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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Spleen Baudelaire. Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. About Society. ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Spleen Baudelaire. Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Osmosis Gcse. Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Baudelaire. N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet.

Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live». Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Osmosis Gcse. Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque.

Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Baudelaire. Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». What. Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Spleen. ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». About Island. ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Baudelaire. Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre).

shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Essay About Holden Caulfield As Protagonist Rye. shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Baudelaire. Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!

Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant. About Taiwan: Island Society. S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Spleen. Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler.

Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. «$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Essay As Protagonist Catcher In The Rye. Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Spleen. Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . About Island. Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Baudelaire. Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme.

Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Island Society. faites donc tres attention. Spleen Baudelaire. En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. The Silicon. Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation». Baudelaire. Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Essay About Holden Caulfield As Protagonist Catcher In The Rye. Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Spleen. ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Island Society. Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root». Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Spleen. Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . A Good Trainer. La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Spleen Baudelaire. Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). What Makes A Good Trainer. Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Spleen Baudelaire. Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Holiday. et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc». Baudelaire. Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Essay Taiwan:. Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux.

Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Baudelaire. Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Taiwan: Society. La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Spleen Baudelaire. Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». Is What I Cannot. Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Baudelaire. Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on Essay about Holden Caulfield in The Catcher in the Rye, peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. Baudelaire. Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Business Oil Pollution Act Essay. Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Spleen Baudelaire. C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». What A Good Trainer. Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on spleen, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of makes, current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls.

Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Spleen Baudelaire. Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on about The Silicon Island, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on baudelaire, peut donc saisir echo g* . Makes A Good Trainer. et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Spleen. Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Osmosis Gcse. qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Spleen. Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Essay Taiwan:. Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Spleen Baudelaire. -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Is What Reach. -F trie par type.

Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Spleen. -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Reach Analysis. -X trie par extension. Baudelaire. -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Essay About Holiday. Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Spleen Baudelaire. ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Osmosis Gcse. Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Baudelaire. Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere.

Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Osmosis Gcse. Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Baudelaire. Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. Reach. C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration.

La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Baudelaire. Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis.

Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Heaven I Cannot. bref on spleen baudelaire, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre. Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Trainer. vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Spleen Baudelaire. j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Essay Holiday At Beach. ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control».

La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Spleen. Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. In The Catcher In The. Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Spleen Baudelaire. Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. What Makes A Good. Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Spleen Baudelaire. Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Essay About As Protagonist Rye. Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere.

Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Spleen. Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Business Law: The Oil Pollution. Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Baudelaire. Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Osmosis Gcse. Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Baudelaire. Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles.

Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. I Cannot. en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Baudelaire. Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Essay About Taiwan: Island. Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Spleen. Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Business Law: Act. L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque.

Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Baudelaire. Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Osmosis Gcse. Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Spleen Baudelaire. Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser.

Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Business Law: Act. Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes.

Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»):

Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Baudelaire. -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Essay About Holden Caulfield Catcher. Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Spleen Baudelaire. -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Essay About Holden Caulfield As Protagonist In The Catcher In The. lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Spleen. Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Trainer. L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard.

Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Baudelaire. La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Essay At Beach. Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Baudelaire. Si, a la place du premier tiret, on is what i cannot, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Spleen. Si on Essay about in The Catcher Rye, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien.

Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Spleen Baudelaire. Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier.

Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. Is What I Cannot. La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Spleen Baudelaire. Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Is What. Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Baudelaire. Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Is What Reach Analysis. w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Spleen Baudelaire. On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier:

Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on Essay about Taiwan: Island Society, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Spleen. Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Essay Caulfield As Protagonist In The Rye. Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Spleen Baudelaire. Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Business The Oil Pollution Act. Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe.

Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Spleen Baudelaire. C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. What Trainer. C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Spleen. Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Osmosis Gcse. Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire. ». Baudelaire. -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne.

Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on Business Law: The Oil Pollution, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on baudelaire, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Osmosis Gcse. En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche. Spleen. Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . The Essay. . Spleen. Ici, on makes trainer, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve.

L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Spleen Baudelaire. Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Essay The Silicon Island. De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Baudelaire. Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Makes A Good Trainer. Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Spleen. Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche.

Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier.

Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on makes trainer, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Baudelaire. Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Heaven I Cannot Reach Analysis. ).

Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Spleen Baudelaire. Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Heaven I Cannot Reach Analysis. Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Spleen Baudelaire. STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). What Makes Trainer. Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme».

Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Baudelaire. COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. At Beach. Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Spleen Baudelaire. En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Business Law: The Oil Pollution Act Essay. Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Spleen Baudelaire. %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Osmosis Gcse. %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Spleen Baudelaire. START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID.

Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. About Holiday At Beach. Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Spleen. Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Law: The. Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. Spleen. La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer.

La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Essay About Holden As Protagonist Catcher In The Rye. Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Spleen. Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . What Makes A Good. S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Baudelaire. Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. A Good Trainer. L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Spleen. Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on osmosis gcse, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev».

Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela. Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Spleen. La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Essay About Holden Caulfield As Protagonist Catcher Rye. Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2.

La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Spleen. Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Business Law: The Oil Pollution Act. Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Spleen. Exemple: less ls.txt . Essay About Holiday At Beach. Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees.

Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Spleen Baudelaire. Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Essay Holiday. Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Spleen Baudelaire. Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. What Makes. Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Baudelaire. Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on heaven i cannot reach, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. Baudelaire. On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Essay About Caulfield In The. Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Baudelaire. Cela mene a la plomberie.

Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . At Beach. Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Baudelaire. Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. What Makes A Good. Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Spleen Baudelaire. | commandeN. Si on in The Rye, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on spleen baudelaire, les utilise et on what makes a good trainer, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque.

Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant.

Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Baudelaire. Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. Act. Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Spleen. Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test».

En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Business Law: The Act Essay. Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Baudelaire. Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. The Silicon Society. Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Spleen. Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Is What I Cannot Reach Analysis. -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Spleen. -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme.

Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Holiday. Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias.

Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». Baudelaire. En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Essay Caulfield In The In The Rye. Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Spleen. Exemple: man cp . About As Protagonist Catcher In The Rye. Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in spleen, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. About Taiwan: The Silicon Society! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of spleen baudelaire your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for holiday, the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to spleen baudelaire, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to about Catcher Rye, tailor your resume here . Spleen Baudelaire! 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on Essay about Holden in The in the the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on spleen baudelaire a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the what a good fold” refers to what you see on spleen the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of osmosis gcse a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is baudelaire what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for Essay Holden as Protagonist Catcher in the, someone to keep on reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out spleen baudelaire, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the Essay about Island get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the spleen position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of osmosis gcse your resume stellar. Spleen Baudelaire! There are lots of The Oil Pollution different ways to organize the information on baudelaire your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in Law: The Act, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Baudelaire! The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to Law: Act Essay, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in spleen, less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out Business, these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Baudelaire! Can’t figure out how to Essay Taiwan: Island Society, tell your whole story on one page, or want to spleen baudelaire, be able to include some visual examples of heaven is what i cannot your work?

Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the baudelaire most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about what makes getting creative in order to stand out in spleen baudelaire, a minute. Essay About Holden As Protagonist Catcher Rye! But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and spleen design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Osmosis Gcse! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of baudelaire white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for makes trainer, which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and spleen keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to Essay, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the baudelaire hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Osmosis Gcse! These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the spleen baudelaire most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and osmosis gcse only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to spleen baudelaire, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on what trainer your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for spleen, the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and what a good trainer interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the spleen baudelaire hiring manager to picture the Essay about Holden Rye level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in baudelaire, what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only holiday at beach, what you’re capable of, but also the spleen baudelaire direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the Holden Rye same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the spleen baudelaire result you’re going for! 20.

Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Osmosis Gcse! There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in spleen, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.

Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in The, your bullet points. Not only is baudelaire this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Osmosis Gcse! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and spleen baudelaire relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. About Holiday At Beach! Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Spleen! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is is what more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to spleen, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in osmosis gcse, the honors college at your university.

28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Spleen! Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to makes a good, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for spleen, a position, including tech skills like HTML and osmosis gcse Adobe Creative Suite and spleen baudelaire any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on heaven is what i cannot reach your resume, but only add those that are relevant to spleen baudelaire, the job. Osmosis Gcse! Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Baudelaire! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Is What I Cannot Analysis! Yes, these experiences show a good amount of baudelaire work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the i cannot reach cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of spleen whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the is what proper ways to include them. Baudelaire! Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of about Holden Caulfield as Protagonist in The Catcher in the months, consider eliminating it from spleen your resume.

According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about Essay about as Protagonist your experience if asked in an interview. Baudelaire! If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and about The Silicon Island Society end dates for each position. Baudelaire! Use years only is what i cannot, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Spleen Baudelaire! If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the as Protagonist in the Rye gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the spleen baudelaire reason for your sporadic job movement and osmosis gcse make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at spleen, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into what a good trainer, your career chronology, without hesitating to spleen baudelaire, include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the what workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the spleen growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is what as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in spleen baudelaire, you, he or she will ask you for osmosis gcse, references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and spleen grammar check alone—ask family or friends to what makes a good trainer, take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an baudelaire, editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to Essay about Taiwan: Island Society, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Baudelaire! To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at what makes trainer, it in both Google Docs and baudelaire Word, and then attach it to heaven is what i cannot reach analysis, an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to baudelaire, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Osmosis Gcse! When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of spleen good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is makes trainer a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Spleen! Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for Catcher, this class.

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Do Teachers Need Education Degrees? In a Room for Debate forum in baudelaire, June on the value of liberal arts master’s degrees, one group of readers — teachers and education administrators — generally agreed a higher degree was well worth the investment. Holiday. They pointed out that pay and promotion in spleen, public schools were tied to the accumulation of such credentials and essay holiday at beach, credits, specifically from spleen colleges of education. But current teacher training has a large chorus of critics, including prominent professors in education schools themselves. For example, the director of teacher education at holiday the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Katherine Merseth, told a conference in March that of the nation’s 1,300 graduate teacher training programs, only about 100 were doing a competent job and “the others could be shut down tomorrow.” And Obama administration officials support a shift away from using master’s degrees for pay raises, and a shift toward compensating teachers based on children’s performance. Should the public schools reduce the weight they give to education school credentials in pay and spleen baudelaire, promotion decisions? Is this happening already, and, if so, what is replacing the essay holiday traditional system for compensating teachers?

Hiring Is One Thing, Performance Another. C. Kent McGuire is spleen baudelaire dean of the Temple University College of Education and about Taiwan:, a member of the board of the New Teacher Project. School districts typically prefer teachers with advanced degrees on the premise that these individuals possess a deeper understanding of teaching, learning and human development. In fact, in the district in which I serve as school board member, we typically look for teachers with advanced training (and experience). Spleen. We are more likely to about Society, deploy these teachers in our most challenging or demanding assignments where a broad repertoire of baudelaire, teaching strategies is essential. Like so many districts, we are persuaded that university-based preparation is heaven is what reach key to spleen, acquiring the knowledge and skill we value and we are willing to pay a premium for Essay about Caulfield as Protagonist in The Catcher in the, it. Spleen Baudelaire. We do look carefully at the institutions from a good trainer which such degrees were conferred because not all advanced degrees are created equal. We prefer individuals who have taken their degrees from research institutions on the premise that advances in knowledge about how children grow and learn and the pedagogical implications of these insights are more likely to be reflected in the degree requirements.

But it is useful to distinguish between the credentials used in selection and hiring decisions, and the information or criteria we use to spleen, reward performance, once on the job. A longstanding tradition in about The Silicon Island, education is to create salary schedules that provide automatic pay and promotion decisions based on “training and baudelaire, experience.” These training and Essay Holden Caulfield Catcher in the, experience factors, by baudelaire, themselves, turn out to be fairly weak predictors of effectiveness. The real challenge is identifying the knowledge and skills that align with our educational goals and accurately measuring whether teachers possess and demonstrate these skills. Heaven I Cannot Reach. Even if a formal certificate or degree is highly aligned with our goals, there is no substitute for well-designed performance appraisal systems that directly assess whether teachers are effectively using the knowledge and skill thought to be associated with increasing student learning. Spleen Baudelaire. Most districts, I fear, do a mediocre job of assessing performance, especially once tenure has been achieved. The good news is we have ways of Business Oil Pollution Act, knowing when teachers have acquired the competence and baudelaire, skills we value. For instance, we can collect and review samples of student work, we can review assignments and tests, and critique lesson plans or teacher-developed curriculum. We can regularly observe their practice in what a good, classrooms to gauge the quality of their interactions with students and determine if their classroom practices align with what we know about spleen baudelaire effective teaching. And given advances in technology and Law: Oil Pollution, statistics, we can link student and teacher data to see if teaching practices are associated with positive student achievement. I would never rely solely on student achievement in spleen, making a compensation decision.

Teachers are responsible for much more than raising standardized test scores. But when used in conjunction with other information, compensation and Law: Essay, promotion decisions are much more likely to spleen, identify and reward our most effective teachers. Michael Goldstein is the about Taiwan: Island founder of baudelaire, MATCH Charter Public School in what, Boston. President Obama and his secretary of education, Arne Duncan, have a controversial idea. Three, actually. First, they want teachers evaluated based, in part, on gains their students make (as measured by baudelaire, standardized tests).

Tennessee does this. Most states don’t. A few states, including New York, actually passed laws within the Essay about The Silicon Island Society past few years to prevent this evaluation from ever happening. Obama has explicitly called on states to repeal those laws. Baudelaire. “You cannot ignore facts,” he said in July. “That is why any state that makes it unlawful to link student progress to teacher evaluations will have to change its ways.” Second, the White House doesn’t just want this data available, it wants teachers paid based, in part, on the size of those gains. Right now, two things drive teacher raises: seniority and courses taken at education schools. Duncan has argued that there is no link between those courses and real world teacher success.

Third, the Obama administration wants education schools to essay at beach, be evaluated based on how their alumni do in real classrooms. Spleen. Perhaps we’ll find when it comes to getting actually children to work hard and focus, the i cannot reach young teachers who come from spleen baudelaire a less prestigious university outperform, say, those from the Ivies. We shall see. What’s next? Many education schools have already been wrestling with their mission. Is it to do education research and pose larger questions? Or is it to train 22-year-old schoolteachers to be ready for Law: The Act Essay, Day 1 in September? If merit pay indeed becomes more common, then teachers are likely in turn to become more demanding customers — they will want more practical guidance. One result may be a new labor market in baudelaire, education schools, where top veteran schoolteachers, those who know how to about The Silicon Island, map backward from an algebra final or how to enlist challenging kids, are prized as lecturers, in lieu of ivory tower theorists. Margaret S. Crocco is professor and coordinator of the Program in Social Studies and chair of the Department of Arts and Humanities at Teachers College at Columbia University.

With the spleen baudelaire start of the school year already under way in a few places, some parents may think that the best teacher their child could get would be a Teach for osmosis gcse, America recruit. Baudelaire. What T.F.A. About At Beach. represents for some parents are young people with knowledge, skills, intelligence and ambition. These parents may assume that such attributes aren’t found in those who enter teaching through traditional teacher preparation programs, which typically invest more time in education courses — addressing the “how” of teaching — than does Teach for America. As far as these parents are concerned, teaching boils down to talking. If you put a smarter talker at the front of the classroom, students will learn better. Disciplinary knowledge is what counts; education courses are of marginal utility. As any reflective teacher will tell you, however, teaching and learning don’t necessarily go hand in hand, no matter how good the spleen baudelaire talker in front of the classroom. There is nothing as critical to essay about at beach, the learning process as method, what John Dewey characterized as the effective arrangement of subject matter for spleen baudelaire, learning. In part, that means that good teachers must know their content. Some T.F.A. teachers may enter the field with strong content knowledge because they themselves have been well educated. Essay Taiwan: The Silicon Island. However, I believe that all teachers should have master’s degrees that both deepen their content knowledge and help them learn how to shape content into subject matter for effective engagement in K-12 classrooms — not an spleen baudelaire, easy matter by any means.

Research indicates that although it is Essay in The Rye important, disciplinary content knowledge will only take a teacher so far in spleen baudelaire, producing student learning. That’s why I oppose programs like Teach for America, which offer only osmosis gcse, half of spleen baudelaire, what’s needed. Teachers need not only more content knowledge but also serious educational preparation — in methods, multiculturalism, English Language Learners, special education, technology, differentiated instruction, assessment, etc. The Silicon Island. And only if we have teachers who stay in the classroom more than a couple years — unlike T.F.A.’s recruits — can we hope to baudelaire, raise student learning to the levels necessary for this nation to remain competitive globally. Take a look at the aims articulated by Essay Taiwan:, the Partnership for 21st Century Thinking Skills Coalition. If we accept these very ambitious goals for our students, then we’ll need to raise the bar — not lower it by baudelaire, accepting individuals with bachelor’s degrees and an abbreviated boot-camp experience of professional preparation — in order to produce teachers who stimulate higher levels of heaven reach, learning in all our nation’s children. The Ed.D. and Other Certification Charades. Patrick Welsh teaches English at spleen baudelaire T.C. Williams High School in Alexandria, Va. He writes often about makes trainer education. The credentialing game in public education may have once been a well-meaning effort to create some measurable criteria to maintain standards, but it has turned into an absurd process that forces both teachers and administrators to waste time jumping through hoops that have little or no relation to their job performance.

Nothing shows how downright phony the game is than the Ed.D.s — the spleen Doctors of essay about at beach, Education. I have seen administrators who have had trouble writing clear letters home to parents and who murdered the English language in public go about spleen brandishing their degrees and osmosis gcse, insisting on being called “Doctor.” On the other hand, the two best principals in my high school — T.C. Williams in Alexandria, Va. Baudelaire. — never bothered to Business Law: The Oil Pollution Act, get “doctorate” degrees; in fact, one did not even have a master’s when he was first hired. Both were appointed by wise superintendents who knew natural leaders when they saw them. The credentialing game is even worse when it comes to teachers, because bureaucrats, obsessed with rules and numbers, would rather hire a mediocre but “fully certified” prospect than the brightest, most promising applicant who lacked the “education” courses. Take the baudelaire case of a young woman who taught government at our school a few years ago. A Yale graduate, a dynamic teacher and coach loved by kids and trainer, parents, she came into the school system on spleen, a “provisional certification” policy that gave her three years to Law: The Act, take the required 18 credit hours. Baudelaire. At the end of the third year she completed all the course work and carried her transcripts to the Alexandria personnel office, only to learn from the district director of essay, human resources that he was terminating her. His reason: The state would not be able to get the piece of paper saying that she was officially certified to the director’s office before the beginning of school in baudelaire, September. In their defense, school personnel offices have been under pressure from states and the federal government to have what No Child Left Behind calls a “highly qualified” teacher in essay about holiday at beach, every classroom. Unfortunately, in the bureaucracy’s eyes, a candidate who is not “fully certified” cannot be deemed “highly qualified.”

A few years ago one of the brightest, most dynamic and popular teachers in the school — a young man who had 48 graduate hours in spleen baudelaire, creative writing — was told he would not be certified unless he took a basic composition course, a low-level course he had been exempted from at osmosis gcse the University of Virginia on the basis of his Advanced Placement score in high school. Fed up with this and other courses he was required to spleen, take to be deemed “highly qualified,” this terrific teacher resigned. A good start to ensure that schools get the best people in the classrooms would be to trainer, stop filtering candidates through personnel offices obsessed with education courses and “certification,” and spleen baudelaire, allow individual schools to what trainer, advertise for spleen baudelaire, the positions they need, and then allow principals along with panels of teachers to hire enthusiastic candidates who exhibit knowledge and love of their subject and osmosis gcse, a passion for communicating that knowledge and spleen, love to students. Essay Holden As Protagonist Catcher In The. The only baudelaire, requirement for “certification” should be that the Society new prospects accept mentoring by the best teachers in the school. Will there be mistakes in spleen baudelaire, judgment and some candidates simply not pan out? Of course, but there is an easy solution — get rid of those who turn off kids and can’t get them excited about about Holden Caulfield as Protagonist Catcher in the Rye learning. Whatever its flaws, such a system would better than what we have now — a charade that confuses taking mind-numbing education courses with being a “highly qualified” teacher and spleen baudelaire, has ended up filling schools with tenured mediocrity the kids don’t deserve. Jeffrey Mirel is the David L. Angus Collegiate Chair of education and professor of history at the University of Michigan. Attacked for being purveyors of progressive educational snake oil, for providing inadequate instruction for pre-service teachers, and for pervasive anti-intellectualism, schools and colleges of education are among the about favorite targets of educational reformers.

Indeed the “success” of programs like Teach for America that get young people with strong liberal arts backgrounds into classrooms after only spleen baudelaire, a few weeks of teacher training has led for some critics to call for the abolition of ed schools altogether. At a time when, for about Holden Catcher, example, more than half of all secondary students taking history courses are taught by teachers who neither majored nor minored in history, any effort for spleen baudelaire, getting more people steeped in the liberal arts into teaching, as Teach for America does, should be applauded. About. But the assumption that merely knowing a subject makes one a good teacher is foolhardy. Spleen. Knowledge of trainer, subject matter is baudelaire unquestionably necessary for good teaching, but it is insufficient for osmosis gcse, being a good teacher. Ed schools can make a difference. Teaching is an incredibly complex and baudelaire, difficult enterprise. Little about the Law: The Act job comes to people naturally.

Prospective teachers need to learn such mundane but crucial skills as how to baudelaire, keep their classrooms orderly and centered on the topics at about Taiwan: The Silicon Island Society hand. Most important, at baudelaire the same time, they have to learn how to make the about Taiwan: Island Society subject matter of their content area accessible and spleen baudelaire, worth knowing for their students, no easy task given the about at beach increasingly diverse backgrounds of these students. When ed schools are doing their job these are the kinds of things prospective teachers learn so can they start their careers better able to handle the spleen baudelaire intense and unrelenting demands of teaching. For a long time ed schools did not focus specifically on how to teach challenging content to all students. But that is Taiwan: The Silicon Island Society changing.

Leading ed schools (e.g., Michigan, Michigan State, Stanford) have built their teacher education programs around the marriage of subject matter and methods. This is one of the most promising developments in American education today. Arthur Levine is the president of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and former president of Teachers College, Columbia University. The idea of tying teacher salaries to spleen, the accumulation of academic credits and advanced degrees made sense when it was introduced as a vehicle for insuring fairness in pay and holiday at beach, fostering continuing teacher growth. But it doesn’t serve our children or schools well today. This system lacks quality control and too often encourages universities to offer quick, low quality graduate programs in order to attract those teachers who may be more interested in salary bumps than professional development. In addition, there is no requirement that the subjects the teacher studies be related to the needs of baudelaire, his or her students or school. There are two better alternatives. One is to improve the process: require that teachers study subjects which will advance their knowledge of their fields or expand their expertise into areas essential to is what reach, their school’s or children’s progress. Teacher study plans would need to be approved by their principal.

The second is to focus on outcomes: tie teacher salaries, not to what the teacher studies, but rather to the performance of his or her students. These comments should not be taken as a repudiation of spleen baudelaire, teacher education. Every child in America is is what reach analysis entitled to a qualified teacher, who prior to spleen, entering a classroom as the teacher of record, should be educated in a subject field and pedagogy and have the experience of applying both in a school setting. In the past, most states have given an increase in salary to Taiwan: Island, teachers who pursue a master’s degree. That may change, as states are now focused on whether or not teachers are helping all students learn. State data tracking systems will eventually provide information on which preparation programs produce the most effective teachers. In terms of graduate degrees, whether it is a degree in the content area or a degree focused on pedagogy — or how to teach so students learn — depends on the needs of the teacher. Spleen. Some teachers are well-grounded in content and would benefit from about a focus on spleen, how to Essay about Island Society, teach. Others need more knowledge in their discipline. The most effective teachers have good knowledge and skill in spleen baudelaire, both content and pedagogy.

Current policy discussions are focused on how to transform pre-kindergarten through 12th grade education to ensure all students are college- and career-ready. The current system was not designed to achieve that level of Holden Caulfield in the Rye, performance for all students. Preparation programs are in transition. The most effective programs for initial teachers immerse them in schools for strong clinical experiences, prepare them to function in teams, and focus on both content knowledge and spleen, pedagogical skills, including the use of data to improve student learning. Master’s programs for experienced teachers should demonstrably “add value” to Holden in The Catcher in the, their teaching effectiveness. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education announced a major redesign in 2009 that will lead schools of education to focus on continuous improvement and the simultaneous transformation of baudelaire, P-12 and educator preparation. The redesign of master’s programs is a priority. Another pathway for teacher professional development in lieu of, or in Business Law: Oil Pollution Act Essay, conjunction with, a master’s degree is the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards process which recognizes highly accomplished teaching. About half of our accredited institutions have aligned their master’s programs with propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, and some have designed master’s programs to help prepare candidates for board assessments. Spleen. Some states help teachers pay for this assessment and osmosis gcse, also provide financial supplements for board-certified teachers. The redesign of P-12 education and educator preparation will require a strong focus on performance — in preparation, induction, licensing, compensation and career development.

‘Literacy’ and Other Destructive Fads. Martin Kozloff is spleen baudelaire a professor of education at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. A master’s degree in most subfields in education (especially reading — or what they like to call “literacy” — early childhood education, teaching and elementary education) adds little or nothing to students’ knowledge or practical skills. Indeed, a master’s degree in most education subfields further stamps in about holiday at beach, the “progressive,” “child-centered,” “constructivist,” “developmentally appropriate,” postmodernist, pseudo-liberationist baloney that infects the undergraduate curriculum, and spleen baudelaire, which leaves graduating ed students unprepared to provide their own students with coherent, logically sequenced instruction. Undergrad students enter ed schools and eventually graduate from master’s programs still 1. unable to define knowledge (imagine if physicians could not define cell); 2. unable to a good trainer, identify, define and spleen baudelaire, show exactly how to teach the different kinds of osmosis gcse, knowledge (e.g., facts, concepts, rule, routines); 3. unable to explain how learning is a simple and straightforward process of baudelaire, inductive reasoning (and not a mysterious process of osmosis gcse, “discovery” and “meaning making” that can only baudelaire, be “facilitated” by teachers who are more like artistes than skilled technicians); and 4. Trainer. unable to determine whether teaching materials (e.g., beginning reading) adequately cover essential knowledge, and whether faddish, “revolutionary” innovations such as “whole language” (“Students should NOT be taught to sound out words using phonics. They should GUESS what words say using pictures on the page and the shape of spleen baudelaire, words”) have solid empirical support and will not make children illiterate. And if you ask graduating master’s students who have managed to escape indoctrination (because they are fortunately endowed with a wide streak of heaven i cannot analysis, skepticism), they will tell you that they learned nothing new.

Yes, many teachers with master’s degrees in education are more skilled teachers. Spleen Baudelaire. But this is not because they got a master’s degree. They went for a master’s degree because they are intelligent, were already skilled teachers (self-taught), and had the gumption to The Oil Pollution Act Essay, go back to school. Linda Mikels is the principal of Sixth Street Prep School , a charter elementary school in Victorville, Calif. “What is an educated person?” Michigan State University has answered the question well:

An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and communicate knowledge and information. An educated person has to develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and new challenges in society and the world at baudelaire large. He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of one set of problems and apply them to another. He or she must be able to a good, locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and use information in an appropriate way and ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of that information in a clear and accurate manner. When I look for a teacher, I look for an educated person, someone who has been immersed in books, the arts, the sciences and philosophy through a liberal arts education. Our schools need teachers who have developed capacity for critical inquiry, for problem solving and for innovation. A liberal arts education, offered by America’s best institutions of higher learning, is immensely practical as a resource for life-long learning, for responding to technological and social change, and for spleen, passing on the value of a well-rounded learning experience. The art and skill of effective pedagogy is arguably equally critical to effective classroom instruction. While most aspiring teachers hope to develop these skills through university coursework, in reality the most effective training is acquired through an apprenticeship at a high-performing school with a highly effective classroom teacher. As with most trades, the craft of effective pedagogy is a good trainer one that is best developed in spleen baudelaire, the context of the Law: Act “workplace.” A liberal arts education when combined with an empowering apprenticeship unlocks the potential for a teacher to enter the classroom with passion, commitment and spleen baudelaire, a sense of possibility for the community (s)he serves.

Comments are no longer being accepted. I went to essay about holiday, grad. ed. school for 3 months and I learned that we need to lower our expectations and that reading is obsolete. Discussion is spleen baudelaire paramount and opinion are usually as important as facts. Kids don’t need to know anything because they can look it up! Teachers must be dedicated to their jobs. They must be passionate about their work in a good trainer, order to captivate the minds of their students. They must believe that they are a constructive force in their students’ lives.

They must remain optimistic about the spleen baudelaire positive results of their effort, because in many instances they may never get to know the fruits of Island Society, their labor. Spleen Baudelaire. These abilities are gifts that can not be acquired with advanced degrees no matter how much they cost. Therefore, teachers should be rewarded mainly for makes, their performance on the job and much less for formal credentials. Yet, we must not forget that a teacher’s success builds on the receptiveness of the spleen students in no small measure. Makes. My son attends a magnet school. The great success of spleen baudelaire, this school depends equally on Essay Taiwan: The Silicon Island Society, the competence of the teachers as well as on the bright eyes of their students. I have written more about this here: Patrick Welsh has the right idea. Patrick Welsh gives the most cogent argument (and the detailed examples to back it up).

Only in spleen baudelaire, America are the best and brightest routinely rejected from teaching positions for lack of accreditation while those who cannot speak grammatically correct sentences take their place. A friend of about at beach, mine is in a Doctor of Education degree program at UCLA. Spleen. Upon completion he will _still_ be unqualified to essay, teach in the public school system in his locale! This is why we continue to have a 2-tier system where the best teachers flock to private schools that do not impose irrelevant criteria on hiring. When a school can hire and fire a teacher easily, the only basis for keeping that person is ability in spleen, the classroom.

Teachers may or may not have advanced degrees, may or may not be schooled in schooling, but whether or not these teachers keep their jobs should only Law: Oil Pollution Act Essay, come down to how well they teach. I also tend to notice that supporters of degree programs are usually people who work in higher education and will lose out personally if those programs are cut… I am a 6th grade teacher in a southern California public school. I have a 4 year BA in literature and a 5th year teaching credential, both from spleen baudelaire UCBerkeley. I also have a CLAD certificate for working with second language learners. I am qualified by CA standards. The issue for me these days, as I begin my 14 th year, is about Taiwan: The Silicon Island classroom behavior.

I used to have one student a year who lacked civility or any interest in attending to anything. Last year I had 6 such students, who each had a family story, of prison or abuse or alcohol or drugs or whatever, but the bottom line, my class was so much more difficult to teach, because several parents were not doing their jobs at home. Add to that issue, the 8 students from baudelaire another country who did not have English as a first language, who have lived in this country for more than 5 years and still cannot read or write on grade level and who are living in several different homes with no particular interest in their studies or the value of their education. I have never worked so hard to teach and review and tutor, etc. and yet many of Law: The Oil Pollution Act Essay, us teachers, good teachers, are having a struggle fighting this tide of behavior issues and indifference. Believe me, we attend the workshops, earnestly work in our classes, talk with the parents, struggle with the kids, and still, it is not always enough. I like Martin Kozloff.

He doesn’t take any crap. He wants what works. The one part I disagree with is his comment that learning is all induction. English, Art and History certainly are not always induction. Spleen. I especially liked his last paragraph. It really rings true. The reason why they have advanced degrees is because they are good teachers. They aren’t good teachers because they have advanced degrees. Patrick Welsh is also correct. Schools should be able to advertise for a position and then the principal and a panel of Essay, teachers should evaluate prospective teachers and baudelaire, make sure that they are engaging, dynamic and inspiring. Oh, and about Island Society, know the course material.

As a practicing freelance writer since 1947 – that’s 62 years since my first paying job in the writing profession (a summer reporter on spleen baudelaire, the Williamsport PA Daily Sun), and a classroom veteran for the past 37 years, preparing to teach English composition classes in Essay about Taiwan: The Silicon Society, 10 days at a university and at spleen a commuity college, I understand both sides of the dilemma faced by directors of writing programs at the higher ed level. And, I’m sure, in the K-12 sphere. I agree that content-knowledge is a crucial attribute. Teaching a course in Essay about Caulfield as Protagonist Catcher in the Rye, which you’re one step ahead of the students is no fun. But you can’t know how to run discipline until you’ve facec an unruly class.

Fortunately, methods courses take care of at least part of spleen baudelaire, letting you know what’ s likely to work. I’m for holiday, longer teacher training, longer classroom observance periods, and realistic student evaluation. Spleen. Student questionnaires about personal opinions of teacher performance ( as both my college and university offer) put numbers on student evaluations of teacher performance, but don’t really quantify the day-to-day classroom problems a teacher encounters. Here’s another article that presents different perspectives on the value of schools of education re teaching performance. To better understand today’s classroom and the supposed failures of the teaching workforce, I would like to offer the suggestion that every elected official, lawmaker, or person otherwise influential to at beach, public education be required to spend one week teaching before making important decisions about teachers and education. This, of course, should be in a public school classroom filled to capacity with high-needs learners. The alacrity of criticism toward the spleen baudelaire entire teaching profession is unjustified until those who are critical actually understand not only the learning process, but also what takes place to essay about holiday at beach, affect learning in today’s classroom. As an alternatively certified teacher, I see great value in programs, such as the Teaching Fellows via New Teacher Project, that take motivated and skilled people and baudelaire, turn them into good teachers. I do not believe that people who are alternatively certified are inherently better teachers. I’ve seen incredible teachers who came from education schools, some with the much maligned M.Ed. degree. I believe that the best preparation for teaching is a combination of pedagogy and a strong apprenticeship-a marriage of traditional preparatory and alternative certification programs.

All new teachers would benefit from osmosis gcse a year of full-time work in the classroom beside an experienced and effective teacher. We learn by practicing-even the baudelaire best surgeon in the world is Essay in The in the Rye useless until he has proven his skill on the table. In the absence of a preparation program like the one I described above, excellent professional development can help fill the gaps. That said, I have taken professional development coursework offered through local education schools that were absolutely laughable. Spleen Baudelaire. Sitting through a 5 hour session that culminated in making a caterpillar from an egg carton is what a waste of time. I went to spleen baudelaire, learn how to produce higher rates of literacy in English Language Learners-not how to produce a cute craft of little practical value. If I relied solely on the professional development courses available to Law: The Oil Pollution, me locally, I would never increase my skills or abilities as an educator. Those of us who want to be great must seek out our own opportunities for spleen, growth, sometimes paying hefty sums in travel to find them.

Instead, these same opportunities should be available to everyone. Are schools willing to a good trainer, pay for better professional development? Are districts willing to put 2 teachers in spleen, 1 classroom, doubling their costs but better preparing students AND teachers for long-term success? Are teachers willing to look beyond what immediately surrounds them to find the very best opportunities to hone their skills, even if it means they must pay to find it? The fundamental question remains-are we as a nation ready to truly invest in education? Until we are, this will remain a conversation about is what i cannot analysis inaction, rather than a plan of action. As a profession teaching is not always done out of love.

For some it is safety net, or a guaranteed method of systematic advancement in an arena that is GOOD. Teaching is baudelaire more than mere optimistic notions of osmosis gcse, improving students. Teaching is a job that comes with the extraordinary benefits of health-care, pensions, salary increases, and baudelaire, union add-ons. If you eliminate the system of advancement w/ grad credits you will destroy the current order of things and create a bit of chaos. Although the concept of salary increases based on student performances is osmosis gcse a novel idea, it is not a guaranteed pathway to success.

Furthermore, how one measures success is such an spleen baudelaire, abstract question that I can no more figure the type of test than I can understand how it will be implemented. There are too many factors that get in the way to Business Law: Oil Pollution Essay, make this a general practice that is widely accepted. Of course, this is not to say that a system of this kind should not be implemented, it is more a matter of baudelaire, how that I can’t figure out. But- heck, education is supposed to be left up to the states. The gov’t need only supply the state budgets. I received my masters from Teachers College, worked in holiday at beach, an education think tank at Stanford, and taught in a small public school in Harlem. The full-time education degree was so easy that I was able to baudelaire, work full time and spend a long weekend once a month in New England. I graduated early. I never spent more than 5 hours a week on homework. I received only A’s and A+’s.

The think tank was ideologically driven and osmosis gcse, was filled with followers who couldn’t/wouldn’t think on their own. Spleen Baudelaire. The woman they were following had a scheduler, an administrative assistant, and osmosis gcse, an office manager. She worked from home almost every day in her school-funded mansion and spleen, talked incessantly about heaven is what i cannot reach analysis how she was saving the poor kids in the slums of East Palo Alto and baudelaire, New York. The small public school in Harlem was nothing new – a messed up school in a messed up system, with a bunch of about Holden Caulfield as Protagonist in the, great kids and a few great teachers. Most of the kids dropped out in middle school. The principal and spleen, counselor wouldn’t intervene when I pointed out a relationship between one of my 11-year old 7th graders and i cannot analysis, a 17-year old senior – she was pregnant by the end of the spleen school year. I left the field because I couldn’t stand this version of corruption, where everyone tries to do the easiest thing instead of the right thing. When I have made my money, I’ll put it towards supporting a great educational program. In the mean time, I support my friends who are fantastic teachers and administrators despite the system.

I hope Obama’s initiatives start to support them and the students. A few thoughts on Essay Caulfield, the field: – Graduate schools of education reward faculty members for advancing their theories regardless of their long-term merit. Faculty members will funding and their followers if they try to change a policy or practice they initially advocated because they later learn it is spleen flawed. Countless education professors have told me, “We’re not numbers people,” as an excuse for using biased statistics and anecdotal evidence. – True school reform and what makes, a better sense of spleen baudelaire, equality will not happen through education schools.

They will only happen by getting rid of the deadbeat teachers and rewarding those teachers who help their students make progress. A system that includes thoughtful standardized testing as well as tracking individual student progress will help. – The field needs to financially reward those who can teach so they can afford to Oil Pollution Act, continue teaching instead of being lured into other fields. The system also needs to support teachers who work so hard for their students that they stay in the field despite the harm it causes their pocketbooks and often their families. I taught college and high school for over 30 years and didn’t have the misfortune of being forced to take education courses until I was 60. The courses were worthless. I worked hard and did very well by proposing ideas that I knew would please my teachers and, at the same time, be useless in the classroom. Moreover, I know of no teachers who have spoken highly of such courses (unless they were planning to teach them).

It’s easy for spleen, me to Essay Taiwan: The Silicon, say, given my experience, that more education courses are the LAST thing we need. What often gets lost in the discussion around merit pay is that around 2/3 of teachers do not teach a subject in which there is baudelaire a state exam. So while rewarding teachers for The Silicon Island Society, performance makes sense on paper, it will have to spleen baudelaire, involve more than just using test scores. It’s a stunning revelation that a teacher (Mr. Welsh) would recommend that other teachers do not necessarily need to meet the licensing requirements of their state. Why not open the other professions such as law and heaven is what i cannot reach analysis, medicine to people who have the raw talent but have not jumped through the baudelaire proper hoops? The anecdotal story always makes for interesting re-telling in a widely read newspaper. Yet, it is the aggregate that the we need to care about: are students learning? Does it matter that one (possibly pompous) creative writing teacher left the field because he did not meet the qualifications? He felt he was above having to meet the qualifications. Okay, so perhaps he should open a private, alternative school.

He would still be able to teach to his heart’s content. No one is stopping him. There are also plenty of excellent teachers who take the required course because they know they have to Law: The Oil Pollution, pay their dues, regardless of their past experiences or talents. In my husband’s case, he still had to jump through the state certification hoops and he did, despite years of military and business experience, combined with a PhD in his subject area. He has a passion for teaching and did the required work because he wanted to baudelaire, teach. The extra coursework was not the holiday at beach major sacrifice. Try living on half your previous salary and away from spleen your family, just in osmosis gcse, order to baudelaire, teach. I’ve taught 9-12 gr math/physics at a public school for Catcher in the, 12 years. Education classes offer practically ZERO benefit for doing my job more effectively. What we need are teachers who are MUCH more competent in their SUBJECT AREAS!!

Unfortunately, the only way to do this is to PAY MORE for people that actually know a significant amount about baudelaire science and osmosis gcse, math. In our society, that is about as likely as getting Rush to support serious health care reform. Even after the last election, I am not too optimistic that our society has ‘evolved’ that much… All advanced degrees should be in the subject field being taught, whether that be chemistry, history, English, or math. Spleen Baudelaire. Methods courses contain a few grains of value that could be taught by heaven i cannot reach analysis, any experienced teacher during a week’s period before a new hire starts school in the fall. The doctorate in spleen, education is purely a vanity degree and what makes a good, the entire academic world knows it. Education professors get the least respect on campuses, and deservedly so. Let’s take a male-dominated example to make the spleen point, since critique of teachers per se usually acquires a gender-discrimination label. Lots of males dream of being pilots. They borrow money to pay for Essay Taiwan: The Silicon Island Society, training, take a long time to work up through the certifications, apply to regional airlines, and start out making $20K / year, typically with a ton of debt for spleen, their flight instruction.

Most people say, “Tough luck–you should have seen the market for what it was, and done something else.” So many people want to be pilots that flight instruction companies can charge a fortune to train you for the scarce, low paying jobs at the entry level. Essay Taiwan: The Silicon Island Society. Who cares? They’re just guys acting macho. They deserve what they get from the job market. Why is baudelaire it different with teachers?

Yes, it’s a societal priority. However, what’s keeping teachers’ pay down is the same thing that’s keeping pilots pay down–the competition for jobs with job content that a lot of people want. The Master’s degrees are simply a symptom of a group of Business Law: The Oil Pollution Essay, people who have an baudelaire, appealing claim on our good intentions, but are really looking to subvert market forces, which show that there are a whole lot more people who want to Business Law: Oil Pollution Essay, teach than there are attractive teaching jobs to be filled. Spleen Baudelaire. So, the pay stays low. The teachers’ unions, the unsubstantiated and ornamental degree requirements, prevailing notions of osmosis gcse, societal good, aesthetics of the “cultured mind,” and desirability of a short work day and a long summer have horribly clouded this issue. (BTW, I am an English undergrad from a state university, with a MA in social anthropology. I’m in the category of people who should feel entitled to grumble about this, but I’m making the opposite point. Spleen. About two years before finishing my MA, I saw that the world didn’t need me as a teacher, and Oil Pollution Act Essay, the Bureau of Labor Statistics corroborated it. I stayed in baudelaire, the job that was paying my way thru graduate school, and had a wonderful career in the private sector.) I listened to the wisdom of the heaven analysis market, instead of baudelaire, trying to jigger my personal preferences into a mandate to hire and promote me in a job family that was clearly overcrowded and over-administered already. Hey, aspiring teachers–create a little upward economic pressure on salaries.

Find a different career and enjoy that, until the supply-demand curve shifts back your way. Then, see if you still want to analysis, be a teacher. As a former high school English teacher (with a degree in Education) and now a college professor, I certainly agree that education is spleen baudelaire essential to being a good teacher. But what kind? I seriously question the assumption that the education essential for teaching comes overwhelmingly from a college course in Holden as Protagonist Rye, how to spleen, teach. Currently, I work with a large Head Start program to improve kindergarten readiness in their preschool children. This work translates into developing ways to help teachers improve their ability to teach preliteracy and pre-math skills to 4 and 5 year old kids.

Surprisingly, my experience shows that the biggest obstacle lies in the ‘education’ and attitudes of administrators that are directly over Essay Holden in The Catcher Rye the teachers. These individuals are often well meaning, say all the right things, and spleen, have advanced degrees… and most have little experience with classroom teaching and even less liking. They tend emphasize tangential issues in evaluating teachers such as the osmosis gcse ‘colors’ in the classroom environment or how well the teacher met the compliance standards for spleen, lunches. Teaching outcomes or teacher effectiveness in working with children tend to figure little in promotions or evaluations. It’s not intentional on about, their part, but their efforts and emphases too often unwittingly undermine the practical teaching support teachers need for spleen baudelaire, children of this age.

Many are ensconced in child development theories of the is what i cannot analysis 1960s and 70s (still taught in many child education programs) that imply that children are harmed by teaching them abstract skills between 3 and 5. And their passion for the ‘truths’ they learned in college override reason and the basic research findings that “children who start kindergarten behind stay behind, even if they learn st the same rate”. Of course, these same administrators generally insure that their own children are well prepared in the same skills…. entering kindergarten knowing all their letters, counting to 20 or more, and often being able to sight read three letter words like ‘cat’ and ‘hat’. They have computers at home loaded with preliteracy programs, and they diligently scout out preschool programs with the most resources and best reputation in which to enroll their children. It’s never the classrooms they oversee. The Head Start teachers in the large program that I work with often have minimal college training, but 80% have a real liking and interest in children and want to see the children grow and baudelaire, succeed. With administrative support for on the job training, we find they can learn to be quite effective… without going back to school to get a 4 year degree. Of course, those that obtain one have a leg up, and it can be a real help in accelerating the learning curve to become effective effective teachers. Law:. But theory can be derived efficiently from experience and enthusiasm, assuming that outcomes are valued, expected, and administratively supported. The most effective method to make all children ready for kindergarten is to have assessment… of learning outcomes and baudelaire, teacher effectiveness. The discussion of the ‘colors in the classroom environment’ will quickly recede in the face of performance standards that have meaning, relevance, and consequences. Such an approach may even help the U.S. regain a place among the top 10 (or even top 20) educational systems in the western world.

And instituting assessment and accountability at the beginning stages of formal education might allow administrators to say, “they learned everything that was important in is what i cannot reach analysis, education in preschool”. Teachers need education degrees obviously. It will set a bad example for students to believe, repeat believe, that you can make it without a proper education. What a shame that none of these education experts mentioned an alternative to a master’s degree: National Board certification for teachers. This is baudelaire a rigorous process in which teachers demonstrate their expertise by filming and writing about experiences in their own classrooms.

Their work is judged by a panel of essay at beach, educators from all over the nation. Isn’t such on-the-job experience more valuable than taking a master’s class of dubious quality? Arne Duncan, the Secretary of Education, seems to think so. In recent speeches, he has encouraged more educators to become National Board certified–and more school districts to compensate these teachers monetarily. I agree with Arne. I am a 21-year veteran teacher who took a whole boatload of spleen, education courses in furtherance of my BA and Essay Caulfield as Protagonist Catcher in the Rye, MS degrees. They were utterly useless. The only thing that actually prepared me for teaching was student teaching. All of the other courses taught theory, but nothing practical. I am a very successful teacher, and parents and students alike have sought me out over my career. I am prominent in my field and have made a lot of contributions on a global level.

I am creative and allow my students to be free and achieve as much as they want. I make the same salary as another teacher who does nothing but shows movies in class all day. I make the same as a teacher who refuses to show up for duty assignments. I make the baudelaire same as a teacher who teaches out of the textbook the same lessons every single year. I spend my summers revising my work, creating new and interesting facets to the course.

I make the what a good trainer same as the teacher who spends their summer not thinking one iota about the next school year. Merit pay has some merit, it encourages certain behaviors and discourages others. What I am afraid of is that it will be used to reward the wrong people. Many times, if a teacher does the right thing all the time and does an spleen, exceptional job in Taiwan: The Silicon, the classroom, one mistake or offhand comment is likely to land them in trouble with administration. If a teacher is mediocre, it is because they have been allowed to baudelaire, get away with it, their behavior empowered by administration. There is osmosis gcse a great deal of cronyism in the business, and it skews the playing field. It has always been like that, and it likely always will be. Wow, Kozloff – NC Wilmington, eh?

Let’s just leave it at that. The problem with Crocco’s diss on spleen baudelaire, teach for america is the reality of heaven is what, awful inner-city schools. There is no one who can teach at some of these hell-holes for more than a few years, max. Spleen. They burn out, and either move on, or learn to game the system by doing the absolute minimum. I teach at essay at beach the worst school in my city. As in, the police are scared to go there. As in, two of my students were shot in the face last year by other students who are now serving time. The ‘content’ I thought I’d be able to teach is now a distant dream – 90% of what I do is try to get students to learn anything. Teach for America people aren’t good at dealing with this. They come – as I did – from decent liberal arts schools and solid middle class families, and have no idea what to do when a 220lb football player picks up a giant fan and throws it at someone else, but the school refuses to suspend him because he’s necessary to spleen baudelaire, the team. I digress.

But the point is, TfA people aren’t the best at this, but they have ENERGY. And part of that energy comes from knowing that they won’t have to Business Law:, teach in this hell-hole for the rest of their lives. It’s a public service for the less fortunate. If everyone had to do 2-3 years of this upon graduating from college, before going off to work at Goldman Sachs or whatever, we would be infinitely better off. Not because there wouldn’t be problems, but because they could throw themselves into baudelaire this mess for a few years knowing they’re moving on.

This would be infinitely preferable to most of the old, entrenched, tenured teachers we have here, who long ago gave up on osmosis gcse, these troubled students, and who now have figured out exactly how to spleen, make it look like they’re busy when someone comes around, but who are only interested in picking up their paycheck and getting out asap. Linda Mikels’ definition of an educated person is the saddest thing I’ve ever seen. Where are the words joy, love, curiosity, energy and compassion? I feel sorry for The Oil Pollution Essay, the students at her “prep” school. Spleen. What exactly is she “prepping” them for? Where is the discussion on paying administrators based on performance? After all, they’re at-will employees already – and their salaries are the highest, at 6 figures.

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