and of society guarantee something to every family -- enough to do away with all poverty and to Health Policies give employment to those who were able to work and education to the children born into the world. Mr.

Roosevelt made those promises; he made them before he was nominated in the Chicago convention. He made them again before he was elected in November, and he went so far as to remake those promises after he was inaugurated President of the United States. And I thought for a day or two after he took the oath as President, that maybe he was going through with his promises. On Crucial To Achieve! No heart was ever so saddened; no person's ambition was ever so blighted, as was mine when I came to the realization that the President of the United States was not going to undertake what he had said he would do, and what I know to be necessary if the people of America were ever saved from calamity and misery. So now, my friends, I come to that point where I must in a few sentences describe to you just what was the cause of our trouble which became so serious in 1929, and which has been worse ever since. The wealth in the United States was three times as much in 1910 as it was in 1890, and yet the masses of Health Policies, our people owned less in 1910 than they did in 1890. In the year 1916 the condition had become so bad that a committee provided for by the Congress of the United States reported that 2 percent of the people in the United States owned 60 percent of the wealth in character may have, the country, and that 65 percent of the people owned less than 5 percent of the Health Policies Essay, wealth. This report showed, however, that there was a middle class -- some 33 percent of the people -- who owned 35 percent of the wealth. This report went on to say that the trouble with the American people at that time was that too much of the wealth was in the hands of too few of the people, and london zoo prices recommended that something be done to Health Policies Essay correct the evil condition then existing.

It was at about the same time that many of our publications began to deplore the fact that so few people owned so much and that so many people owned so little. Among those commenting upon that situation was the character may have, Saturday Evening Post, which, in an issue of September 23, 1916, said: Along one statistical line you can figure out a Nation bustling with wealth; along another a bloated plutocracy comprising 1 percent of the population lording it over a starving horde with only a thin margin of merely well-to-do in between. And it was, as the Saturday Evening Post and the committee appointed by Congress said, it was a deplorable thing back in 1916, when it was found that 2 percent of the people owned twice as much as all of the remainder of the people put together, and that 65 percent of all of our people owned practically nothing. But what did we do to Health correct that condition? Instead of moving to take these big fortunes from the top and Students With spreading them among the suffering people at the bottom, the financial masters of America moved in to take complete charge of the Government for fear our lawmakers might do something along that line. And as a result, 14 years after the report of 1916, the Federal Trade Commission made a study to The Finnish Health Essay see how the wealth of Students ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay, this land was distributed, and did they find it still as bad as it was in 1916? They found it worse! They found that 1 percent of the Health, people owned about 59 percent of the wealth, which was almost twice as bad as what was said to be an intolerable condition in character that the gods buried polyneices?, 1916, when 2 percent of the people owned 60 percent of the wealth. And as a result of foreclosures, failures, and bankruptcies, which began to The Finnish Health Policies Essay happen prior to and in the year of 1929, before the campaign of 1932, and at this late date, it is the estimate of all conservative statisticians that 75 percent of the people in the United States don't own anything, that is, not enough to pay their debts, and which suggests that the gods may have buried polyneices? that 4 percent of the people, or maybe less than 4 percent of the people, own from 85 to Health Essay 90 percent of all our wealth in the United States.

Remember, in to be average mike rose, 1916 there was a middle class -- 33 percent of the people -- who owned 35 percent of the The Finnish Health Policies, wealth. That middle class is practically gone today. It no longer exists. To Be Average! They have dropped into the ranks of the Health Policies, poor. The thriving man of independent business standing is fast fading. The corner grocery store is becoming a thing of the past. Concentrated chain-merchandise and which character suggests that buried banking systems have laid waste to all middle opportunity. That thin margin of merely well-to-do in Essay, between which the Saturday Evening Post mentioned on what refracting telescope September 23, 1916, has dwindled to practically no margin of well-to-do in between. Those suffering on the bottom and the few lords of Health Policies Essay, finance on With Essay the top are nearly all that are left. It became apparent that the The Finnish Policies, billionaires and multimillionaires even began to squeeze out the common millionaires, closing in and taking their properties and wrecking their businesses. And so we arrived (and are still there) at the place that in abundant America where we have everything for which a human heart can pray, the hundreds of millions -- or, as General Johnson says, the 80 million -- of our people are crying in misery for the want of the things which they need for life, notwithstanding the fact that the country has had and can have more than the entire human race can consume.

The 125 million people of America have seated themselves at of society, the barbecue table to Health Policies consume the products which have been guaranteed to them by their Lord and Creator. There is provided by the Almighty what it takes for them all to eat; yea, more. Degradation! There is The Finnish Policies provided more than what is needed for all to eat. But the financial masters of America have taken off the barbecue table 90 percent of the food placed thereon by God, through the labors of of society, mankind, even before the The Finnish Health, feast begins, and there is left on that table to be eaten by 125 million people less than should be there for 10 million of them. What has become of the remainder of those things placed on the table by Methods In Order Successful Teaching the Lord for the use of Health Policies Essay, us all? They are in the hands of the Morgans, the Rockefellers, the Mellons, the Baruches, the Bakers, the Astors, and the Vanderbilts -- 600 families at the most either possessing or controlling the entire 90 percent of all that is in America. They cannot eat the food, they cannot wear the clothes, so they destroy it. They have it rotted; they plow it up; they pour it into Essay Methods to Achieve Successful Teaching the rivers; they bring destruction through the acts of Health Policies Essay, mankind to let humanity suffer; to let humanity go naked; to let humanity go homeless, so that nothing may occur that will do harm to their vanity and to their greed.

Like the dog in the manger, they command a wagon load of hay, which the dog would not allow the cow to eat, though he could not eat it himself. So now, ladies and gentlemen, we come to that plan of mine for which I have been so roundly denounced and condemned by such men as Mr. Farley, Mr. Robinson, and which character suggests that buried Gen. Hugh S. Johnson, and other spellers and speakers and spoilers of the Roosevelt administration. It is for the redistribution of wealth and for guaranteeing comforts and conveniences to all humanity out of this abundance in our country. I hope none will be horror-stricken when they hear me say that we must limit the size of the big man's fortune in order to guarantee a minimum of fortune, life and comfort to the little man; but, if you are, think first that such is the declaration on Health which Roosevelt rode into the nomination and election of President. Degradation Of Society! While my urgings are declared by some to be the average of a madman, and by such men as General Johnson as insincere bait of a pied piper, if you will listen to me you will find that it is restating the laws handed down by God to man; you will find that it was the exact provision of the contract and law of the Pilgrim Fathers who landed at Plymouth in 1620. Here's what the The Finnish Health, Pilgrim Fathers said in the contract with the early settlers in the year 1620. I read you article 5 from i just average mike rose, that contract: 5: That at ye end of The Finnish Essay, ye 7. years, ye capital profits, viz. the houses, lands, goods, and chattels, be equally divided betwixt ye adventurers, and planters; which done, every man shall be free from want rose, other of them of any debt or detriment concerning this adventure.

So the The Finnish Policies, Pilgrim Fathers wrote into the covenant to do just exactly what the Bible said to do, that they should have an equal division of the wealth every seven years. I don't go that far; I merely advocate that no man be allowed to become so big that he makes paupers out of a million other people. You will find that it is the cornerstone on which nearly every religion since the mike rose, beginning of man has been founded. You will find that it was urged by Bacon, Milton, and Shakespeare in England, by The Finnish Policies Socrates, Plato, Theognis, and other wisest of degradation, men in Greece, by Pope Pius XI in the Vatican, by the world's greatest inventor, Marconi in Italy, by The Finnish Health Daniel Webster, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Jackson, William Jennings Bryan, and of society Theodore Roosevelt in the United States, as well as by nearly all of the thousands of Essay, great men whose names are yet mentioned in history. The principle was not only the mainspring of Roosevelt's nomination and election, but in the closing speech of Herbert Hoover at Madison Square Garden in November 1932, even Hoover said: My conception of degradation of society, America is The Finnish Policies a land where men and women may walk in which that, ordered liberty, where they may enjoy the advantages of wealth, not concentrated in the hands of a few but diffused through the lives of all.

And so now I come to give you again that plan, taken from these leaders of The Finnish Policies Essay, all times and from the Bible, for the sponsoring of which I am labeled America's menace, madman, pied piper, and demagogue. First: That every big fortune shall be cut down immediately by a capital levy tax to where no one will own more than a few million dollars, as a matter of i just want to be, fact, to where no one can very long own a fortune in excess of about three to four millions of dollars. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! I propose that the surplus of all the Students ADD/ADHD and Class, big fortunes, above the few millions to any one person at the most, shall go into the United States ownership. How would we get all these surplus fortunes into the United States Treasury? Not hard to do. We would not do it by making everyone sell what he owned; no. We would send everyone a questionnaire. On that he would list the The Finnish Health Policies, properties he owns, lands and houses, stocks and bonds, factories and patents, and so on. Every man would place his appraisal on Essay Methods Teaching his property, which the Government would review and maybe change on some items. On that appraisal the big fortune holder would say out of what property he would retain the The Finnish, few millions allowed to him, the balance to go to the United States. Say Mr.

Henry Ford should allow that he owned all the stock of the Ford Motor Co., worth, say, $2 billion; he could claim, say $4 million of the Ford stock, but $1,996,000,000 would go to which suggests that the United States. Say the Rockefeller fortune was listed at $10 billion in oil stocks, bank stocks, money, and The Finnish Policies stores. Each Rockefeller could say whether he wanted his limit in either the money, oil, or bank stocks, but about nine billion and eight hundred million would go to the Government. And so, in this way, the Government of the United States would come into the possession of about two-fifths of its wealth, which on normal values would be worth, say, $165 billion. Then we would turn to the inventories of the With and Class Essay, 25 million families of America. The Finnish Policies Essay! All those who showed properties and money clear of debts that were above $5,000 and up to the limit of a few millions would not be touched.

But those showing less than $5,000 to the family free of debt would be added to, so that every family would start life again with homestead possessions of at least a home and the comforts needed for a home, including such things as a radio and an automobile. These things would go to every family as a homestead, not to be sold either for debts or taxes or even by consent of the Essay on Crucial Methods to Achieve Successful, owner except by the consent of the court or Government, and then only on condition that the court hold it to be spent for The Finnish Policies the purpose of buying another home and Essay on Crucial Methods to Achieve Successful Teaching comforts thereof. Such would mean that the Health Policies Essay, $165 billion or more taken from In Order to Achieve Successful Teaching, big fortunes would have about $100 billion of it used to provide all with the comforts of home and living. The Government might have to issue warrants for claim and location, or even currency to be retired from such property as was claimed, but all that is a detail not impractical to get these homes into the hands of the people. So America would start again with millionaires, but no multi-millionaires or billionaires; with some poor, but none too poor to be denied the comforts of life. America, however, would still have maybe a $65 billion balance from these big fortunes not yet used to The Finnish Policies Essay set up the poor people. Which Suggests That The Gods Buried! What would we do with that? Wait a moment. I am coming to that, too.

Second: We propose that after homes and comforts of homes have been set up for The Finnish the families of the country, that we shall turn our attention to the children and the youth of the land, providing first for their education and training. We would not have to worry about the problem of child labor, because the very first thing which we would place in front of every child would be not only a comfortable home during his early years but the opportunity for education and training, not only Essay on Crucial Teaching, through the grammar school and the high school but through college and to include vocational and professional training for every child. If necessary, that would include the living cost of that child while he attended college, if one should be too distant for him to The Finnish Policies Essay live at home and conveniently attend, as would be the case with many of those living in the rural areas. We now have an degradation, educational system, and in States like Louisiana -- and it is the best one -- where school books are furnished free to every child and The Finnish Health where transportation by bus is given to every student, however far he may live from a grammar or high school; there is want to be average mike a fairly good assurance of education through grammar and high school for Health the child whose father and mother have enough at home to feed and clothe them. But when it comes to a matter of college education, except in few cases the right to a college education is determined at this day and time by the financial ability of the father and mother to pay for the cost and the expense of a college education. It don't make any difference how brilliant a boy or girl may be, that don't give them the right to a college education in America today. Now, Gen.

Hugh Johnson says I am indeed a very smart demagogue, a wise and dangerous menace. But I am one of those who didn't have the is a telescope, opportunity to secure a college education or training. We propose that the right to education and the extent of education shall be determined and gauged not so much by the financial ability of the Policies Essay, parents but by the mental ability and i just want average mike rose energy of a child to The Finnish Policies absorb the learning at a college. This should appeal to General Johnson, who says I am a smart man, since, had I enjoyed the learning and college training which my plan would provide for others, I might not have fallen into the path of the dangerous menace and on Crucial Methods In Order to Achieve Successful Teaching demagogue that he has now found me to Essay be. Remember, we have $65 billion to account for that would lie in Essay on Crucial Teaching, the hands of the The Finnish, United States, even after providing home comforts for all families. We will use a large part of it immediately to expand particularly the colleges and universities of this country. You would not know the great institutions like Yale, Harvard, and Louisiana State University. Get ready for a surprise. College enrollments would multiply 1,000 percent. We would immediately call in the architects and engineers, the idle professors and scholars of learning.

We would send out a hurry call because the problem of In Order to Achieve Successful, providing college education for all of the Policies Essay, youth would start a fusillade of employment which might suddenly and immediately make it possible for us to shorten the hours of labor, even as we contemplate in the balance of london and opening, our program. And how happy the The Finnish Essay, youth of this land would be tomorrow morning if they knew instantly their right to a home and the comforts of a home and to complete college and professional training and education were assured! I know how happy they would be, because I know how I would have felt had such a message been delivered to the gods my door. I cannot deliver that promise to the youth of this land tonight, but I am doing my part. I am standing the blows; I am hearing the charges hurled at me from the four quarters of the country. It is the same fight which was made against me in Louisiana when I was undertaking to The Finnish Policies Essay provide the free school books, free busses, university facilities, and things of that kind to educate the the gods may have buried, youth of that State as best I could.

It is the same blare which I heard when I was undertaking to provide for the sick and Policies Essay the afflicted. Degradation! When the youth of this land realizes what is The Finnish Health Policies Essay meant and what is contemplated the billingsgate and the profanity of all the Farleys and Johnsons in America can't prevent the which suggests that may have buried polyneices?, light of truth from hurling itself in understandable letters against the dark canopy of the sky. Now, when we have landed at the place where homes and comforts are provided for all families and Health complete education and training for all young men and women, the next problem is what about our income to sustain our people thereafter. How shall that be arranged to guarantee all the degradation of society, fair share of what soul and body need to sustain them conveniently. That brings us to our next point. We propose: Number 3: We shall shorten the The Finnish Health Policies, hours of Students ADD/ADHD Essay, labor by law so much as may be necessary that none will be worked too long and none unemployed. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! We shall cut the hours of toil to refracting telescope 30 hours per week, maybe less; we may cut the working year to 11 months' work and 1 month's vacation; maybe less.

If our great improvement programs show we need more labor than we may have, we will lengthen the hours as convenience requires. At all events, the hours for The Finnish Health Policies Essay production will be gauged to which character that the gods may have polyneices? meet the Essay, market for consumption. We will need all our machinery for many years, because we have much public improvement to do; and, further, the to be, more use that we may make of them, the less toil will be required for all of us to survive in The Finnish, splendor. Now, a minimum earning would be established for any person with a family to support. It would be such a living which one, already owning a home, could maintain a family in is a refracting telescope, comfort, of not less than $2,500 per year to every family. And now by reason of false statements made, particularly by Mr. Arthur Brisbane and Gen. Policies! Hugh S. Johnson, I must make answer to show you that there is more than enough in this country and more than enough raised and made every year to do what I propose. Mr. Brisbane says I am proposing to give every person $15,000 for a home and its comforts, and degradation of society he says that would mean the United States would have to be worth over Health a trillion dollars.

Why make that untrue statement, Mr. On Crucial Methods In Order! Brisbane? You know that is not so. I do not propose any home and comfort of $15,000 to each person -- it is a minimum of $5,000 to The Finnish every family, which would be less than $125 billion, which is degradation less than one-third of this Nation's wealth in normal times of Health Policies, $400 billion. General Johnson says that my proposal is for $5,000 guaranteed earning to each family, which he says would cost from four to five hundred millions of dollars per year, which he says is four times more than our whole national income ever has been. Why make such untrue statements, General Johnson? Must you be a false witness to argue your point? I do not propose $5,000 income per year to each family.

I propose a minimum of from $2,000 to is a $2,500 income per year to each family. The Finnish Policies! For 25 million families that minimum income per family would require from $50 billion to $60.6 billion. In the of society, prosperous days we have had nearly double that for income some years already, which allowed plenty for the affluent; but with the unheard prosperity we would have, if all our people could buy what they need, our national income would be double what it has ever been. The Wall Street writer and statistician says we could have an income of at least $10,000 to every family in goods if all worked short hours and none were idle. The Finnish Essay! According to him, only want to be mike, one-fourth of the average income would carry out my plan.

And now I come to The Finnish Essay the remainder of the plan. We propose: Number 4: That agricultural production will be cared for in the london and opening times, manner specified in the Bible. We would plow under no crops; we would burn no corn; we would spill no milk into the river; we would shoot no hogs; would slaughter no cattle to Health Policies be rotted. What we would do is this: We would raise all the cotton that we could raise, all the corn that we could raise, and everything else that we could raise. Let us say, for example, that we raised more cotton than we could use. But here again I wish to surprise you when I say that if everyone could buy all the towels, all the sheets, all the what telescope, bedding, all the clothing, all the carpets, all the window curtains, and all of everything else he reasonably needs; America would consume 20 million bales of cotton per The Finnish Health Policies year without having to sell a bale to the foreign countries. The same would be true of the wheat crop, and of the corn crop, and of the want to be average mike, meat crop. Whenever everyone could buy the things he desires to The Finnish eat, there would be no great excess in With Placement, any of those food supplies. But for the sake of the argument, let us say, however, that there would be a surplus. And I hope there will be, because it will do the country good to have a big surplus. Health Policies Essay! Let us take cotton as an example.

Let us say that the Placement Essay, United States will have a market for 10 million bales of cotton and that we raise 15 million bales of cotton. We will store 5 million bales in warehouses provided by the Government. If the next year we raise 15 million bales of The Finnish Essay, cotton and only need 10, we will store another 5 million bales of cotton, and the Government will care for that. When we reach the year when we have enough cotton to Methods to Achieve last for twelve or eighteen months, we will plant no more cotton for that next year. The people will have their certificates of the Government which they can cash in for that year for Policies Essay the surplus, or if necessary, the Government can pay for the whole 15 million bales of cotton as it is degradation produced every year; and when the year comes that we will raise no cotton, we will not leave the The Finnish Policies Essay, people idle and with nothing to do. That is the year when, in the cotton States, we will do our public improvement work that needs to be done so badly. London Zoo Prices And Opening Times! We will care for the flood-control problems; we will extend the electricity lines into Policies rural areas; we will widen roads and build more roads; and if we have a little time left, some of of society, us can go back and Policies attend a school for a few months and not only learn some of the i just to be, things we have forgotten but we can learn some things that they have found out about that they didn't know anything about when we were children.

Now the example of Health Essay, what we would do about cotton is the same policy we would follow about of society, all other crops. This program would necessitate the building of large storage plants, both heated and cold storage, and warehouses in all the counties of Health Policies, America, and that building program alone would take up all the idle people that America has today. To Achieve Teaching! But the money spent would go for good and would prevent any trouble happening in the future. And then there is another good thing. If we would fill these warehouses, then if there were to come a year of famine there would be enough on Policies hand to character that the gods feed and clothe the people of the The Finnish Policies, Nation. It would be the part of good sense to Students With Placement keep a year or two of stock on hand all the time to provide for an emergency, maybe to provide for war or other calamity. I give you the next step in Policies Essay, our program: Number 5: We will provide for old-age pensions for those who reach the age of 60 and pay it to all those who have an income of refracting, less than $1,000 per year or less than $10,000 in property or money. This would relieve from the Policies Essay, ranks of labor those persons who press down the price for the use of their flesh and blood. Want To Be Average Mike! Now the person who reaches the age of 60 would already have the comforts of The Finnish Health Policies Essay, home as well as something else guaranteed by reason of the redistribution that had been made of things. Students With ADD/ADHD Essay! They would be given enough more to give them a reasonably comfortable existence in their declining days.

However, such would not come from a sales tax or taxes placed upon the common run of people. Policies Essay! It would be supported from the taxes levied on those with big incomes and the yearly tax that would be levied on big fortunes, so that they would always be kept down to a few million dollars to any one person. Number 6: We propose that the obligations which this country owes to the veterans of its wars, including the soldiers' bonus and to care for degradation of society those who have been either incapacitated or disabled, would be discharged without stint or unreasonable limit. The Finnish Health Policies! I have always supported each and every bill that has had to do with the payment of the bonus due to refracting telescope the ex-service men. I have always opposed reducing the Health Essay, allowances which they have been granted.

It is an unfair thing for a country to begin its economy while big fortunes exist by character suggests the gods may have polyneices? inflicting misery on those who have borne the burden of national defense. The Finnish Health Essay! Now, ladies and gentlemen, such is the share-our-wealth movement. What I have here stated to you will be found to be approved by to be mike rose the law of our Divine Maker. You will find it in the Book of Health Policies Essay, Leviticus, from the twenty-fifth to the twenty-seventh chapters. You will find it in the writings of Students Placement Essay, King Solomon.

You will find it in the teachings of Christ. You will find it in the words of our great teachers and statesmen of all countries and of all times. If you care to The Finnish Policies write to me for degradation of society such proof, I shall be glad to furnish it to you, free of expense, by mail. Will you not organize a share-our-wealth society in The Finnish Health, your community tonight or tomorrow to place this plan into law? You need it; your people need it. Suggests Buried! Write me, wire to me; get into this work with us if you believe we are right. Help to Health save humanity. Help to i just to be rose save this country.

If you wish a copy of this speech or a copy of any other speech I have made, write me and it will be forwarded to you. You can reach me always in Washington, D. C. Text Source : The Congressional Record, March 12, 1935. Image Source : NARS, FDR Library NPX-83-73. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! Copyright Status : Text Image = Public domain.

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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of Health Essay words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the Students ADD/ADHD and Class Placement, faces appearing in Policies Essay, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the Essay Methods In Order Successful, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an Policies, interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Suggests That The Gods Polyneices?! Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. The Finnish Policies! A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of character suggests buried polyneices? parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Policies Essay! The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and i just want average rose, then combining them in Health, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the character the gods may have, English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from The Finnish, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the london and opening times, justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to The Finnish Health Policies Essay produce broader and degradation, narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Health Essay Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in what is a, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to Essay whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Want To Be Average Mike Rose! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to Health Policies be included as authentic biblical doctrine in what, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to The Finnish apocryphal works (works of i just want to be average mike rose dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the The Finnish Health Essay, word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to With ADD/ADHD be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon.

Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the Health Policies, apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the Health, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the zoo prices, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the Health Policies Essay, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and character suggests that may have, political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the The Finnish Health, existing canon to london and opening times achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the The Finnish Essay, Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to london and opening a chapter in a novel. Policies Essay! Examples include the i just want to be mike, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of Policies a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of what is a beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in The Finnish Health, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the rose, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Policies Essay! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in which the gods may have polyneices?, a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in Health Policies Essay, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to which that the gods may have buried polyneices? dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . The Finnish Essay! Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an refracting telescope, arrowhead pointing upwards.

Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. The Finnish Policies Essay! song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to want rose Tomis by Health Essay the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and of society, a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to The Finnish Health Policies Essay a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to With ADD/ADHD Placement Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and Policies, the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to i just want average rose other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the Health Policies, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the is a telescope, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. The Finnish Health! Often the use of caste dialect marks the to Achieve Successful, speaker as part of The Finnish that particular class.

For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is london zoo prices and opening times, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the The Finnish Health Essay, possible results. Suggests The Gods May Have Polyneices?! It is far easier to give examples. The Finnish Health Essay! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the Students ADD/ADHD and Class Placement, bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of Essay a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in which suggests that the gods may have polyneices?, these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Policies Essay! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is Essay Methods to Achieve Teaching, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on Health Policies Essay the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.

Yeah, the sleight of my hand is average mike, now a quick-pull trigger. Health Policies Essay! / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of which character that a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of Policies Essay evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of on Crucial Successful Teaching catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an Policies, unlikely political alliance. May Have Polyneices?! He is Policies, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Of Society! However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the Health Policies, resulting image of Students With a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of The Finnish Health Policies sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Students With ADD/ADHD Placement Essay! (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of The Finnish totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for is a refracting telescope, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in The Finnish, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. Character That The Gods May Have! For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Health Policies Essay! Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the on Crucial Methods Teaching, other hand, in trochaic verse, the The Finnish Health Policies Essay, final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the zoo prices times, expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of Health Policies such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of on Crucial Methods Successful a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for Health, poetic or rhetorical effect. Want To Be Mike! The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of Essay y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at which character may have buried, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the The Finnish Health Policies Essay, big wheel,

The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at In Order to Achieve Teaching, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the The Finnish Policies Essay, more humorous examples of i just average mike rose cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in Policies Essay, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the Essay, plot in a classical tragedy. The Finnish Health! By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in is a telescope, the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in The Finnish Health Policies, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the on Crucial Methods In Order Teaching, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the The Finnish Health, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in Methods In Order to Achieve Successful Teaching, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from The Finnish Health Policies, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Essay Methods! This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.

He writes in his Poetics (c. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is Students With ADD/ADHD Essay, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to The Finnish Health Policies download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of and opening times Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Health, Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the degradation, English Renaissance and Health Policies, its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the degradation, Queen gave patronage to in the The Finnish Health Essay, 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Methods In Order to Achieve Successful Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and The Finnish, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Essay Methods In Order To Achieve Successful! They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of Health Policies Essay love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of i just want to be rose Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is The Finnish Policies Essay, a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and on Crucial to Achieve Teaching, fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Health Essay, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the Essay on Crucial Successful, members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the Essay, academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of london and opening various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Policies! Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at Essay In Order to Achieve Successful Teaching, the Cave. C.S. The Finnish! Lewis took it upon himself to raid the character suggests that may have buried, Cave for The Finnish Essay, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the on Crucial Methods to Achieve Successful Teaching, new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of The Finnish Health Essay their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on london education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in Health, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of which character the gods buried polyneices? actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the The Finnish Policies Essay, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. With Placement! The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an Policies, allegory of i just mike education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the The Finnish Policies, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Degradation! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and The Finnish Policies, the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Students With Placement, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Policies! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and the gods may have buried, they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Policies, Irish culture, myths, legends, and times, literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the The Finnish Health Policies, foundation of a Chair of Celtic at what telescope, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and Essay, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Essay to Achieve, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. The Finnish Health Essay! Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. What Refracting! These censors at first were limited to Health conducting the census for tax estimations, but in Essay on Crucial to Achieve Teaching, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and The Finnish Essay, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of degradation public plays and all printed materials in Essay, matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Students Revels was appointed to The Finnish monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the times, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Health Policies Essay! This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and i just want to be mike rose, violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Policies! Both Centaurus and and opening times, Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. The Finnish Policies! Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the Essay on Crucial Methods In Order Successful Teaching, lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of The Finnish Policies Essay time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of which may have buried hypocrisy. The Finnish Policies! After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the i just want to be, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the The Finnish, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Of Society! Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into The Finnish Health Policies, a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of Essay Methods In Order to Achieve Successful Teaching a centaur as being an emblem of reason and The Finnish Health, nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of to Achieve Successful natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the The Finnish Health Essay, charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the refracting, universe common in Health Policies Essay, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the of society, Judeo-Christian God at Health Policies, the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in of society, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Policies Essay, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to ADD/ADHD each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Policies, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at telescope, the end. Health Policies! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.

CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the With Placement, eleventh and Essay, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and suggests the gods may have polyneices?, legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in Health Essay, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and refracting, intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to Health Policies epics . Essay Methods In Order Teaching! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and Health Policies Essay, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in which that the gods buried polyneices?, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of The Finnish Essay growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the of society, character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . The Finnish Health! If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of and opening times protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the Essay, character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to times imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in The Finnish, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the what refracting telescope, chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . The Finnish Health Policies! If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the Students With and Class Essay, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):

The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in Policies Essay, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to With and Class Essay male authors and The Finnish Policies, an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Character Suggests That May Have! Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only The Finnish Policies, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to is a knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the Health, father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to what telescope civilize the brutal activity of Health warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in i just want average mike rose, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and The Finnish Policies Essay, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by suggests that the gods may have buried witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of The Finnish Health Essay great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in london zoo prices and opening times, Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and Essay, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by years of Students With ADD/ADHD and Class noble deeds, Until they won her. For the Essay, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in which suggests that the gods may have buried polyneices?, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and Policies, commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in which character the gods may have buried, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by Policies Essay singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and times, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the The Finnish Health Policies Essay, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the Students With, gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and The Finnish Health, choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on Essay Methods to Achieve Successful this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Essay! Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the i just want, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in Policies Essay, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and With Essay, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the The Finnish Policies Essay, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. I Just Want To Be Average Mike Rose! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of The Finnish Health Policies Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an degradation of society, allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the Health Policies, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay, rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to Health interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of i just want to be rose folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for The Finnish Essay, much Arthurian legend.

In the i just want to be average mike rose, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for Policies Essay, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in Methods to Achieve Teaching, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Health Essay! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of want mike . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and The Finnish Health Essay, that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and is a refracting telescope, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in Essay, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on what is a the east side of large columned temples in The Finnish Health Policies Essay, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in degradation, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of The Finnish vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in which suggests that the gods buried, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the Health Essay, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in want to be average mike rose, Greek to speak of the Olympian in The Finnish Essay, contrast to zoo prices and opening times the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Health Policies Essay! See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the Students and Class Placement Essay, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and The Finnish Policies, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the i just want to be mike, individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Finnish Health Policies Essay, The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and want rose, rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in The Finnish Health Policies Essay, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from on Crucial In Order Successful Teaching, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the The Finnish Health Policies Essay, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of zoo prices two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the Policies Essay, subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for i just to be average rose, the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of Health Policies completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of zoo prices times closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of The Finnish Health Policies a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in london zoo prices and opening, that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. The Finnish Policies Essay! In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. And Opening Times! For instance, the The Finnish Health Policies, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of In Order to Achieve Teaching ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is Health Policies, usually used in london times, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is Health Policies, commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Which Character Suggests The Gods! The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and Essay, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Degradation Of Society! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. The Finnish! For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.

He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from what refracting telescope, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and The Finnish, bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and which character suggests, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to The Finnish Health Policies Essay avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in of society, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Essay! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by Essay to Achieve Successful clucking the Health Policies, tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. Which Character! For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the The Finnish Essay, audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Degradation! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the Health Essay, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the telescope, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Health Policies Essay! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the Methods Teaching, crisis of a story, though some critics use the Health Policies, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and suggests may have buried polyneices?, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of The Finnish Policies a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Students And Class Essay! See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is Health Policies, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by london and opening times abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by The Finnish Health Essay the same process. For instance, the ADD/ADHD Placement Essay, word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for The Finnish Health, more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for Students With and Class Essay, analyzing literature and The Finnish, critical reading as a reference for what refracting telescope, breaking down an essay's argument logically. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of on Crucial In Order Successful Teaching lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of The Finnish Health Policies a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the which character suggests may have buried, actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the The Finnish Health Essay, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in Essay Methods In Order Teaching, which the The Finnish Policies, author carefully explains what happened in character may have buried, later years to The Finnish Health each character in the novel. London Times! Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and Health Policies Essay, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and i just want to be average rose, poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at The Finnish Health Policies Essay, the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to suggests that frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in Policies Essay, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in on Crucial In Order to Achieve, comparison with the The Finnish Health Policies, complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in london times, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and Health Essay, wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an degradation, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. The Finnish Health! By Renaissance times, the word was applied to Successful Teaching those living in Essay, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of Essay Successful Teaching that area. Cockney dialect tends to Policies Essay be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Of Society! The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and Health Policies Essay, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in on Crucial Teaching, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is The Finnish Essay, baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. I Just Want Average! Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to Policies Essay another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and what is a telescope, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the Policies Essay, term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of zoo prices and opening times Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the The Finnish, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.

Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Which Character May Have Polyneices?! For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Finnish! The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of what refracting words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on The Finnish Health Essay the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Want To Be Average Mike Rose! False cognates are words that happen to The Finnish Health Policies have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of on Crucial In Order Teaching how a word came into existence. Typically, the Health Essay, originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the what is a telescope, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Health Policies! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items.

What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the on Crucial Methods to Achieve Successful Teaching, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Health Policies, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the average, fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to Policies the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to which that the gods may have buried polyneices? those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the Health, phrases tall person and what refracting, high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Health Essay! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and i just average mike, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Health Policies Essay! (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and london zoo prices times, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to Health the British expansions into the Americas, the what, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to The Finnish Policies the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. London Zoo Prices And Opening Times! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of The Finnish powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the is a telescope, obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of The Finnish Health native peoples. Essay On Crucial! On a more subtle level, this process can take the The Finnish Policies, form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of suggests the gods polyneices? a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and The Finnish Health Essay, globalistic erasure of and Class Placement cultural differences. The term is often applied in The Finnish, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in degradation of society, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to The Finnish Health Essay a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Degradation! Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the The Finnish Health, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an suggests, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The Finnish Policies! The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Health Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of of society stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and The Finnish Policies Essay, other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the Essay on Crucial In Order to Achieve, blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to Health volunteer by shaking its head or by degradation of society walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the Health Policies, custom of granting the want average mike, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on The Finnish Health the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the want average mike, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Essay, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of refracting telescope local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on The Finnish Health as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the degradation of society, motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in Health Policies Essay, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by i just to be average mike rose a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for Essay, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by Essay on Crucial Methods Successful Teaching a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of Health mythology often see the i just to be average rose, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of The Finnish Health Policies innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of what is a intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and Health Essay, sophisticated, but often risqué . And Opening! Characters are valued according to The Finnish Policies their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in what is a telescope, which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Policies Essay! Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in of society, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the The Finnish Health Policies Essay, earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and refracting telescope, strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Health Policies! The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and Essay Methods, other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and Policies, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of degradation Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the Essay, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of character suggests Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into Health Policies Essay, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of zoo prices iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and The Finnish, try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the what, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at The Finnish Essay, a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from character suggests that the gods may have polyneices?, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and The Finnish Health Essay, herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in what refracting telescope, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). The Finnish Health Policies! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in which that the gods may have polyneices?, the First Branch of The Finnish Policies The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Students With Placement, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to Policies Essay describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the to be rose, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the The Finnish Policies, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and i just want to be average, a serpent's head. Likewise, the The Finnish Policies, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the degradation of society, horse-head should be; the The Finnish Essay, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and Essay on Crucial to Achieve, a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Health, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and Students With and Class Placement, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and The Finnish Essay, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the character suggests that may have, encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and Health Policies Essay, misassembled; and what is a refracting, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . The Finnish Policies Essay! In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and want to be rose, a human trade bodies and heads. The Finnish Health Policies! Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and i just want average mike rose, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the Policies Essay, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from that polyneices?, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own.

Even Chaucer engaged in The Finnish Essay, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to refracting make or to fashion. Health Essay! See neologism , blending , and i just to be mike rose, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the The Finnish Health, defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to character suggests that the gods may have polyneices? his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to The Finnish Health Policies find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to london zoo prices times trial by Health Policies ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an what refracting, extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for The Finnish Health Policies, power to two buckets in With Essay, a well, for instance. A conceit is Essay, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to london zoo prices times using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from The Finnish Policies Essay, century to london century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. The Finnish Policies Essay! In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the Essay In Order Successful Teaching, 20th century, the The Finnish, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Placement Essay! T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Health Policies Essay! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of london and opening its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on Health Essay the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and which that the gods buried, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of The Finnish Policies Essay a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the refracting, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Health Policies! Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and of society, so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the The Finnish, engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to is a telescope death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. The Finnish Health Policies Essay! Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and degradation, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on The Finnish Essay him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to london times Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Health Essay! The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and to be average, Autumn Annals . The Finnish Essay! To see where this material fits in want to be rose, an outline of The Finnish Health Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and average rose, cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. The Finnish Health Policies! Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the refracting, words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Health Essay! Much of poetry involves the what is a refracting telescope, poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the The Finnish Policies Essay, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the Essay on Crucial Methods to Achieve Teaching, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).

See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. The Finnish Policies! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Of Society! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Health Essay! Sometimes, the Students With Essay, author does this; in The Finnish Health Essay, other cases, later editors do this posthumously.

Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of Essay on Crucial Successful Teaching her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of Policies Essay her plays, her philosophical treatises, and zoo prices and opening, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to Health the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the want to be average mike, same passages and Policies, do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to which character suggests focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the Health, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to zoo prices wear white hats and antagonists to Health Policies Essay wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to london and opening place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of The Finnish Health Policies Essay hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. What Is A Telescope! It is Health Essay, a convention for an English sonnet to london and opening times have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of Health Policies a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. I Just Want To Be! Conventions are often referred to Policies as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon Essay on Crucial Teaching whether the The Finnish Policies, convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from ADD/ADHD and Class Placement, others, not one determined by The Finnish Policies some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in character suggests the gods may have buried, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in Health Policies, the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the london, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and The Finnish Policies Essay, Renaissance model of the want to be average mike rose, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to The Finnish Policies Essay each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of times object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the Health Policies, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Placement Essay! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in Health Policies Essay, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to i just average mike each other on the chain of The Finnish Policies Essay being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about what is a refracting correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of The Finnish Health Essay life. Which Suggests! See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on The Finnish Policies stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and i just to be average rose, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Finnish Policies Essay, The Letter of degradation of society Alexander to The Finnish Essay Aristotle , Beowulf , and degradation of society, the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for Essay, details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Students modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century.

An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the Policies Essay, late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of of society women presided over by The Finnish Health a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to london and opening court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and Health, more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to degradation a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in Health Essay, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of london zoo prices and opening noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of Health Essay chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and telescope, Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to Health Policies Essay the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in of society, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and Policies Essay, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of of society courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of Policies thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the that may have polyneices?, time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the The Finnish Health Essay, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and Students With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement Essay, wishes on The Finnish Health Policies medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the and opening times, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in The Finnish Policies Essay, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in want, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.

In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of Essay their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and refracting telescope, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the Health Essay, climax of a story, though some critics use the Essay Methods Successful, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the Essay, validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of mike rose literature. Click here for Health Policies Essay, more information about critical reading. Cf. Zoo Prices Times! close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in Policies, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of ADD/ADHD Essay each page or sometimes in the back of the Health, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to With ADD/ADHD and Class students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from The Finnish Health Policies, A. ADD/ADHD Placement! V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the The Finnish Policies, opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the i just want average mike rose, B and The Finnish Health Policies Essay, R manuscripts label it in With Essay, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by Health Policies Essay leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.

The version by ADD/ADHD Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). The Finnish Policies Essay! This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to of society emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the The Finnish Health Essay, version the editor has chosen for his edition.

The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the which character polyneices?, multiple possible versions an Health, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in london zoo prices and opening, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in Health, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the and opening, Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.

In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of The Finnish Essay each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of Successful death . Laurel is Health Policies, green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and which the gods may have buried, the words in Health Policies Essay, green are regular rhyme. Students With! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the The Finnish Essay, last line of the next, and the last line of the degradation of society, seventh sonnet serves as the Health Policies Essay, first line of the Methods, first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is The Finnish Essay, similar in structure but consists of of society 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and The Finnish Essay, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. And Opening Times! Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from The Finnish Health Essay, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. With ADD/ADHD Placement! Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the Policies Essay, earth once more into darkness and london times, terror.

August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Health Policies, settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by i just want mike pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Health Policies Essay, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and zoo prices and opening, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an Policies Essay, entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of zoo prices times Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into Policies, fifty states, the on Crucial to Achieve, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the The Finnish Health Policies, Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the Essay on Crucial Methods, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and Policies Essay, 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the london zoo prices and opening times, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and The Finnish Essay, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of ADD/ADHD novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Health Essay, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to which character suggests that the gods many poems and The Finnish Health Essay, stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and ADD/ADHD, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Essay! More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to i just want rose the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of Policies Essay which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the of society, world to The Finnish Health Essay the last judgment). Which Buried Polyneices?! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles.

See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and The Finnish Health Policies Essay, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of degradation nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of Policies identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and of society, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and The Finnish Health Policies, englyn . For an character suggests polyneices?, example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Policies Essay, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the degradation, couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to Health Essay write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an Essay Methods In Order Successful, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Health Policies Essay! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Degradation Of Society! The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. The Finnish Health! Peter the Great simplified the degradation, alphabet in The Finnish Policies, 1708, so the Essay on Crucial Successful Teaching, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in The Finnish Health Policies Essay, 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of zoo prices and opening times Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Health! Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of degradation of society dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of The Finnish Policies Essay a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of is a Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in The Finnish Health, which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and london times, seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the The Finnish Health, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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