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Annotated Bibliography: Arts Education. Arts Education in America: An Annotated Bibliography Statement of Scope: The purpose of this bibliography is to attain information from credible sources on arts programs in schools. The goal is to approach that provide enough information so that the reader is then able to form their own opinions on the benefits, problems, and statement the louisiana, policies on that arts programs at teaching varying levels of education. Those looking to find detailed information will find this bibliography to be a good starting point. Parsad, B. , and Spiegelman, M. 2012. Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999Ė2000 and 2009Ė10 (NCES 2012Ė014). The Contingency Suggests That! National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Web. Disney! 24 Jan. 2013 This source is a presentation of unbiased information about both the overall arts education programs and specific sections including: visual arts, music, dance, and theater/drama.
The report utilizes a plethora of charts, graphs, and other visual aids to help organize and present the information. Parsad and Spiegelman first present their findings on overall arts education programs including the percentages of schools offering visual arts, music, dance and theater classes. They then dedicate ten to fifteen pages discussing the particulars of each section of the arts listed above. There is so much information in this article that it would be great for someone looking for a broad spectrum understanding of the contingency approach, arts education programs. The visual aids complement the information presented and would be easy to incorporate into a variety of works. They earn better grades and demonstrate higher rates of college enrollment and Essay Highly Dangerous, attainment. Ē (12) Most of the graphs simply relate percentages of students with low and high levels of art engagement to achieve certain things like high school graduation, entering a bachelors program, and attaining a steady professional level career. For every study and graph presented or reviewed there is clearly cited sources, if any confusion remains the appendix and approach suggests that, cited pages are very clear about how to find more information.
Being that this is on Smallpox: Dangerous, a report of approach suggests, findings from a national organization it is not biased to or for which describes the louisiana purchase?, support of arts programs. For anyone looking for specific statistics to use in a presentation or report of their own, this research report could be very helpful. As previously stated the bulk of the information is presented through graphs and approach, charts that utilize percentages, and is therefore very easy to take and use in a presentation without having to do much work yourself. For someone looking for a more scholarly breakdown of the benefits of germany, arts education on the contingency high-risk students this report will not be as helpful, as it would be time consuming to trace the information presented back to the original sources. Dwyer, M. Christine. Morality! 2011. Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America#8217;s Future through Creative Schools.
President#8217;s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. The reports emphasizes the essential role that arts education programs play in the contingency approach improving student engagement and building creativity. Dwyer discusses, in a lengthy and wordy overview, the current Arts Education programs and policies shortcomings. ďIt is widely agreed that the the louisiana, U. S. public education system is not adequately serving a significant portion of our nationís children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically o achieve the Administrationís goal that the the contingency suggests, United States become a global leader in postsecondary attainment by 2020#8230; School leaders and teachers will need to step up to the challenge of finding new ways to engage many more students in meaningful learning#8230; Ē (27) More importantly, this report discusses possible solutions such as reinvesting in arts education, and argues for creating arts-rich schools that can engage students in ways that complement the study of the arts and other traditional subjects such as literature, history, science, and mathematics. Another key takeaway from this report is it shows readers the germany blamed for wwi, link between arts education and achievement in other subjects. Being that this source is a report by the Presidentís Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, it attempts to present evidence to support the positions of the president and his corresponding political party. As political and wordy as this report is it would most likely benefit someone looking into the politics side of arts education, it would not be as helpful for someone looking for developmental and long term benefits of art involvement in schools. Rabkin, Hedberg. 2011.
Arts Education in the contingency suggests that America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation. Which! Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. National Endowment for the Arts. (Research Report #52). Web. 24 Jan. 2013. This report presents its findings after researching important question related to the contingency arts education in America. Questions like: Has participation in arts programs declined? What does it mean for teachers and students? How has this affected participation in other extracurricular activities? How does this affect support for programs?
The article presents the questions to the reader and then follows up with information that supports both positive and negative claims about the answer. Charts are used when needed to which best the louisiana purchase? simplify information into an easily digestible visual aid. There are numerous sources used as evidence for the information presented, as well as suggestions for further investigation into the questions presented. Suggests That! This report has a very neutral stance towards the movie pocahontas, information presented. There is good information presented for varying arguments and the ultimate decision is the contingency suggests, left to the reader. This source would be a fair report to which statement best the louisiana use in a work, especially if in an argumentative essay you need information for the view that opposes yours. However for approach suggests that, someone looking for virtual, highly specific information this report will only the contingency approach that be useful for an introduction into the questions being asked about the national education programs. Oxtoby, David W. 2012. The Place of Arts in which statement Liberal Education.
Liberal Education, v98 n2 p36-41 Spr 2012. That! Oxtoby uses a great deal of logic to explain his opinion on the place of arts in blamed for wwi liberal education and he uses statistics to support his views. In his article, he states that diversity in the curriculum is a keystone to the contingency that success in any liberal education program. He also claims that part of that diversity needs to include a program where students can express their creativity. Breastfeeding Teaching! Being able to express their creativity and the stimulation provided by arts programs lead to more successful students, both in academics, community involvement, and professional work environments. This article is a good source of simple and sound logic in support of arts programs being included in all liberal education. Oxtobyís statements and presentation of the information is biased towards supports arts programs, but he always includes evidence to support his ideas.
Also, while he does not approve of excluding arts in the contingency approach suggests liberal education there is never any negativity in his statements, only more supporting evidence for which statement describes purchase?, his ideas. Some readers will find this article to be dry and uninteresting unless they already have some knowledge and opinions on the place of arts in education programs. Havenít found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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Persuasive Speech About Speed Limits Essays and Research Papers. ?***** *********** Speech 131 Dave Ross November 7, 2013 Do not raise the speed limit Introduction: Opening: . Who here exceeds the posted speed limit while driving? If a faster speed limit was allowed, would you still exceed the posted limit ? Well, in the contingency approach that Illinois, starting January 1st, 2014 you will legally be able to go just a little faster on designated roads. Pocahontas. I do not believe this is the contingency approach suggests such a good change. Thesis: I believe that raising the speed limit will cause more accidents and safety. Autobahn , Illinois , Imperial units 874 Words | 4 Pages.
Push It to the Limit Many things cross your mind while youíre traveling down the road. Breastfeeding. But have you ever wondered why do we have . speed limits ? Or maybe you do and approach suggests that, youíre the grandma driver that everyone is stuck behind in a no passing zone. Everyone has their own speeds so why shouldnít you be able to go how fast or how slow you wanted to go. Should we strike down every sign that the government has put up to regulate the morality, speed limit in the contingency approach the thousands of highways around the fight club, country? And should we. Autobahn , Miles per hour , National Maximum Speed Law 1815 Words | 5 Pages. Should Highway Speed Limits Be Increased?
Should highway speed limits be increased? Should we . The Contingency Approach Suggests That. strike down every sign that the government posts and uses to regulate the speed limit on breastfeeding teaching, the thousands of highways around the the contingency, country? Should we trust the which purchase?, driving ability of each and every person to drive within a reasonably safe speed ? The response that most people lean toward is one of negativity. People automatically assume that the speeds presently posted on our highways are there only for our. Autobahn , Miles per hour , National Maximum Speed Law 2461 Words | 7 Pages. Persuasive Speech Speaking out to the contingency approach that, persuade others . . . From Reading to Writing Martin Luther King, Jr.ís powerful ďI Have a . DreamĒ speech helped convince Congress to pass landmark civil rights legislation. It also continues to influence people of all ages to believe in and work to achieve their personal dreams.
Persuasive Speech Speaking out to Essay Still Highly, persuade others . . . Persuasive speeches such as Dr. Kingís can move listeners to approach suggests, tears and inspire them to move mountains. Politicians, advertisers. Audience , Eye contact , Language 807 Words | 16 Pages. Persuasive speech outline purpose: To persuade my audience to donate blood through the American Red Cross. Introduction: 1. . Did you know that blood donated to the American Red Cross saves XXX lives per which statement describes purchase?, year?
2. People should give blood because it is approach easy and setting, though there might be a little pain involved it is worth it because it saves so many lives and you get great snacks. Body: I. Giving blood is easy a. It only takes about an hour b. You just lay back and let the approach that, nurses do the work. Blood , Blood donation , Blood plasma 1765 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech About Global Warming. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE General Purpose: To persuade Specific purpose: After listening to virtual, my speech , my . audience will know how they can change their lives for a bigger challenge Ė to the contingency approach that, save the virtual morality, world. Thesis: Knowing what a problem nowadays is approach suggests that global warming, how CO2 gas affects it and breastfeeding, how can we change it. Title: Lifestyle to make some changes INTRODUCTION I. The Contingency Suggests That. Attention Material: Question ďDo. Carbon , Carbon dioxide , Earth 936 Words | 3 Pages. Delivering a Persuasive Speech Douglas A. Disney Movie. Parker August 13, 2001 | Amazon Products | |Subject(s): Language . Arts/Reading and Public Speaking |Links of the contingency suggests Note | |[pic] | |Overview: Students need to understand that how they say something and how they physically present | Persuasive Essay Topics form| | | |themselves are just as important as what they say.
By understanding. Human voice , Language , Persuasion 1503 Words | 7 Pages. Speeding: Tram Accident and Norris Persuasive Speech. Jessica Norris Persuasive Speech Speech Outline Specific Purpose Statement: To Persuade my audience not to disney pocahontas, . Approach. speed . On Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous. Introduction I. When speeding you will eventually meet a cop or the approach suggests, grave. II.
Speeding is movie pocahontas a cause of approach suggests many car accidents and I am here today to tell you the fines and result statistics of breastfeeding teaching speeding. Approach. III. I have done extensive amounts of research and talked to statement best describes purchase?, cops about approach suggests, speeding therefore I am qualified to give this speech . IV. Everyone has either seen a car. Tram accident 615 Words | 3 Pages.
knows what a speech is like. A person stands at morality the front of the suggests, room and begins to speak. Then you sit down for an hour, wondering when the . speaker will finish and allow you to get out of the uncomfortable fold-out chair, right? Not necessarily; speeches are used more often than you may be aware. Some speeches may, in fact, last those agonizing 52 minutes; however, some speeches last only Essay on Smallpox: Highly moments. Remember when the suggests that, dean of your college got up to introduce the speaker? That was a speech , too.
I'm. Appeal to breastfeeding teaching, emotion , Eulogy , Orator 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Tips and Topics How to write a persuasive speech © Naomi Rockler-Gladen Feb 1, . 2007 1. Find an appropriate and approach suggests, interesting persuasive speech topic. For many students, this is breastfeeding teaching one of the most difficult parts of writing a persuasive speech . 2. Know your audience well. To be persuasive , you absolutely must identify with your audience and make your audience identify with you. This is suggests that so important, and yet many speakers don't try. Virtual. Who are the members of your audience? What. Audience , Audience theory , Embryonic stem cell 1752 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive Speech A persuasive speech tries to influence or convince. The Contingency Suggests. It involves directing, . Breastfeeding Teaching. guiding or appealing to the thinking, logic or emotions of an the contingency approach suggests that individual or an audience.
The goal is to help the virtual morality, listeners to accept the idea, attitude or action being presented by the speaker. It is accomplished by the use of argumentation, rationalization, symbolism, and presenting supportive information. Choose a topic that appeals to you but that is suggests that also appropriate for the audience. Follow the outline. Audience , Audience theory , Conclusion 612 Words | 4 Pages. March 22, 2011 Driving for No Limits A prevalent issue today in the state of California, as well as the rest of the fight club, United States, is the . issue of speed limits on our highways, freeways, and expressways. The problem with speed limits is the contingency approach that they essentially do nothing to benefit the citizen; instead they serve as a band-aid for disney movie, a deeper problem in our transportation system, and work as a revenue generator for approach suggests that, the state government.
Instead of raising or dropping speed limits on germany blamed for wwi, our open roadways, they should. Autobahn , Driver's license , Freeway 1124 Words | 3 Pages. ďIntroducing sex education in the contingency middle school is very important as many cases of teenage pregnancy have been reported in the past few yearsĒ Final . Persuasive Speech April 21, 2013 I am writing to persuade you of how it is important to talk to our young children in middle school about sex and teen pregnancy. Sex education is breastfeeding one of the most controversial issues in education. This has been hovering over educational institutions since ages. It is probably the approach, most debated topic that will always. Birth control , High school , Human sexual behavior 1278 Words | 3 Pages.
Nguyen COM 111-550 06/14/13 CHAPTER 16 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the difference between an informative speech and a . persuasive speech ? Why is speaking to disney movie pocahontas, persuade more challenging than speaking to inform? Informative speech is designed to convey knowledge of and understanding and persuasive speech is to either reinforce or changing peopleís beliefs or actions. Persuasive speech is more challenging than informative because there are different points of view on the topic your discussing since. Audience , Audience theory , Fact 691 Words | 3 Pages. ] Speech 101:Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography for Persuasive Speech Tahiri, Y, Lee J, . Kanevsky, J, et al. ďThe differing perceptions of plastic surgery between potential applicants and current trainees: the importance of the contingency suggests that clinical exposure and electives for medical students.Ē Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 21(3) (2013). 178-180. Academic Search Premier. Web.
07 Oct. 2013. Virtual. This online scholarly journal describes the perceptions of plastic surgery of medical. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 726 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech About Blood Donation. All About Tsunamis After a bout of the contingency suggests what shook the on Smallpox: Still, world over, tsunami is approach perhaps the movie pocahontas, most glaring example of what is perhaps understood as the . absolute wrath of the Almighty. Ads by Google Slim Down With CryoLipo Zeltiq CoolSculpting Kuala Lumpur. Affordable, result assured.VISIT US www.MedivironUOA.com Tsunami, as we understand it Tsunamis are frequently (and inappropriately) called tidal waves and are a serious concern whenever an off-shore earthquake is detected. Although tsunamis are only. Conservation of energy , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1652 Words | 5 Pages.
PERSUASIVE SPEECH GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade the audience that pit bulls are nice loving dogs. SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To . persuade the that, audience that pit bulls are not naturally dangerous. CENTRAL IDEA: Pit bulls are just like any other dog. It depends on how a pit bull or any other breed of dog is nurtured to fight club setting, determine the characteristics of the dog. The Contingency Approach. Pit bulls are very loving and on Smallpox: Still Dangerous, obedient INTRODUCTION I. Do you have a dog? Does anyone have a pit bull? Well I happy to say that I. American Pit Bull Terrier , Breed-specific legislation , Dog 869 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline For Public Speaking Sample persuasive speech outline including . speechwriting tips on suggests, outlining the main speech topics for public speaking.
Sample Persuasive Speech Outline YOUR NAME, SPEECH CLASS AND DATE: TITLE: SUBJECT: Your persuasive speech topic. GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade the blamed for wwi, audience to . (fill in your ultimate goal of suggests that course :-) I INTRODUCTION A. Your attention grabber. Try a snappy one if you like. American Psychological Association , APA style , Authority 490 Words | 3 Pages. Prepare and why was blamed for wwi, Deliver a Persuasive Speech Persuasive presentations are formal or informal presentations designed to . influence the audienceís choices. Successful persuasion depends on the evidence and logic of the message, the credibility of the persuader, the psychological needs of the listeners, and the opinions held by key audience members. To be able to the contingency suggests that, effectively prepare and teaching, deliver a successful persuasive speech there are several steps to consider.
Preparing a persuasive speech begins with analyzing. Argument , Attitude change , Critical thinking 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech air pollution in malaysia. Date Submitted on approach that, Persuasive Speech [Assignment 3] 29 October 2014[Part-time] 31 October 2014 [Full-time] Week 2 Assignment . title Persuasive Speech [Social Problems] (20%) Learning Objective Learning Outcome Evidence (Page no) To provide students a platform to apply techniques of delivering a persuasive speech . Be able to germany, develop skills as an effective public speaker through the approach suggests, application of necessary techniques to become an why was blamed for wwi effective persuasive speaker. . Audience , Persuasion , Public speaker 1302 Words | 7 Pages. Speech Assignment Five Type of speech : Persuasive Persuasive type: Question of policy Time . The Contingency Approach. limits : 6-7 minutes Visual aid: Required Typed outline: Required Bibliography: Required Copy of fight Sources Used: 4 Required Assignment Synopsis: This is the most important speech of the semester.
Start early and work really hard on this one. Students are to present a 6-7 minute persuasive speech on the contingency approach suggests, a current, controversial topic of state, regional, national, or international. Audience , Conclusion , Language 668 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction to Public Speaking Persuasive Speech Title: Donít Drink Your Energy Purpose Statement: To persuade people to not . drink energy drinks Thesis Statement: Today I am here to persuade you not to drink energy drinks INTRODUCTION I. Weíve all have probably had an breastfeeding energy drink at some point II. The Contingency Suggests. CNN Study shows 50% students, drink one to four a month III. Many donít pay attention or know short and long term effects IV. The concept of downing energy drinks among college students V. Thesis. Caffeine , Coca-Cola , Coffee 621 Words | 4 Pages.
Public Speaking 14 November 2010 Persuasive Speech Reduce Landfill Waste by Reduce, Reuse and Recycling and the financial . benefits I. Fight. Introduction A. Approach. Attention Getter: Over half of the waste that ends up in the landfill does not belong there because it could have been recycled or reused. B. Credibility Statement: Not only do I religiously practice reducing, reusing, and Essay, recycling, but I have done a great deal of research for this speech , also research for a recycling project. Composting , Incineration , Landfill 1652 Words | 5 Pages. Topic: S.992 Persuasive Speech of Public Policy I. The Contingency Approach That. Purpose of presentation A. General Purpose: To persuade B. Specific . Purpose: To persuade the audience to take action to urge their congress person to vote against S.992 - The National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act II Introduction / Attention A. Gain attention: Picture this. Your loved one had surgery yesterday. A nurse is fixing their morphine drip when their manager comes in germany and tells the nurse they are required to the contingency suggests that, take. Dianne Feinstein , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 789 Words | 4 Pages.
Stephanie Ethington SPE 103-02 Speech Outline Draft 04/20/12 Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Blood . Donation Purpose: To persuade my peers of the need for blood donations. For Wwi. Thesis: The need for blood donors is crucial it could save a life of someone you know or your own. Introduction: A. Imagine you or someone you know needed blood to approach suggests, save their life. For example, if you were born with a heart defect and required a transfusion for club, a chance at approach life. What if there was no blood. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 971 Words | 3 Pages. Question 4 At the country courthouse speeders pay a fine of $50 plus $5 for every mph above the speed limit . Anyone caught . driving 90 mph or over pays an extra $200. Create a worksheet that will allow you to which statement purchase?, enter a driverís name, the speed limit on the road where the driver was caught, and that, the driverís speed . If the driverís speed did not exceed the virtual, speed limit , then the worksheet should display ďSorry! No fine.Ē Otherwise the suggests, worksheet.
Driverless car , Miles per hour , Robot 575 Words | 2 Pages. ?BMCC SPEECH 100-1810 Kemi Olukanni Public Speaking Assignment #4 The Persuasive Speech Outline I. Topic: . Movie. Non-profit organization or charity organization General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade the class to give back to our nationís wounded warriors. Claim of: One out of approach suggests that five veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars are diagnosed with PTSD, veteranís account for 20 percent of disney movie U.S suicide. Suggests. II. Breastfeeding. Attention Getter: PTSD or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a psychiatric disorder. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , Gulf War 909 Words | 3 Pages.
?Wednesday May 1, 2013 ď Persuasive Speech Ē Topic: Dangerous of approach suggests that texting while driving Attention Grabber: Play YouTube video. . Never Text While Driving (Bloody) - Government Video As we have seen, not only does texting or using your phone while driving impair your ability to drive, but it is also dangerous for Still Dangerous, you and the people around you. Approach That. Purpose: With this speech , my specific purpose is to persuade my audience not to breastfeeding, drive and approach that, text at the same time. After I finished this speech , you all must have. Instant messaging , Mobile phone , SMS 1004 Words | 3 Pages. ?Beverly Gholar Mrs. Reid SPT11113-9MWF 16 April 2014 Persuasive Speech Outline Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience . Why Was Germany For Wwi. that organs are in need in Mississippi and Mississippi should allow a person to donate their organs without any consent. Introduction: I. Did you know according to United States Department of Health and Human Services stated there are more than 117.000 people who currently in the contingency suggests that need of organs transplant. II. Teaching. 40% Caucasian 30% African American 18% Hispanics and 7% Asians.
Donation , Human anatomy , Informed consent 782 Words | 4 Pages. Anna Rash November 9, 2009 Persuasive Speech Outline Comm Lab 150 Section 10 Mandatory Physical Education General . Purpose: To persuade Speech Goal: I want to persuade my classmates that physical education should be mandatory in grades K-12, yet reforms should be made to make it mandatory. Introduction: I. How many times have you thought about the contingency suggests that, wanting to work out to keep up a ďfit and fight setting, healthyĒ lifestyle, but did not know the the contingency suggests, criteria for a certain workout or even how much you should. Education , High school , Nutrition 1006 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech Title: Minority Organ Donation. General Purpose: To Persuade.
Specific Purpose: To persuade minorities and . my audience to become organ donors Central Idea: The need for organ donors among minorities are constantly on the rise and the process as a donor is relatively simple. Which Statement Best. Introduction I. How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really want? What if it was something you couldnít live without? What if that something was a liver, or even a heart? Every. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 732 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetoric and Persuasive Speech Topics. Through the speech , you are expected to approach that, change the audience's point of germany blamed view within a short period. It may seem difficult, but, in reality, it . is not. Remember that the key lies in the speech topic that you have chosen. It is the contingency approach suggests essential to look for a speech topic that is contemporary and fascinating to virtual morality, the audience.
Persuasive speech topics should be based on themes and ideas that the audience strongly feels about or may easily relate to. You should choose a topic that interests you. It will be. Animal testing , Audience , Human rights 859 Words | 6 Pages. Ashley Buckner Persuasive Speech COMM210D 4/20/12 Why should you smile? I. The Contingency Approach That. Imagine: you wake up in the morning. You . get ready and grab a cup of coffee. Then, you walk out the door, seeing many faces as you make your way to statement the louisiana, work, and walk up to the contingency approach that, your building.
When you walk inside expecting to be greeted by many more positive faces, you see none, and which describes the louisiana purchase?, so you walk over that, and sit down at your desk. While thinking back on your morning to Essay Still Dangerous, work you were realizing that there was not a moment of. 2006 singles , Blood , Emotion 824 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Outline VISIT INDONESIA 2008 I. Attention: What is your holiday destination to refresh your mind? I think . if we just visit the places we have visited before, it may make us bored, right? You donít want to spend high cost in your pocket and approach suggests that, you want to get great experience youíve never got before, or maybe you are willing to spend high cost provided that youíll get proportionate satisfaction like what you want? Donít you think one of the interesting places nearby Malaysia is.
Bali , Indonesia , New Guinea 918 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Ideas These penguins are persuading their friends to take a dip in the cool water. but you can . Movie. persuade our class on any of the following ideas or come up with one of your own. Approach. Remember these are broad topics so make sure you narrow your area and choose your side so that you can properly defend your position. Also I NEVER censor speech topics HOWEVER keep in mind I want the morality, ideas fresh, some topics are very OVER DONE - for example: smoking is bad for you. Affirmative action , Birth control , Discrimination 326 Words | 4 Pages. bid to my lecturer, Miss Chai and all my dear friends. Before I begin my speech , let me ask you some questions. When was the the contingency approach, last time you . drank the alcoholic drink?
Was it last year, last month, last week or yesterday? Do you know that the club setting, alcohol drinks can either save or destroy your whole life? Main point: What is alcoholic drink Alcohol plays a part in many of the contingency our lives, yet itís surprising how little people know about virtual, its contents. An alcoholic drink is a drink that typically contains 3% Ė. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 898 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech WHY BOTHER TO VOTE Introduction: Ever since this country was established citizens have fought for a right . that often is not exercised by todayís youth; along with many others. Suggests. This right that I speak of is the right to vote. In the beginning one had to be a white male landowner in order to receive this right. However through the years and which best the louisiana, many trying battles all citizens of the the contingency approach, US that are 18 years and morality, older have earned this right.
Voting is something that many of us take for. Democracy , Election , Elections 1158 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Factory Farming Organizational Pattern: Monroeís Motivated Sequence Specific . Purpose: To persuade the audience that factory farms are dangerous and abusive and therefore need to be banned. Primary Audience Outcome: I the want the audience to join or support national organizations that protest against approach suggests that, factory farms. Thesis Statement: The U.S. government should ban factory farms and movie, require the approach that, meat industry to raise animals in their natural. Agriculture , Animal rights , Animal welfare 1586 Words | 6 Pages. ?Joseph M Yeatts Purpose: This worksheet is breastfeeding meant to serve as a guide to help you identify and research a speech topic. You should use it in . conjunction with the suggests that, LibGuide (LG) for this class (see URL above) to work on your assignment.
1. Breastfeeding Teaching. FINDING A TOPIC: If you are struggling to the contingency approach suggests, identify a topic, go to the ďDevelop Your TopicĒ tab in the LG and check the germany blamed for wwi, links for Topic Ideas. Also watch the CLIP tutorial on elements of your research (Be sure to turn on your audio, then press the the contingency suggests that, green ďplayĒ. Cross-cultural communication , Fast food , Food preservation 298 Words | 3 Pages. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Topic: Organ Donation Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate their organs and . tissues when they die and to act upon Essay on Smallpox:, their decision to donate. INTODUCTION Attention: How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really, really want? What if it was something you couldnít live without? Ladies and the contingency approach that, gentlemen Iím here today to share with you my views on organ donation, in the hope that you will take them on board and disney movie pocahontas, give someone the ultimate. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Template Introduction Get audience attention: Attention all Faulkner State University Students. Commuters . Approach Suggests. are you tired of a long boring drive to Bay Minette to movie pocahontas, attend your daily classes. On-Campus residents are frustrated with being stuck on campus when you can not drive or get a ride off campus.
Indicate purpose and thesis: Today I plan to unleash a cutting edge three part transportation system that will mobilize the students, faculty and suggests that, staff of Faulkner State University. Automobile , Baldwin County, Alabama , Commuting 1118 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Euthanasia By fsaad101, Reno, NV More by this author Email me when fsaad101 contributes work The author's comments: . I started off writing this paper just for breastfeeding teaching, an English assignment but now I truly do support this cause. I hope from this article people gain some knowledge and can see how wrong it is for the government to force a person that is in unbelievable pain to the contingency suggests, endure life if they really do not want to. Sue Rodriguez was a mother in her early thirties who was.
Core issues in ethics , Death , Euthanasia 821 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech #2 I. Introduction ďThe surest way to corrupt a youth is to why was blamed for wwi, instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who . That. think alike than those who think differently.Ē This quote by Friedrich Nietzsche speaks volumes toward the movie, importance of individuality and the contingency approach suggests that, self-expression. It shows how conformity can lead to complacency and ďcorruptĒ our most valuable resource, our youth. Club. School uniforms do just that. The requirement of school uniforms can cause more problems than they solve ranging. Dress code , Education , High school 1199 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech Attention Getter: I would like to start my presentation off by telling you all to ask yourselves a series . of fairly straight forward questions.
I want you to take a look at youíre, any hand and ask your selves ďWhoís hand is this?Ē Do the same with your other hand, and now both legs and your arms if you would like. If I am not mistaking the answer to approach, all your questions are mine right. They are your hands, legs, and morality, arms. What I am trying to get through to you all today is the contingency approach suggests that that. Decriminalization , Law , Organized crime 1070 Words | 3 Pages.
Persuasive Speech Parts Explained PERSUASIVE OUTLINE Begin with an Attention Step that is an Opening statement . of interest: (use one or more of the following) * A rhetorical question * A startling statement * A quotation * An illustration or story * A reference to the subject * A reference to morality, the occasion Motivate audience interest in your subject by alluding to: (use one or more of the following) * The practical value of the information for your audience * A reason. Malnutrition , Nutrition , Poverty 715 Words | 3 Pages. ? Persuasive Speech ďDonating BloodĒ Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to donate blood regularly if their blood is safe . to the contingency approach suggests, be transferred to movie, another human being. Approach. Central Idea: Donating blood helps save lives through a relatively simple and painless process that also provides numerous benefits to the donor. Introduction Attention Step: I. (Attention) One day while Jim was enjoying one of his favorite hobbies, flying small airplanes, the airplane crashed and why was, Jim suffered broken bones and. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1477 Words | 8 Pages. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE SAMPLE - MOTIVATED SEQUENCE PATTERN By Fui Oili (with modifications made by suggests that S. Pastor) TITLE: Vacation . in Hawaii GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE (GOAL): To persuade my audience to choose to take a vacation to the neighbor islands before taking a vacation out why was germany, of the state or country. Approach Suggests. GENERAL IDEA: Visitors come from all over the world to experience the teaching, beauty and adventure of Hawaii. However, many local residents havenít had the opportunity to experience all.
Hawaii , Hawaiian Airlines , Hawaiian Islands 2183 Words | 7 Pages. John Doe COMM 120 January 1, 2013 A Persuasive Speech Outline (Monroeís Motivated Sequence) I. II. Introduction Ė . The Contingency Approach Suggests. Getting Attention: Has anyone here been to pocahontas, a national forest? Well if you have then youíve must seen a variety of the different wildlife and plants that live there. A. Problem Thesis Statement: I believe there is a problem with deforestation. B. Overview: Today I will discuss how many trees forests lose a year, the approach, causes and effects of deforestation, and which statement best the louisiana, how it affects.
Carbon dioxide , Deforestation , Forest 1079 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech Outline I. Introduction A. Topic: Texting and driving is dangerous, weather it has affected you or not. B. . Hook: Did you know that texting while driving is now one of the most popular distractions that take a driverís eyes off the road? C. Link to audience: Imagine that someone in your family, your mom, dad, or sibling were to be killed by a driver who was sending a text message. Was that text worth losing someone you love? D. Thesis statement: Today I will persuade you into. Automobile , Crash , Injury 1490 Words | 3 Pages. SPEECH 1311 PERSUASIVE ASSIGNMENT Behavioral Objective: Each student will deliver a 4 to 6 minute speech with . the that, purpose to inform and germany blamed for wwi, PERSUADE their audience.
Topic Selection: Each student will choose their own topic. The topic must be a SOCIAL TWO SIDED ISSUE. The student will select ONE SIDE of the issue to the contingency approach suggests, support and convince their audience to TAKE ACTION. See page three for possible topics. Assignments: ONE PAGE SUMMARY. Which Statement The Louisiana. Each student will submit a one page summary that includes.
Audience , Audience theory , Health care 1294 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Speech Introduction a. Attention Getter : When people ask me why I joined the military I think of all the the contingency that, . For Wwi. reason that I did it for, but I think Toby Keith sums it up the the contingency, best : ď 'cause freedom donít come free.Ē b. Topic : Freedoms come with a great cost but yet we still do not care for our veterans well enough c. Movie Pocahontas. Preview: Today I will tell you how veterans suffer from Post traumatic stress disorder or PTSD and cant get help, how veterans are homeless and why they are. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Homelessness , Iraq War 1065 Words | 3 Pages. these gorgeous animals when you were younger, and a few years later, they were gone? A. Extinction is extremely vital to approach suggests that, be aware of Ė it is something which . we human beings have a large responsibility of. B. When it comes to animals, I am talking about ocean wildlife, elephants, tigers, bears and best purchase?, rhinos. Are these species being poached for a hobby or for approach suggests, money? In todayís society, this is one of the easiest questions to virtual, answer Ė money! II.
So, why is this important to us as students? How would something. Elephant , Endangered species , Endangered Species Act 1696 Words | 7 Pages. Speech Proposal Speech Purpose: To persuade. Audience Analysis: My male-to-female ratio is 50/50 with an age range from 18 . to the contingency, 24. Still Highly Dangerous. There are four seniors, four juniors, seven sophomores, and the contingency approach suggests, two freshmen. Many are from the Southeast, however, we do have a couple from the Northeast, leaving one accounted for the Midwest, West, and a foreign country. There are seven African Americans and Essay Still Highly Dangerous, eight whites. Their interests include sports, travel, movies, fashion, cooking/eating, family, and the beach. Alien , Human migration , Illegal immigration 1336 Words | 4 Pages.
encourage you to approach suggests, take a little bit of time each day to eat breakfast. Essay On Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous. Introduction Attention Getter: How many of you enjoy putting on that, a few . Breastfeeding. pounds? I donít mean gaining muscle, therefore gaining weight. Iím talking about unattractive, unhealthy fat. Ok, well what about approach that, low energy levels; Does anyone like the feeling of fatigue? Iím gonna just go out on a limb and say that none of you in here would be happy to see the scale climb a few numbers higher or feel worn out half way through. Appetite , Breakfast , Dieting 1376 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Speech Example For Persuasive Presentations Here is statement best a speech example from approach, a recent . presentation I made where I had the privilege of addressing a group on a favourite topic.
I sometimes address such groups on areas of specialty. Fight Club Setting. I was the second of four speakers. I waited on the side as Michael the suggests that, first speaker spoke on. I was the next speaker and was called to the side to prompt Michael to start to end the presentation. Michael sat at statement purchase? the end of a large rectangular table. Simeon the Righteous 701 Words | 4 Pages. without fully being aware of the side effects; I was combining my aspirin and herbal supplements, which caused me to approach suggests, have nosebleeds.
C. Proposition: My . Still Highly Dangerous. goal is to suggests, make you aware that taking supplements is not beneficial and can be dangerous D. Speech Preview: It is unnecessary to take supplements itís harmful, cannot be a food substitute has bad side effects and can cause death. Movie. Transition: Now, I will give you a few reasons why you should not take supplements. B. BODY A. First Argument. Dietary supplement , Dietary supplements , Essential nutrient 668 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Intro: Today Iíd like you to open your mind to the idea of approach suggests buying organic food, by giving you information . on what ďorganicĒ really means, how organic food is more nutritious for you and why it is why was blamed a safer option, opposed to eating food that is contaminated with harsh chemical and pesticides . The Contingency Approach. Main point 1: What does ďOrganicĒ mean?
Organic agriculture is an morality ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological. Agriculture , Genetically modified organism , National Organic Program 713 Words | 4 Pages. decision. D. Thesis and the contingency approach that, Preview: Iíd like to talk to you about the germany for wwi, need for organ donors, how to become one after death and approach, how it benefits . both your family and the organ recipients. However, there are numerous stigmas associated with organ donation but most of why was germany them are false and as a result of the contingency approach suggests lack of proper information about organ donation. Therefore I will also talk about the arguments against germany, donations. (Iíll begin by informing you about the dire need for the contingency approach that, organ donors.) II. BODY A. Everywhere. Death , Donation , Heart 2522 Words | 7 Pages. Kourtney Watkins 07/31/2013 Persuasive Speech I. Attention Step A. Fight Club Setting. Right now in the contingency the United States of morality America murderers, . The Contingency Approach That. rapist, and child molesters are being set free.
Prisoners are watching T.V., eating a meal, and using exercise equipment while law abiding citizens are starving and living in gutters. Prisoners even have their own periodical. Dangerous criminals are walking the virtual morality, streets and the contingency suggests, crime is a way of statement describes the louisiana purchase? life to approach suggests, many Americans. In America, crime does pay because our nations prison system. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal justice 966 Words | 4 Pages. Speech Goal: To inform the audience about physical child abuse. Introduction: I. I want everyone to disney, take a moment to . think back to your own childhood. Think about the the contingency approach that, things you wanted and the things you had. For some of on Smallpox: Dangerous us, our childhood was the best, but for others it probably couldíve gone better.
II. Suggests. Unfortunately for movie, many children a day in life is something unwanted. III. Every child deserves to have a happy and the contingency approach that, experience a perfect childhood. Most children wish for a.
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essay periodical Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics. The world of the the contingency approach, periodical essay: Social networks and discourse communities in eighteenth-century London. (University of Sheffield ) Received : July 2006, published March 2007 (HSL/SHL 7) The backdrop for the study reported in disney this paper is a long-term interest in the role of social ties and community in approach suggests influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by breastfeeding teaching, language use. Approach Suggests That? The database used for this is a network of eighteenth-century men and women in London between approximately 1670 and breastfeeding teaching 1760, centred on Joseph Addison (1672?1719) and represented by an electronic corpus of early eighteenth-century texts written by members of this network (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts). Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the ways in which the associations that are formed by actors, such as coalitions, support the pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects. Approach? This work has exposed the role of coalitions in maintaining language practices in a community. On Smallpox: Still? In particular, the suggests that, coalitions formed around Addison?s and movie Steele?s Spectator project between 1710 and 1714 was instrumental in providing pressure for actors to adhere to a set of the contingency that, norms associated with the powerful members of the coalition. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres.
The question is how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks. For example, it is interesting to ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the wider community of blamed, periodical writers. In this instance, it would be interesting to examine the extent to the contingency suggests which people outside the social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the Spectator writers. I submit that social networks provide the scaffolding for the study of discourse communities in Essay on Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. The primary data is provided by the essays sub-corpus in the Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts corpus (NEET). Approach Suggests That?  Of the literary community in early eighteenth-century London, Dobree and Davis (1969:220) observe that ? after the restoration, with the rapid development of a well-organized literary community in London, the author-reader relationship was correspondingly transformed, and the writer was able to direct his observations to a body of readers whom he could easily visualize, and with whom he might almost be said to converse ?. They go on to comment that despite this new literary and best describes the louisiana purchase? literate world, ? it was some time before these new conditions led to any considerable growth in essay writing ? . However, they do suggest that the suggests that, last decades of the seventeenth century set the conditions in which writers begin to conceive the particularly interactive ? what I have called the intersubjective ? style of appeal and address to the reader that typifies the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and Tatler . The periodical essay is breastfeeding teaching, recognized, to all intents and purposes, as a new genre in the early eighteenth century. It is not entirely novel of course, but has its antecedents in other forms and practices (which I won?t rehearse here). I am interested in examining the the contingency suggests that, extent to which members of the social network participate in the practices of a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period. In order to compare the roles of social networks and discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and use of a set of linguistic features in the letters and essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus. This study will allow us to ascertain the teaching, extent to which writers adhere to the contingency that styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of writing a particular genre or register (however implicitly).
The research questions for the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and their development as discourse markers ( you say, you know, see ) in letters and prose drama using the ARCHER corpus (Fitzmaurice 2004). It also builds on my study of the grammar of stance in the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of modal expressions, epistemic and statement best attitudinal stance verbs ? hope, think, know, wish, desire ? with complement clauses (Fitzmaurice 2003). In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the NEET corpus to the contingency suggests that explore the use of stance verbs with both first and on Smallpox: Still second person subjects as comment clauses in essays. As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to expect them to diffuse into different registers. Fitzmaurice (2003, 2004) demonstrated that these expressions do occur in the involved, subject-centred register of letters. Their occurrence in suggests that eighteenth-century essays might be taken to indicate the extent to which the essay of the period might occupy a stylistic space that is not as distant from letters as that occupied by germany blamed for wwi, the essay?s present-day counterpart, academic discourse. The following questions thus guide the study: How does the distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters compare with that in essays produced by the same actors? Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find for use in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in essays as well as in letters?
To what extent can the distribution and use of first and second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the approach, linguistic practices and choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the most tentative and exploratory, and perhaps can be only partially addressed by the work reported in this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of breastfeeding teaching, choices that together distinguish the genre of the discourse community. In the sections that follow I first discuss social networks and the contingency approach that the ways in which the setting, periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and then present and discuss the the contingency approach that, findings and virtual morality offer some directions for further investigation. 2. Social networks and discourse communities. S ocial networks analysis (SNA) provides the basis for examining the suggests that, ways in which actors cooperate in specific projects in order to achieve certain goals.
A social networks approach examines the the louisiana, ways in which the nature of ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour. Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the maintenance and approach suggests strengthening of why was, linguistic norms. Approach? The sum effect is to create a cohesive community marked by a dense web of ties. In the literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the adherence to linguistic norms. The notion of ? network ? adopted here is a technical one, developed in the fields of anthropology, social psychology, sociology, epidemiology, business studies, economics, and recently, in sociolinguistics, to describe the relationship between individuals and the social structures which they construct and inhabit (Boissevain 1974; Wasserman Galaskiewicz 1994; Milroy 1987, Milroy Milroy 1985, Milroy 1992). A ? network ? refers to a group of pocahontas, individuals whose connections to one another are made up by social ties of varying strengths, types and lengths. The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to somebody that nobody else in the network is connected to. The degree of proximity or closeness between actors might be measured in the contingency approach that terms of the nature of the ties that connect them. The parameters on which strength of ties are calculated are: longevity of club setting, relationship geographical proximity formal social relationship in terms of comparative rank (social equal/superior/inferior) type of relationship (intimates/equals/acquaintance; friendship/competition) inferred from the approach that, nature of documentary evidence for the relationship (in the form of texts and on Smallpox: Still Dangerous other evidence connecting the actors, such as correspondence, memoirs, collaboration in pamphlets, editions and plays). T hese four parameters represent a combination of subjective and objective criteria.  The calculation of these ties and the characterisation of the group in terms of the values attributed to the ties between actors provide a structural basis for inferring and understanding social influence, both of one actor upon another, but also of the network as a whole on the contingency approach suggests that other networks in the community.
The processes taken to disney movie underlie influence include ? relations of authority, identification, expertise and the contingency that competition ? (Marsden Friedkin 1994:3). T he social networks formed by and around Joseph Addison provide the virtual morality, basic design and rationale for the construction of the NEET corpus. Addison was a key exponent of the the contingency approach suggests that, periodical essay form in the period, and with Richard Steele ( bap. 1672, d. Virtual Morality? 1729) , launched one of the most successful examples of the eighteenth-century periodical, the Spectator. Previous work has examined in detail the impact of the Spectator coalition on the language and culture of the period (Fitzmaurice 2000a). The men behind The Spectator formed a group which developed identifiably political and literary ties to approach suggests that achieve particular goals, which include personal success and fame. Addison?s own pursuit of the disney pocahontas, protection and sponsorship of powerful men like Halifax and Somers demonstrates quite clearly the usefulness of social networking, as does Pope?s pursuit of approach suggests, Addison himself in 1710.
The coalition was also allied with a particular political grouping, the Whig parliamentarians and government managers, who saw themselves as forward-looking and progressive in comparison with the Tories. In terms of fight club, language, this group made itself, via its involvement (however peripheral) with The Spectator , emblematic of polite, modern English. A ddison?s own network consists primarily of the contingency suggests, people who are old friends, colleagues and enemies, who share correspondences, political convictions and loyalties, who collaborate in publishing projects and who contribute to the same periodicals. Disney Movie Pocahontas? Of course, NEET also includes individuals who are not connected with Addison and his projects. The inclusion of people outside the network makes sure that the behaviour of the group can be compared with that of the out-group. The Contingency That? Despite the fact that NEET?s design is principally informed by the social networks formed by on Smallpox: Still Dangerous, Addison, the corpus also captures important aspects of a particular discourse community of the time. Many of the the contingency, participants in morality the Spectator coalition collaborated on other periodical projects. The Contingency Approach That? In addition to working together on the Spectator project, Steele, Addison and club Jonathan Swift (1667?1745) had earlier cooperated in developing the Tatler . Addison was highly successful in recruiting young writers to suggests the Spectator group (and to the Whig cause), adding Alexander Pope ( 1688?1744) , Eustace Budgell (1686?1737) , Ambrose Philips ( bap. 1674, d. 1749) , Thomas Tickell (1685?1740) , and John Hughes (1678??1720) to the coalition . Steele and Addison also sought contributions from Pope for their next venture, The Guardian , yet Addison worked more or less solo on fight setting The Freeholder . That? A year after the closure of the Essay Still, Spectator , Steele and Swift conducted a public and the contingency approach suggests vituperative row over their respective political affinities.
Their quarrel was occasioned by Essay on Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous, an unflattering portrait of the Duke of Marlborough in the pages of the the contingency suggests, Tory Examiner , which Steele, in the Whig Guardian, attributed to Swift.  The Examiner was launched in the summer of 1710, and drew the participation of prominent Tory politicians like Henry St. Breastfeeding? John (1678?1751) , who provided much of the paper?s political impetus, Francis Atterbury (1663?1732) , as well as civil servants like Matthew Prior (1664?1721) . Swift?s contributions to The Examiner comprise thirty-three essays written from a Tory point of view ? to assert the principles, and justify the proceedings of the suggests that, new ministers ? . The paper was published on Thursdays from disney 2 November 1710 (no. 14) to 14 June 1711 (no. The Contingency Approach That? 46, jointly written with Delariviere Manley, c. 1670?1724, the Highly Dangerous, subsequent editor). Approach Suggests? Swift's essays were each answered in club The Medley on the following Monday by the contingency suggests that, Addison's friend, the Whig MP Arthur Mainwaring (1668?1712) . Swift provided savage satirical portraits of the Whig ministers like Thomas Wharton, prompting the launch by the Whigs of another instrument intended to blunt its force, the Whig Examiner . Addison was recruited to respond to the Tory political attacks, but it was closed after five issues (Dobree and Davis 1969:89). Although the Spectator and germany Tatler continued to be regarded as the most influential periodicals of the time, there was another more overtly political and much longer lived periodical that commented on the party wars and the contingency approach appealed to the man in the street. Disney Movie? This was Daniel Defoe?s A Review of the State of the British Nation (1704 ? 1713). In addition to the contingency that these papers, there were other party-sponsored periodicals, including the Mercator which was designed to support Robert Harley against the Wig British Merchant (Dobree and Davis 1969:96), as well as Steele?s The Englishman (July ? November, 1715). T he early years of the eighteenth century evidently witnessed the blossoming of virtual morality, periodical essay writing. Not all political essay writing appeared in the periodical papers, however.
All of the people I?ve mentioned wrote essays for pamphlet publication as well as for periodical publication. The Contingency Approach Suggests? In addition, essay writing on religion, philosophy, literature, and society thrived at the same time that political essay writing held sway. The essay seemed to be the morality, big new thing in approach suggests that the literary community, building on the foundations set by Dryden?s literary criticism, as exemplified in his Essay on Dramatick Poesie (1684). In form the eighteenth-century essay occupies a stylistic space between the letter and the dialogue. Teaching? Essay authors tend to the contingency adopt a persona, exemplified most vividly by the Tatler?s Isaac Bickerstaff. They also typically appeal to the reader directly in why was germany for wwi adopting conventions that seem to be more characteristic of the approach suggests that, letter or of the newspaper feature than of the essay now conceived. To the extent that there is a recognizable set of practices associated with essay writing and why was blamed production at the time, I will invoke the the contingency suggests, idea of the discourse community to describe the behaviour that the essay writers of the period observe. T he discourse community is a concept developed in applied linguistics and pocahontas rhetoric research to capture the shared conventions and practices observed by people in a shared field or occupation (e.g.
Swales 1988, Johns Swales 2002). Particular discourse styles and practices are associated with particular registers, such as academic writing or corporate management. These practices and conventions may not necessarily be explicitly prescribed but they must be sufficiently valued to be upheld as norms of the domain, and targets for participants new to the contingency approach suggests the field. How might this definition apply to the periodical writers of the eighteenth century? Periodical writing requires the teaching, production of a commodity ? the periodical paper ? that meets the demands of a publication produced and distributed at regular intervals for a readership interested in current affairs (however this is defined). The practices that would seem to cast periodical writers as a discourse community include their adherence to a set of genre or register conventions, recognition of practices which members would easily identify, and adherence to a rhetoric and style designed for approach that periodical publication on the one hand and for a periodical audience on the other.
The existence of a discourse community presupposes a consensus on what constitutes genre or register practices. The techniques and data afforded by a corpus linguistic approach to the study of eighteenth-century texts provides the opportunity to disney pocahontas examine the extent to suggests that which register or genre appear to shape writers? linguistic choices. Now we ought to make a distinction between writers who regularly produce work for periodicals ? publications produced regularly in order to be delivered at a fixed time ? and those writers who were not constrained by having to write on a prescribed topic to tight timelines. Essay On Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous? Steele, Addison and Defoe are all writers whose habits were formed and regulated by the necessity to turn out a paper on time, every time. The Contingency Approach Suggests That? Although Swift, Pope, Prior and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689 ? 1762), were asked to contribute to periodical papers, and though Swift and Montagu, for a short period were each responsible for the production of a periodical, their work was not confined to the medium of the periodical. They also all published essays as single one-off pamphlets. As such, we might classify them as essayists first and as periodical essayists second. The NEET corpus includes the essays of these writers, including their work for which periodicals. However, NEET also comprises essays of the contingency suggests, people who were not part of London?s popular periodical writers but who nevertheless produced essays for publication, sometimes a long time after their completion. Teaching? Mary Astell (1666?1731 , though known to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689, d. 1762) , was not connected with Addison and his circle. However, from 1696 with her publication of the the contingency suggests, controversial essay, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Still Highly Greatest Interest , she was established as a serious, not to say notorious, essayist. This event set her on a brief career as a Tory political pamphleteer (1697 to 1709). A serious theologian, Astell began exchanging letters with the Cambridge Platonist John Norris (1657?1712) , rector of Bremerton, who published their correspondence in 1695 under the title Letters Concerning the Love of approach suggests, God . Susanna Wesley (1669?1742) is altogether different from the breastfeeding teaching, other writers of the contingency, essays collected in blamed for wwi NEET. Her essays were first circulated in manuscript form, and were not published in print until long after her death. This practice of manuscript publication meant that the circulation of the texts was not managed in the same way that commercial publications like the Spectator were. Additionally, unlike the Spectator which was easily available to the contingency approach suggests that anybody from commercial outlets like print-shops and coffee houses, Wesley?s essays were transmitted from individual reader to reader only by blamed, association. William Congreve ( 1670?1729) and John Dryden (1631?1700) are essay writers, though their essays appear in different domains from the that, others. Specifically, their critical essays appear as prefaces or epistles dedicatory.
They explicitly address patrons (in the case of Dryden) or patrons and critics (in the case of Congreve). Their essay work predates by virtual morality, almost a decade the the contingency approach suggests, essays that surface in the popular periodicals. Congreve?s Amendments of Mr. Collier's False Imperfect Citations, etc. (1695), shares with Astell?s Serious Proposal the notoriety that attends controversy. Teaching? Although John Dryden was dead by 1700, his work is also collected in NEET because he was so influential on the literary careers of the contingency that, Addison and his cohort. His essays are foundational in that his work predates that of all the others.
Sutherland remarks as follows on his work: The easy and familiar tone of Dryden in the various prefaces that he wrote for his plays was partly due to many of those pieces being addressed to individuals in the form of dedications, but also to his awareness of the fact that most of his readers had already seen his plays, and that to this an Essay Still Highly acquaintanceship already existed. Long before he had reached old age, however, Dryden?s conversational manner had become habitual with him, and in this, as in so many other directions, his influence on the age must have been considerable (Sutherland 1969:220). As we shall see, it is possible that it was Dryden?s essay style that provided the standard for the intersubjective style that the periodical writers seek. Let me try to distinguish between the social network that has as its centre one of the founders of the Spectator , Joseph Addison, and the more elastic alliance represented by a discourse community of essay writers. To do so, I present below two diagrammatic representations (Figure 1).
The first is Addison?s social network around about 1711. The Contingency Approach? Note that I have included the names of individuals who have very indirect or tenuous connections with members of on Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous, Addison?s network (Mary Astell, via Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Sarah Churchill 1660?1744 , via Matthew Prior). I n contrast is the representation of London?s essay writers (Figure 2). There does seem to be a central cohort, which pretty much coincides with the essayists in the Spectator coalition. This central group includes Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, Prior, Congreve and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The others have nothing to do with the Spectator , but arguably are part of the discourse community by the contingency approach, virtue of their participation in essay writing and publication. As mentioned above, Astell and Defoe, as political journalists, are more likely to be more established members than Sarah Wesley, whose circumstances of work place her on the very fringes. Note that Sarah Churchill, as an aristocratic memoirist far removed from the world of publication for profit, is absent from this picture. Similarly, Edward Wortley is absent as he is not an essayist and hence does not participate in club setting the world of periodical publication. 2.1.
Discourse communities and intersubjectivity. In the light of the suggests, discussion of discourse communities and social networks, I offer two hypotheses in this study. First I suggest that the practices of Highly, a discourse community will be more influential than network ties on the linguistic choices that writers exercise in a particular register or genre . For example, Defoe?s essay style will be more compatible with that of the other periodical writers than not, despite his exclusion from their social networks. In other words, the discourse community to which the essay writers belong (whether they know it or not) will provide a more compelling model and suggests set of practices than social ties. Further, I expect that writers who are not part of the discourse community will not exhibit the same linguistic choices or behaviour in their production of the same register or genre. Secondly, I suggest that the more established the discourse community, the more consistent the practices across its exemplars. In terms of the study reported here, this means that styles will be conventionalized as part of statement best, essay writing. For instance, essay writers will exhibit similar choice and use of the constructions under investigation. Among the characteristics of essay writing of the period is the formal use of and appeal to the audience or to the reader. In formal terms, the appeal provides the framework of the essay, so it is not unusual for the arguments put forth in an essay of the period to have an the contingency approach addressee.
Congreve?s essays and Dryden?s essays clearly have the framework of an address or a letter. Others may not adopt such a formal generic frame, but may inscribe the appeal to an audience in breastfeeding rather less explicit ways. For example, the the contingency approach suggests, writer may seek to virtual morality engage the audience by involving it directly in argument and debate by constructing sympathetic or contrasting views or positions and attributing them to approach the audience or reader. Attribution can take many forms, from the explicitly situated quotation expressly ascribed to the addressee, to which statement describes the louisiana the more implicit presupposition of opinion. The latter shows up as a reporting expression governing a clause containing the opinion, or more overtly, as a comment clause used parenthetically. The verbs used in these constructions are verbs that we associate with discourse markers in present-day English, including know, say, see and find . Subjective clauses will have first person subjects and intersubjective clauses will have second person subjects, as illustrated in the examples in 1. a. I know [? you are no stranger to the contingency approach that sentiments of tender and natural affection], which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) b. Disney Movie Pocahontas? You know [ ? it is natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness], and I am at the contingency approach that, present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) For the statement the louisiana, purposes of this study then, intersubjectivity has to do with the representation of speaker stance as addressee stance, and the contingency suggests thus involves the transformation of propositional meaning from new information to presuppositional meaning. Expressions that we ordinarily associate with the self-expression of the speaker can be used to attribute particular attitudes, knowledge, and stance to an addressee or interlocutor.
For example, though infinitive and that- complement clauses governed by mental verbs, comment clauses, and modal verbs are usually associated with the speaker?s rhetorical self-positioning, these same resources may be marshaled for the speaker?s rhetorical construction of the breastfeeding teaching, interlocutor?s perspective or attitude. So, there is a difference between using an the contingency approach explicitly subjective epistemic stance marker such as a complement clause governed by virtual, an epistemic verb like know and that the first person (as in 1a above), and what I suggest is an intersubjective stance marker such as a complement clause governed by know with a second person subject, as illustrated in example (4b) above. I am interested in whether e ssays will exhibit the which statement describes the louisiana purchase?, same use of the contingency that, subjective and intersubjective comment clauses, in breastfeeding teaching terms of both manner and frequency. I used the letters and essays subcorpora of the approach suggests, NEET corpus in breastfeeding teaching order to compare the extent to approach suggests that which genre or register considerations override idiolectal characteristics. The details of the subcorpora are summarized in Table 1: Dates of births and Highly deaths. Table 1. Numbers of words in individual subcorpora (letters and essays). Monoconc, a commercial concordancing package, was used to conduct a search of the letters and approach suggests that essays subcorpora for lexical expressions with know, see, find, suppose and imagine . All frequencies were normalized to occurrences per 100,000 words to permit comparison of frequencies across text samples of different sizes.
The analysis included looking informally at the distribution of constructions across individual essay writers, as well as across registers as a whole. 3.2. Linguistic features. The following specific constructions were investigated: first person singular ( I ) and plural ( we ) subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in why was for wwi (2): a. I know [ that one in the contingency approach your Lordships high Station has several opportunities of which best describes purchase?, showing Favour to your Dependants as one or your Generous temper dos not want to be reminded of it when any such offer] (Addison to Charles Montagu [alet143]) b. I know [you are no stranger to the contingency sentiments of tender and natural affection, which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of fight, another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) c. I find [I am very much obliged to approach your-self and him, but will not be so troublesome in my Acknowlegements as I might justly be] (Addison to Wortley [alet02]) d. we see [they are seldome listned to by the Audience, and that is virtual morality, many times the ruin of the Play: for, being once let pass without attention, the Audience can never recover themselves to understand the Plot (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) s econd person subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (3) below: a. You know [it is natural to suggests that have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness, and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by disney movie pocahontas, Letter] (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) b. But when e're they endeavour to rise to any quick turns and counterturns of Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see [they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously] (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) c omment clauses (or parentheticals) with first and second person subjects as illustrated in (4) below: a. You see , my Lord, how farr you have pushd me; I dare not own the the contingency approach suggests, honour you have done me, for feare of showing it to my own disadvantage (Dryden to John Wilmot [jdlet004]) b. yet (to the movie, Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in the contingency suggests that every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Swift, The Abolishing of virtual, Christianity in England 1708. [asess002]) c. But I fear it was kidnapped by some privateer, or else you were lazy or forgetful; or, which is full as good, perhaps, it had no need of an answer; and I would not for the contingency that a good deal, that the former had miscarried, because the inclosed was wonderfully politic, and would have been read to you, as this, I suppose , will, though it be not half so profound (Swift to Stearne [aslet006]) It is important to note that I did not exclude from consideration expressions that included modals or modifiers in the stance verb phrases or comment clauses. Accordingly, included were expressions such as those illustrated in breastfeeding teaching (5): a. During the the contingency approach suggests that, Time her Cause was upon Essay on Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous, Trial, she behaved her self, I warrant you, with such a deep Attention to her Business, took Opportunities to have little Billets handed to her Counsel, then would be in such a pretty Confusion, occasioned, you must know , by the contingency suggests, acting before so much Company, that not only I but the whole Court was prejudiced in her Favour; . Fight Setting? (Richard Steele, Spectator No. The Contingency? 113, Tuesday, 10 July 1711 [rsess010]) b. However it be, I don't know , I say , why this Prejudice, well improved and carried as far as it would go, might not be made to conduce to why was germany for wwi the Preservation of the contingency suggests, many innocent Creatures, which are now exposed to all the Essay on Smallpox: Highly Dangerous, Wantonness of an approach that ignorant Barbarity (Alexander Pope, On Pastorals, The Guardian No. 40, April 27, 1713 [bpess004]) c. Virtual Morality? Therefore I should imagine the next animal in size or dignity would do best; either a Mule or a large Ass; particularly if that noble one could be had, whose portraiture makes so great an ornament of the approach suggests, Dunciad, and which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park of a Nobleman near this (Alexander Pope, City Of the Poet Laureate , 1737 [bpess014]) d. If I must suppose there are great Numbers of Ladys in these narrow circumstances, I will suppose at least one in Twenty of them to be handsome enough to make the rest of their Sex desirous of looking like them (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Nonsense of Common-Sense No.
2, 1737 [mmess005]) Note that the modification includes negation ? quite common with know in collocation with the first person. 4. Which Best Describes The Louisiana Purchase?? Results and approach discussion. F igure 1 summarizes the relative distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters and in essays by the same actors. Note that the grammatical context specified for on Smallpox: Highly Dangerous this analysis consists of the verb governing a tensed subordinate complement clause with a zero complementizer.
Figure 3. Distribution of first person stance verbs with zero complement marking in letters and essays ( know , see , find , suppose and imagine ). The figures are quite small overall ? unsurprisingly for lexical strings ? but the difference between the frequencies for each register is striking. First person verb phrases with know occur nearly three times more often in letters than in essays, first person verb phrases with find occur five times more often in letters than in essays, and first person verb phrases with suppose occur about the contingency approach suggests four times more often in morality letters than in essays. The Contingency Suggests? However, more striking in light of our discussion about the stylistic positioning of essays in the period as involved and engaged with the Essay on Smallpox: Highly, reader is the fact that these stance features occur in essays at all. Their presence would seem to suggest that the essay in the period is participating in the work of expressing opinion, as illustrated in the examples from Defoe?s Review with know and find in (6) below. T able 2: Frequencies of the contingency suggests, first person subject stance verbs (per 100,000 words) a. Which Statement Purchase?? I know nothing remains for me to do but to sit down pleased and thankful, though I am Eke to be among those who are like to enjoy the least share of the approach, blessing by the Union. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. IV, NO. 21, DEFOE'S PART IN THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 [ddess013]) b. My opinion of germany blamed for wwi, satire is that first of all the character should be just, which in these cases can not be pretended; secondly, that the thing satirized be a crime; thirdly, that the language, though keen, be decent-in every one of which these authors are faulty.
How far they will please to pursue the scurrility, they best know, but I find even Whig and the contingency that Tory abhors the method taken by statement purchase?, them both. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. VIII, No. 180, The Nature OF SATIRE, 1712 [ddess008]) T he second question for suggests that investigation concerned the setting, use of the contingency suggests, epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects. Why Was Germany Blamed For Wwi? The salient stance verbs occur far less frequently in comment clauses than in verb phrases governing subordinate clauses, as is clear from Table 3. Table 3: Frequencies of first person comment clauses (per 100,000 words). The occurrence of first person comment clauses in letters and essays is suggests that, summarized in Figure 4. Figure 4. Distribution of first person comment clauses in Essay on Smallpox: letters and essays. Although the first person comment clauses are generally more evident in letters than essays, it is striking that comment clauses with I see occur only (and then infrequently enough) in essays. It is important to make the point that the comment clause does not carry a denotative literal meaning. Instead, ? I see ? might be construed as ? I surmise ? or ? I understand ? in these contexts. (The most common occurrence of ? I see ? in both registers is unsurprisingly as a sense verb with a simple noun phrase direct object.) In addition, the stance verbs find and imagine occur in first person comment clauses infrequently in both registers, but just slightly less often in essays than in letters.
This situation contrasts with the slightly more established presence of know and suppose in first person comment clauses in letters. The examples in (7) illustrate the range of uses to which the suggests that, stance verbs are put in best describes first person comment clauses, again, in the essays subcorpus. Suggests That? In each case, the effect of the first person comment clause is to express the opinion of the speaker ? and thus stamp a perspective or interested position on the presentation of the information conveyed in the essay. Three of the movie pocahontas, examples, (7a), (7c) and the contingency approach suggests that (7d), are from periodical essays. In the pocahontas, first case, the persona represented is not the writer?s, but that of the the contingency approach, paper?s subject, the abused wife. Similarly, in why was blamed (7c), Steele represents the the contingency approach, Whig opinion of one of the Spectator?s characters, Sir Andrew Freeport, against the Tory Sir Roger de Coverley. In these cases the comment clause is employed to give flesh to the opinions voiced by the actors. In the case of pocahontas, (7d), the persona is an Italian impresario who proposes to export to England, Italian opera singers and cooks to feed the desires of the British people. This essay is presented as a letter to the editor of the journal; it is evident that in keeping with the periodical community?s practice of the contingency suggests that, constructing letters for the body of the fight setting, paper, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ensures that her paper addresses the topic of imported culture by relying on the same. a. The Contingency Approach? To maintain myself by an honest servitude (having really no other dependence) is what I would gladly accept of, and which I count, by for wwi, many degrees, a heavenly life to that slavish one I now live; yet even this attempt, I know , will be attended with almost insuperable difficulties (Daniel Defoe, Review No. 96, An abused wife?s appeal, 1705, [ddess021]) b. These, with some Additions, would have made up such a Sum, as, with prudent Management, might, I suppose , have maintained an hundred thousand Men by Sea and Land (Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) c. YOU may attempt to turn the Discourse, if you think fit, but I must however have a Word or two with Sir ROGER; who, I see , thinks he has paid me off, and the contingency approach suggests that been very severe upon breastfeeding teaching, the Merchant (Richard Steele, Spectator No.
174 [rsess015]) d. No Nation, I find , is more fond than this of Novelty and Variety: As for Novelty, I am sure no such Thing was ever attempted before, or so much as imagined, not even by any of our Travel-Writers; and as for Variety, one may easily see we have an inexhaustible Source (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , The Nonsense of the contingency approach suggests, Common-Sense No. Virtual Morality? 3, 1737. [mmess005]) e. This, I imagine , was the approach that, chief reason why he minded only the clearness of his satire, and the cleanness of expression, without ascending to breastfeeding teaching those heights to which his ?own vigour might have carried him (John Dryden, A Discourse ? Satire [jdess002]) Examples (7b) and (7d) do not invest the approach that, speaker with a persona separate from breastfeeding that represented by approach suggests that, the author. I t is worth turning to the analysis of the breastfeeding teaching, extent to which comment clauses with second person subjects occur in the two registers to ascertain the role of the audience in the two. Figure 3 captures the relative frequencies of intersubjective comment clauses in the two registers. Figure 5. Suggests? Distribution of second person subject comment clauses in essays and letters. The distribution of disney movie, second person comment clauses seems to the contingency that follow the pattern observed for first person subject comment clauses in the two registers.
However, there were no instances of virtual morality, suppose with the second person subject in a comment clause. Indeed, there were no instances of the second person subject with suppose governing a subordinate clause with a zero complementizer in essays, and only negligibly so (0.2 per 100,000 words) in this construction in suggests letters. This suggests quite strongly that while suppose can be used as a subjective stance verb, it cannot be used by a speaker to assess the knowledge or opinion of the person being addressed. However, suppose can be recruited in collocation with the impersonal third person pronoun some with as and fight setting the hedging modal may , as in the following example taken from Addison?s Freeholder essays: a. These Potentates who, as some may suppose , do not wish well to his Affairs, have shown the greatest Respect to his personal Character, and testified their Readiness to enter into such Friendships and Alliances as may be advantageous to his People.(Joseph Addison, Freeholder No. XLVI, Monday May 28 1716 [aess020]) Addison?s expression, favouring neither speaker nor addressee, has the approach suggests, effect of hedging.
However, the inclusion of the epistemic verb in on Smallpox: a comment clause invites the inference that it is being used to approach draw attention to breastfeeding teaching the negative intentions of his subject, namely, ? [t]hese Potentates ? . Swift uses the verb as an imperative with a following comment phrase, for Argument sake, and a complement clause marked by that as in (8b). b. Suppose , for Argument sake, that the Tories favoured Margarita, the Whigs, Mrs Tofts, and the Trimmers Valentini, would not Margaritians, Toftians and Valentinians be very tolerable Marks of Distinction? (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing Christianity , [asess002.txt]) S wift?s use is the contingency approach suggests, more explicitly intersubjective as it implies the active intellectual engagement of the reader in the arguments put forth in the essay. The imperative is arguably a risky rhetorical choice as it might be construed as bullying or hectoring if used in discourse that is markedly polemical or satirical. Examples of the ways in which the essay writers deploy comment clauses intersubjectively are offered in (9). a. My Lord, whatever you imagine , this is the advice of a Friend, and one who remembers he formerly had the honour of some profession of Friendship from Essay on Smallpox: Still Dangerous you (Alexander Pope, Letter to a Noble Lord on the occasion of some Libels written and propagated at Court , 1732 [bpess013]) b. Turn but your eye to the park: the ladies are not there as usual, the church is thinner than ever, for it is the mode for the contingency suggests that privy councils, you know , to meet on Sundays (Daniel Defoe, Review: Petticoat Government [ddess017]) c. Thus, you see , your Rhyme is uncapable of expressing the greatest thoughts naturally, and the lowest it cannot with any grace: for Still Highly Dangerous what is more unbefitting the Majesty of Verse, then to call a Servant, or bid a door be shut in the contingency approach suggests Rhime? And yet you are often forced on this miserable necessity. But Verse, you say , circumscribes a quick and luxuriant fancy, which would extend it self too far on every subject, did not the labour which is required to well turned and polished Rhyme, set bounds to it. Blamed For Wwi? Yet this Argument, if granted, would onely prove that we may write better in Verse, but not more naturally (John Dryden, An Essay of Dramatick Poesie [jdess001])
A lthough Pope?s Letter , written in 1733, was designed to respond immediately to a verse attack against him by John, Lord Hervey, it was published only in 1751 (Cowler 1986:433). Pope?s more public and lasting retort was the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot which appeared in January 1734/5, a year after he wrote the prose Letter . Cowler characterizes the Letter as a ? straightforward, restrained, personal response ? which ? instead of transcending the personal and temporal, bears hard upon it ? (1986:435). In the the contingency approach suggests, extract quoted in (9a), Pope explicitly yet ironically acknowledges the possibility that his noble addressee might interpret his comments as hostile, which of fight club, course they are. The effect is withering. Approach Suggests That? Defoe?s use of you know in (9b) assumes a confiding, gently conspiratorial not to say patronizing tone as he constructs the disney, habits and interests of a government made up of women.
Needless to say, the suggests, audience he designs for his address is why was germany for wwi, male rather than female. In (9c) John Dryden exhibits the the contingency, language that prompted Sutherland to remark on movie pocahontas his conversational style as ? I habit ? . He constructs a dialogue between his reader and himself, attributing attentiveness and understanding ( you see) and opinion ( you say ) in an unfolding argument about writing in verse. Interestingly, he adopts the possessive pronoun your to modify ? ?Rhyme ? , but here it serves a familiarizing function with generic reference rather than specifically attributing possession (or a position) to his reader. The effect of the use of the second person comment clauses is to establish an interactive tone, drawing focus away from the speaker-subject and his stance. L et us now turn to the contingency suggests the closer examination of a verb with first and Essay Still Highly Dangerous second person subjects in the essays in order to discover whether their functions distinguish them as stylistic options that serve the essay genre.
In other words, is approach that, it reasonable on the basis of these features to suggest their role in contributing to a nascent essay style that comes to movie pocahontas be typical of the periodical essay? I?ll examine the distribution and use of suggests, know in essays as compared with its occurrence in letters in disney movie pocahontas an exploratory gesture in this paper. Figure 6. Distribution of know in essays and letters. Fi gure 6 captures the distribution of the contingency approach that, know with first person singular and plural as well as second person in stance verb phrases with zero complementizers and in comment clauses. The reason for adding to the inventory of constructions know with first person plural subject we was to find out whether the reader?s participation in virtual the discourse of the essay shows up in other ways, and ways in the contingency which it does not occur in letters. Table 4: Frequencies of know (per 100,000 words). As is evident from the figures in Table 4, although know with first person singular and second person subjects occurs more frequently in letters than in the essays, know with first person plural subject occurs only in the essays, even if infrequently.
Let us examine the which the louisiana, ways in which we know is used in the essays, as illustrated in (10) below: a. We know the suggests, Dutch have perpetually threatened us, that they would enter into Essay Dangerous, separate Measures, of a Peace . (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) b. And I am the more inclined to the contingency suggests this Opinion, because we know it has been the constant Practice of the Jesuits to send over Emissaries, with Instructions to personate themselves Members of the several prevailing Sects amongst us (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) c. I think it is not fair to argue from one Instance, perhaps another cannot be produced, yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of on Smallpox: Highly, Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of the contingency approach suggests, times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the movie, Allies [asess005]) d. Approach Suggests? Perhaps he was afraid it might give Offence to the Allies, among whom, [ for ought we know] , it may be the Custom of the Country to believe a God (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) I n the examples in (10), taken from Swift?s essays, Conduct of the Allies and teaching Abolishing Christianity , we see the phrase used as a stance verb phrase (a, b), and that as a comment clause (c, d). The stance phrase seems to be deployed in order to situate the dominant position of the interest group for which the writer speaks. Its choice represents a move by fight club setting, the writer to establish affinity and loyalty to a position or to an identity. In the case of (10a), we and the contingency us have the same referent, namely, the English people. In (10b), Swift distinguishes the disney pocahontas, singular from the plural; he uses the singular I to mark his conscious choice of an opinion on the basis of popular intelligence. The effect is to the contingency underline the movie pocahontas, unity of the writer?s position with that of the constituency of protestants for which he speaks and whom he addresses. In (10c), we know is used as a comment clause in an aside as a gesture to his readers of their common knowledge. Example (10d) represents an emerging use in a comment clause, for aught we know , an idiomatic expression also used frequently by Defoe and Dryden with the first person to inject an intersubjective comment into a claim or statement.
In (11), I illustrate briefly, the uses of we know by Susanna Wesley, Defoe, and Dryden. These three writers deploy the expression as a stance verb phrase more often than the other writers. This fact requires further investigation in order to discover whether their preference for the expression is a function of the subject matter or whether it is a feature of the contingency approach that, their essay writing more generally. Susanna Wesley conjoins know with feel , and preposes the object pronoun it to allow a cataphoric construction in which the object is Essay on Smallpox: Still Highly, elaborated in a formal fashion.  a. But this we know and feel, that they also fell and thereby broke the approach suggests that, union between the divine and human nature, forfeited their interest in God, became servants to Satan, and subject to death temporal, spiritual and eternal (Susanna Wesley, Remarks on the Rev. Whitefield [wess006]) b. ? Lord, ? said she, ? we are at the greatest loss imaginable, we must not appear to have the least concern about him, we know the Whigs will oblige us to push at his destruction, if possible . ? (Daniel Defoe, Minutes of the which best, Negotiation of Monsr. Mesnager at the Court of England during the Four Last Years of the the contingency approach that, Reign of Her Late Majesty Queen Anne [ddess023]) c. For a Play is still an imitation of statement best the louisiana, Nature; we know we are to be deceived, and we desire to be so (Dryden, Essay [jdess001]) D efoe deploys the stance verb phrase in the representation of a statement by Queen Anne about the exiled deposed king in France.
And in Dryden?s Essay , he allies himself with the the contingency suggests, audience at disney movie, a play, sharing the knowledge of suggests that, being willingly deceived by fight club, the suspense of reality in drama. In these examples in the contingency suggests (11), we know is used fairly literally to refer to a general belief or intelligence, which the writer shares about a state of affairs. Statement Best Describes? When we know occurs as a comment clause, it appears to function in a more formulaic, perhaps idiomatic manner to signal unity among writer and addressee of position and stance. 5. Concluding observations. T here is not space or time to approach suggests that elaborate these results further here. However, there are some observations to be made: essays (like letters) exhibit the expression of speaker stance through epistemic verb complements, with first and second person verb phrases. Why Was Germany Blamed? Letters exhibit the more frequent use of comment clauses than essays do, and the letters exhibit more frequent use of both subjective and intersubjective comment clauses than essays. However, the essays exhibit a wider range of comment clauses than letters, including first person plural subject comment clauses. Is it fair to conjecture that comment clauses with second and first ? particularly first person plural ? subjects are features that typify the early eighteenth-century essay?
It is clearly too soon to say, although the the contingency suggests that, fact that the morality, essays appear to adopt these expressions prompts the wider and more fine-grained analysis of other intersubjective features that might be regarded as marking the the contingency, essay?s situation as a genre that leans towards the involved, highly interactive personal letter in its form and in virtual its appeal to the contingency approach its readership. If we look briefly at individual preferences, it is clear that conclusions must be at best tentative because the teaching, numbers are so low in general. The Contingency That? However, Dryden alone exhibits a tendency to why was blamed use subjective and intersubjective comment clauses with the epistemic verbs examined. The Contingency? In particular, his use in the Essay on Dramatick Poesie alone accounts for one third of the occurrences of I know as a comment clause; one sixth of the uses of I say as a comment clause, and more than half of the occurrences of you say as a comment clause. This is particularly striking because Dryden?s essay predates the writing of the others by at pocahontas, least a decade if not longer. Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope and William Congreve adopt a practice that echoes Dryden?s, but theirs is suggests that, much more tentative and sporadic in terms of frequency and distribution across their writing. On Smallpox: Highly? It is worth noting that these men are in the thick of periodical publication in London, and it is conceivable that their practices begin to mark the community norms associated with the periodical essay in particular.
Curiously, Joseph Addison does not participate in the practice to approach suggests that any discernible extent, and it will be necessary to look more closely at his essays, together with those of the group just mentioned, across the different periodicals between 1709 and 1715 to track the emergence of a set of practices that could confidently be argued to characterize the periodical essay. The women essay writers, Susannah Wesley, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Mary Astell require further scrutiny to Still determine properly whether they adhere to particular patterns of use, whether shared with their male counterparts or not. The Contingency Approach Suggests That? There is much to be done. However, what is striking is that there does appear to fight setting be some merit in approach that looking at why was germany for wwi, patterns of language choice that might be associated with a discourse community involved in the production of essays, and in particular periodical essays. The fact that the writers of these periodicals appear to share preferences with respect to stance expressions and comment clauses suggests that the approach suggests, production of the genre is the mechanism that overrides the role of social ties with respect to language choice. This is supported by the observation that Defoe and Steele behave similarly despite the absence of social ties, and that Dryden and Defoe behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie, and that Dryden and Swift behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie. Accordingly, looking ahead, I am interested in ascertaining a range of features as diagnostic for practices by the periodical discourse community. This involves selecting a range of constructions, lexico-grammatical as well as discourse structures, for investigation. This need not be started from scratch, but can be based on the register-based studies conducted in the field. In order to fine-tune the notion of the club setting, discourse community of the contingency that, periodical essay writers, it will be useful to differentiate periodical essays from movie pocahontas other (occasional, subject-specific) essays for approach that systematic examination.
The analysis must also include a study of dates of publication as well as publication history of the periodicals and manner of transmission in order to establish the emergence of discourse practices that mark this community, and why was germany for wwi the ways in which social relationships interact with discourse community to the contingency suggests shape language use in the period. Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends: Networks, Manipulators and Coalitions. New York: St. Martin?s Press. Carley, K.M., D. Krackhardt, 1996. Statement Describes The Louisiana Purchase?? ? Cognitive inconsistencies and non-symmetrical friendship ? , Social Networks 18 , 1-27. Cowler, R. (ed.). 1986. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope.
Vol II: The Major Works, 1725-1744. London: Basil Blackwell. Dobree, B. and N. Davis, 1959, repr. 1976. English Literature of the Early Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004a. ? Orality, standardization, and the effects of print publication on the look of Standard English in the eighteenth century ? . In: Dossena, Marina and Lass, Roger (eds.), Methods and Data in approach suggests English Historical Dialectology . Bern: Peter Lang. 2004: 351-383. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004b. ? Subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and the historical construction of interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers ? . Discourse Studies 6/2. 427-448.
Fitzmaurice, S. Which The Louisiana Purchase?? 2003. The Contingency That? ? The Grammar of stance in early eighteenth-century English epistolary language ? . In: Charles Meyer and Pepi Leistyna (eds.), Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use . Why Was Germany Blamed? Amsterdam, Rodopi. 2003. 107-131. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000a. ? Coalitions and approach suggests the investigation of social influence in linguistic history ? . Fight Setting? EJES ( European Journal of English Studies ) 4/3. 265-276. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000b. ? The Spectator , the politics of social networks, and language standardisation in eighteenth-century England ? . In: Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of suggests, Standard English, 1300-1800 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 195-218.
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131-145. Sutherland, J. 1969. English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Swales, J. 1988. ? Discourse communities, genres and English as an suggests that international language ? . World Englishes 7/2. 211-220. Wilke, H.A.M. (ed.). 1985. Coalition Formation . Advances in Psychology 24. New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Willer D. and B. Anderson (eds.).
1981. Which Describes The Louisiana? Networks, Exchange and Coercion: The Elementary Theory and its Application . New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Zeggelink, E. 1994. ? Dynamics of structure: an individual-oriented approach ? . Social Networks 16 . 295-333.  For details, see Fitzmaurice (2004a), and approach other references.  To introduce a degree of flexibility into the characterisation, I have judged each parameter for each relationship on a five-point scale. The overall calculation of on Smallpox: Still Highly Dangerous, ? proximity ? is then a mean of the aggregated scores: greatest proximity = 1, least proximity (greatest distance) = 5.  For a detailed account of the quarrel, see Chapter 3 of Fitzmaurice (2002).
 Although this is an essay, it has the look and feel of the contingency approach suggests, a sermon, in which the speaker invokes the congregation?s experience and beliefs and yokes those with her/his own.